Search results for 'feedback bias' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. M. M. Arnold, P. A. Higham & B. Martin-Luengo (forthcoming). A Little Bias Goes a Long Way: The Effects of Feedback on the Strategic Regulation of Accuracy on Formula-Scored Tests. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied.score: 120.0
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  2. Philipp Kanske Anita Schick, Michèle Wessa, Barbara Vollmayr, Christine Kuehner (2013). Indirect Assessment of an Interpretation Bias in Humans: Neurophysiological and Behavioral Correlates. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 66.0
    Affective state can influence cognition leading to biased information processing, interpretation, attention, and memory. Such bias has been reported to be essential for the onset and maintenance of different psychopathologies, particularly affective disorders. However, empirical evidence has been very heterogeneous and little is known about the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying cognitive bias and its time-course. We therefore investigated the interpretation of ambiguous stimuli as indicators of biased information processing with an ambiguous cue-conditioning paradigm. In an acquisition phase, participants learned (...)
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  3. Matt L. Drabek (2010). Interactive Classification and Practice in the Social Sciences. Poroi 6 (2):62-80.score: 60.0
    This paper examines the ways in which social scientific discourse and classification interact with the objects of social scientific investigation. I examine this interaction in the context of the traditional philosophical project of demarcating the social sciences from the natural sciences. I begin by reviewing Ian Hacking’s work on interactive classification and argue that there are additional forms of interaction that must be treated.
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  4. Chloë Fitzgerald (2014). A Neglected Aspect of Conscience: Awareness of Implicit Attitudes. Bioethics 28 (1):24-32.score: 54.0
    The conception of conscience that dominates discussions in bioethics focuses narrowly on private regulation of behaviour resulting from explicit attitudes. It neglects to mention implicit attitudes and the role of social feedback in becoming aware of one's implicit attitudes. But if conscience is a way of ensuring that a person's behaviour is in line with her moral values, it must be responsive to all aspects of the mind that influence behaviour. There is a wealth of recent psychological work demonstrating (...)
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  5. Matthew F. Panichello, Olivia S. Cheung & Moshe Bar (2012). Predictive Feedback and Conscious Visual Experience. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 36.0
    The human brain continuously generates predictions about the environment based on learned regularities in the world. These predictions actively and efficiently facilitate the interpretation of incoming sensory information. We review evidence that, as a result of this facilitation, predictions directly influence conscious experience. Specifically, we propose that predictions enable rapid generation of conscious percepts and bias the contents of awareness in situations of uncertainty. The possible neural mechanisms underlying this facilitation are discussed.
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  6. Moshe Bar Matthew F. Panichello, Olivia S. Cheung (2012). Predictive Feedback and Conscious Visual Experience. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 36.0
    The human brain continuously generates predictions about the environment based on learned regularities in the world. These predictions actively and efficiently facilitate the interpretation of incoming sensory information. We review evidence that, as a result of this facilitation, predictions directly influence conscious experience. Specifically, we propose that predictions enable rapid generation of conscious percepts and bias the contents of awareness in situations of uncertainty. The possible neural mechanisms underlying this facilitation are discussed.
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  7. Jules Holroyd & Joseph Sweetman (forthcoming). The Heterogeneity of Implicit Bias. In Michael Brownstein & Jennifer Saul (eds.), Implicit Bias and Philosophy. OUP.score: 27.0
    The term 'implicit bias' has very swiftly been incorporated into philosophical discourse. Our aim in this paper is to scrutinise the phenomena that fall under the rubric of implicit bias. The term is often used in a rather broad sense, to capture a range of implicit social cognitions, and this is useful for some purposes. However, we here articulate some of the important differences between phenomena identified as instances of implicit bias. We caution against ignoring these differences: (...)
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  8. Eric Mandelbaum, Attitude, Inference, Association: On The Propositional Structure of Implicit Bias.score: 24.0
    The overwhelming majority of those who theorize about implicit biases posit that these biases are caused by some sort of association. However, what exactly this claim amounts to is rarely specified. In this paper, I distinguish between understandings of association as a theory of learning, a theory of cognitive structure, a theory of mental processes, and as an implementation base for cognition. I then argue that the crucial senses of association for elucidating implicit bias are the cognitive structure and (...)
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  9. Jules Holroyd & Dan Kelly (forthcoming). Implicit Bias, Character and Control. In Jonathan Webber & Alberto Masala (eds.), From Personality to Virtue.score: 24.0
    Our focus here is on whether, when influenced by implicit biases, those behavioural dispositions should be understood as being a part of that person’s character: whether they are part of the agent that can be morally evaluated.[4] We frame this issue in terms of control. If a state, process, or behaviour is not something that the agent can, in the relevant sense, control, then it is not something that counts as part of her character. A number of theorists have argued (...)
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  10. Torsten Wilholt (2009). Bias and Values in Scientific Research. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 40 (1):92-101.score: 24.0
    When interests and preferences of researchers or their sponsors cause bias in experimental design, data interpretation or dissemination of research results, we normally think of it as an epistemic shortcoming. But as a result of the debate on science and values, the idea that all ‘extra-scientific’ influences on research could be singled out and separated from pure science is now widely believed to be an illusion. I argue that nonetheless, there are cases in which research is rightfully regarded as (...)
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  11. Audrey Yap (2013). Ad Hominem Fallacies, Bias, and Testimony. Argumentation 27 (2):97-109.score: 24.0
    An ad hominem fallacy is committed when an individual employs an irrelevant personal attack against an opponent instead of addressing that opponent’s argument. Many discussions of such fallacies discuss judgments of relevance about such personal attacks, and consider how we might distinguish those that are relevant from those that are not. This paper will argue that the literature on bias and testimony can helpfully contribute to that analysis. This will highlight ways in which biases, particularly unconscious biases, can make (...)
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  12. Annika Wallin (2011). Is Egocentric Bias Evidence for Simulation Theory? Synthese 178 (3):503 - 514.score: 24.0
    Revised simulation theory (Goldman 2006) allows mental state attributions containing some or all of the attributor's genuine, non-simulated mental states. It is thought that this gives the revised theory an empirical advantage, because unlike theory theory and rationality theory, it can explain egocentric bias (the tendency to over attribute ones' own mental states to others). I challenge this view, arguing that theory theory and rationality theory can explain egocentricity by appealing to heuristic mindreading and the diagnosticity of attributors' own (...)
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  13. Dennis Norris, James M. McQueen & Anne Cutler (2000). Merging Information in Speech Recognition: Feedback is Never Necessary. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (3):299-325.score: 24.0
    Top-down feedback does not benefit speech recognition; on the contrary, it can hinder it. No experimental data imply that feedback loops are required for speech recognition. Feedback is accordingly unnecessary and spoken word recognition is modular. To defend this thesis, we analyse lexical involvement in phonemic decision making. TRACE (McClelland & Elman 1986), a model with feedback from the lexicon to prelexical processes, is unable to account for all the available data on phonemic decision making. The (...)
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  14. Richard A. Bernardi (2006). Associations Between Hofstede's Cultural Constructs and Social Desirability Response Bias. Journal of Business Ethics 65 (1):43 - 53.score: 24.0
    This paper examines the associations among social desirability response bias, cultural constructs and gender. The study includes the responses of 1537 students from 12 countries including Australia, Canada, China, Colombia, Ecuador, Hong Kong, Ireland, Japan, Nepal, South Africa, Spain, and the United States. The results of the analysis indicate that, on average, social desirability response bias decreases (increases) as a country’s Individualism (Uncertainty Avoidance) increases. The analysis also indicates that women scored significantly higher on Paulhus’ Image Management Subscale (...)
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  15. Richard A. Bernardi & Steven T. Guptill (2008). Social Desirability Response Bias, Gender, and Factors Influencing Organizational Commitment: An International Study. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 81 (4):797 - 809.score: 24.0
    This research is an extension of Walker Information’s (Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making and Cases, pp. 235–255, 1999) study on employees’ job attitudes that was conducted exclusively in the United States. Walker Information found that the reputation of the organization, fairness at work, care, and concern for employees, trust in employees, and resources available at work were important factors in an employee’s decision to remain with his or her company. Our sample includes 713 students from seven countries: Canada, Colombia, Ecuador, (...)
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  16. Janne Chung & Gary S. Monroe (2003). Exploring Social Desirability Bias. Journal of Business Ethics 44 (4):291 - 302.score: 24.0
    This study examines social desirability bias in the context of ethical decision-making by accountants. It hypothesizes a negative relation between social desirability bias and ethical evaluation. It also predicts an interaction effect between religiousness and gender on social desirability bias. An experiment using five general business vignettes was carried out on 121 accountants (63 males and 58 females). The results show that social desirability bias is higher (lower) when the situation encountered is more (less) unethical. The (...)
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  17. Martin Jones & Robert Sugden (2001). Positive Confirmation Bias in the Acquisition of Information. Theory and Decision 50 (1):59-99.score: 24.0
    An experiment is reported which tests for positive confirmation bias in a setting in which individuals choose what information to buy, prior to making a decision. The design – an adaptation of Wason's selection task – reveals the use that subjects make of information after buying it. Strong evidence of positive confirmation bias, in both information acquisition and information use, is found; and this bias is found to be robust to experience. It is suggested that the (...) results from a pattern of reasoning which, although producing sub-optimal decisions, is internally coherent and which is self-reinforcing. (shrink)
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  18. Derek Dalton & Marc Ortegren (2011). Gender Differences in Ethics Research: The Importance of Controlling for the Social Desirability Response Bias. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 103 (1):73-93.score: 24.0
    Gender is one of the most frequently studied variables within the ethics literature. In prior studies that find gender differences, females consistently report more ethical responses than males. However, prior research also indicates that females are more prone to responding in a socially desirable fashion. Consequently, it is uncertain whether gender differences in ethical decision-making exist because females are more ethical or perhaps because females are more prone to the social desirability response bias. Using a sample of 30 scenarios (...)
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  19. Clark Glymour & Richard Scheines, On the Number of Experiments Sufficient and in the Worst Case Necessary to Identify All Causal Relations Among N Variables.score: 24.0
    We show that if any number of variables are allowed to be simultaneously and independently randomized in any one experiment, log2(N ) + 1 experiments are sufficient and in the worst case necessary to determine the causal relations among N ≥ 2 variables when no latent variables, no sample selection bias and no feedback cycles are present. For all K, 0 < K <.
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  20. Elise Springer (2008). Moral Feedback and Motivation: Revisiting the Undermining Effect. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 11 (4):407 - 423.score: 24.0
    Social psychologists have evidence that evaluative feedback on others’ choices sometimes has unwelcome negative effects on hearers’ motivation. Holroyd’s article (Holroyd J. Ethical Theory Moral Pract 10:267–278, 2007) draws attention to one such result, the undermining effect, that should help to challenge moral philosophers’ complacency about blame and praise. The cause for concern is actually greater than she indicates, both because there are multiple kinds of negative effect on hearer motivation, and because these are not, as she hopes, reliably (...)
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  21. Adrian P. Banks (2013). The Influence of Activation Level on Belief Bias in Relational Reasoning. Cognitive Science 37 (3):544-577.score: 24.0
    A novel explanation of belief bias in relational reasoning is presented based on the role of working memory and retrieval in deductive reasoning, and the influence of prior knowledge on this process. It is proposed that belief bias is caused by the believability of a conclusion in working memory which influences its activation level, determining its likelihood of retrieval and therefore its effect on the reasoning process. This theory explores two main influences of belief on the activation levels (...)
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  22. Paul Busch (2009). On the Sharpness and Bias of Quantum Effects. Foundations of Physics 39 (7):712-730.score: 24.0
    The question of quantifying the sharpness (or unsharpness) of a quantum mechanical effect is investigated. Apart from sharpness, another property, bias, is found to be relevant for the joint measurability or coexistence of two effects. Measures of bias will be defined and examples given.
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  23. Agnes A. Schot & Clive Phillips (2013). Publication Bias in Animal Welfare Scientific Literature. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (5):945-958.score: 24.0
    Animal welfare scientific literature has accumulated rapidly in recent years, but bias may exist which influences understanding of progress in the field. We conducted a survey of articles related to animal welfare or well being from an electronic database. From 8,541 articles on this topic, we randomly selected 115 articles for detailed review in four funding categories: government; charity and/or scientific association; industry; and educational organization. Ninety articles were evaluated after unsuitable articles were rejected. The welfare states of animals (...)
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  24. Mathieu Lefebvre, Ferdinand M. Vieider & Marie Claire Villeval (2011). The Ratio Bias Phenomenon: Fact or Artifact? [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 71 (4):615-641.score: 24.0
    The ratio bias—according to which individuals prefer to bet on probabilities expressed as a ratio of large numbers to normatively equivalent or superior probabilities expressed as a ratio of small numbers—has recently gained momentum, with researchers especially in health economics emphasizing the policy importance of the phenomenon. Although the bias has been replicated several times, some doubts remain about its economic significance. Our two experiments show that the bias disappears once order effects are excluded, and once salient (...)
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  25. Frank Zenker (2011). Experts and Bias: When is the Interest-Based Objection to Expert Argumentation Sound? [REVIEW] Argumentation 25 (3):355-370.score: 24.0
    I discuss under what conditions the objection that an expert’s argument is biased by her self-interest can be a meaningful and sound argumentative move. I suggest replacing the idea of bias qua self-interest by that of a conflict of interests, exploit the distinction between an expert context and a public context, and hold that the objection can be meaningful. Yet, the evaluation is overall negative, because the motivational role of self-interest for human behavior remains unclear. Moreover, if recent social-psychological (...)
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  26. Robert A. Miller (2005). Lifesizing Entrepreneurship: Lonergan, Bias and the Role of Business in Society. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 58 (1-3):219 - 225.score: 24.0
    . In an era of downsizing and disposable ethics, there is a need to redefine the role of business in society. Central to such a discussion is the frame of reference of the entrepreneur. A traditional business model defines entrepreneurship based on endowing resources with new wealth producing capabilities. This paper defines entrepreneurship as a calling to endow resources with new value. In support of the impact such a distinction would have on repositioning the role of business in society, the (...)
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  27. Carole J. Torgerson (2006). Publication Bias: The Achilles' Heel of Systematic Reviews? British Journal of Educational Studies 54 (1):89 - 102.score: 24.0
    The term 'publication bias' usually refers to the tendency for a greater proportion of statistically significant positive results of experiments to be published and, conversely, a greater proportion of statistically significant negative or null results not to be published. It is widely accepted in the fields of healthcare and psychological research to be a major threat to the validity of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Some methodological work has previously been undertaken, by the author and others, in the field of (...)
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  28. Harald T. Schupp & Britta Renner (2011). The Implicit Nature of the Anti-Fat Bias. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5:23.score: 24.0
    The stigmatization and discrimination of obese persons is pervasive in almost any domain of living. At the explicit level, obese people are associated with a wide range of negative characteristics. Furthermore, research with the implicit association test revealed the implicit nature of the anti-fat bias. Building upon these findings, the present study used event-related brain potential recordings in order to assess key features of implicit processes. Participants viewed a series of schematic portrayals of anorexic, medium, and obese body shapes (...)
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  29. Christopher Schwand, Rudolf Vetschera & Lea M. Wakolbinger (2010). The Influence of Probabilities on the Response Mode Bias in Utility Elicitation. Theory and Decision 69 (3):395-416.score: 24.0
    The response mode bias, in which subjects exhibit different risk attitudes when assessing certainty equivalents versus indifference probabilities, is a well-known phenomenon in the assessment of utility functions. In this empirical study, we develop and apply a cardinal measure of risk attitudes to analyze not only the existence, but also the strength of this phenomenon. Since probability levels involved in decision problems are already known to have a strong impact on behavior, we use this approach to study the impact (...)
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  30. Kerstin Unger, Sonja Heintz & Jutta Kray (2012). Punishment Sensitivity Modulates the Processing of Negative Feedback but Not Error-Induced Learning. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6:186-186.score: 24.0
    Accumulating evidence suggests that individual differences in punishment and reward sensitivity are associated with functional alterations in neural systems underlying error and feedback processing. In particular, individuals highly sensitive to punishment have been found to be characterized by larger midfrontal error signals as reflected in the error negativity (Ne/ERN) and the FRN (feedback-related negativity). By contrast, reward sensitivity has been shown to relate to the error positivity (Pe). Given that Ne/ERN, FRN, and Pe have been functionally linked to (...)
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  31. Meagan Yee, Susan S. Jones & Linda B. Smith (2012). Changes in Visual Object Recognition Precede the Shape Bias in Early Noun Learning. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Two of the most formidable skills that characterize human beings are language and our prowess in visual object recognition. They may also be developmentally intertwined. Two experiments, a large sample cross-sectional study and a smaller sample 6-month longitudinal study of 18- 24 month olds tested a hypothesized developmental link between changes in the visual object representation and noun learning. Previous findings in visual object recognition indicate that children’s ability to recognize common basic level categories from sparse structural shape representations of (...)
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  32. Stephanie J. Bird (2012). Potential for Bias in the Context of Neuroethics. Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (3):593-600.score: 24.0
    Neuroscience research, like all science, is vulnerable to the influence of extraneous values in the practice of research, whether in research design or the selection, analysis and interpretation of data. This is particularly problematic for research into the biological mechanisms that underlie behavior, and especially the neurobiological underpinnings of moral development and ethical reasoning, decision-making and behavior, and the other elements of what is often called the neuroscience of ethics. The problem arises because neuroscientists, like most everyone, bring to their (...)
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  33. Kathryn L. Bollich, Paul M. Johannet & Simine Vazire (2011). In Search of Our True Selves: Feedback as a Path to Self-Knowledge. Frontiers in Psychology 2:312.score: 24.0
    How can self-knowledge of personality be improved? What path is the most fruitful source for learning about our true selves? Previous research has noted two main avenues for learning about the self: looking inward (e.g., introspection) and looking outward (e.g., feedback). Although most of the literature on these topics does not directly measure the accuracy of self-perceptions (i.e., self-knowledge), we review these paths and their potential for improving self-knowledge. We come to the conclusion that explicit feedback, a largely (...)
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  34. Timothy V. Nguyen Jeffrey T. Fairbrother, David D. Laughlin (2012). Self-Controlled Feedback Facilitates Motor Learning in Both High and Low Activity Individuals. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    The purpose of this study was to determine if high and low activity individuals differed in terms of the effects of self-controlled feedback on the performance and learning of a movement skill. The task consisted of a blindfolded beanbag toss using the non-preferred arm. Participants were pre-screened according to their physical activity level using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. An equal number of high activity (HA) and low activity (LA) participants were assigned to self-control (SC) and yoked (YK) (...) conditions, creating four groups: Self-Control High Activity (SC-HA); Self-Control Low Activity (SC-LA); Yoked High Activity (YK-HA); and Yoked Low Activity (YK-LA). SC condition participants were provided feedback whenever they requested it, while YK condition participants received feedback according to a schedule created by their SC counterpart. Results indicated that the SC condition was more accurate than the YK condition during acquisition and transfer phases, and the HA condition was more accurate than the LA condition during all phases of the experiment. A post-training questionnaire indicated that participants in the SC condition asked for feedback mostly after what they perceived to be “good” trials; those in the YK condition indicated that they would have preferred to receive feedback after “good” trials. This study provided further support for the advantages of self-controlled feedback when learning motor skills, additionally showing benefits for both active and less active individuals. The results suggested that the provision of self-controlled feedback to less active learners may be a potential avenue to teaching motor skills necessary to engage in greater amounts of physical activity. (shrink)
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  35. Vanessa Tabry, Robert J. Zatorre & Patrice Voss (2013). The Influence of Vision on Sound Localization Abilities in Both the Horizontal and Vertical Planes. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    Numerous recent reports have suggested that individuals deprived of vision are able to develop heightened auditory spatial abilities. However, most such studies have compared the blind to blindfolded sighted individuals, a procedure that might introduce a strong performance bias. Indeed, while blind individuals have had their whole lives to adapt to this condition, sighted individuals might be put at a severe disadvantage when having to localize sounds without visual input. To address this unknown, we compared the sound localization ability (...)
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  36. Randall O'Reilly Dean Wyatte, Seth Herd, Brian Mingus (2012). The Role of Competitive Inhibition and Top-Down Feedback in Binding During Object Recognition. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    How does the brain bind together visual features that are processed concurrently by different neurons into a unified percept suitable for processes such as object recognition? Here, we describe how simple, commonly accepted principles of neural processing can interact over time to solve the brain's binding problem. We focus on mechanisms of neural inhibition and top-down feedback. Specifically, we describe how inhibition creates competition among neural populations that code different features, effectively suppressing irrelevant information, and thus minimizing illusory conjunctions. (...)
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  37. Srikantan S. Nagarajan John F. Houde (2011). Speech Production as State Feedback Control. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 24.0
    Spoken language exists because of a remarkable neural process. Inside a speaker’s brain, an intended message gives rise to neural signals activating the muscles of the vocal tract. The process is remarkable because these muscles are activated in just the right way that the vocal tract produces sounds a listener understands as the intended message. What is the best approach to understanding the neural substrate of this crucial motor control process? One of the key recent modeling developments in neuroscience has (...)
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  38. Gregory Hickok Jonathan Henry Venezia, Kourosh Saberi, Charles Chubb (2012). Response Bias Modulates the Speech Motor System During Syllable Discrimination. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Recent evidence suggests that the speech motor system may play a significant role in speech perception. Repetitive TMS applied to a speech region of premotor cortex impaired syllable identification, while stimulation of motor areas for different articulators selectively facilitated identification of phonemes relying on those articulators. However, in these experiments performance was not corrected for response bias. It is not currently known how response bias modulates activity in these networks. The present fMRI experiment was designed to produce specific, (...)
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  39. John Kingston (2000). Most but Not All Bottom-Up Interactions Between Signal Properties Improve Categorization. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (3):335-336.score: 24.0
    The massive acoustic redundancy of minimally contrasting speech sounds, coupled with the auditory integration of psychoacoustically similar acoustic properties produces a highly invariant percept, which cannot be improved by top-down feedback from the lexicon. Contextual effects are also bottom-up but not all entirely auditory and may thus differ in whether they affect sensitivity or only response bias.
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  40. Heidi Albisser Schleger, Nicole R. Oehninger & Stella Reiter-Theil (2011). Avoiding Bias in Medical Ethical Decision-Making. Lessons to Be Learnt From Psychology Research. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (2):155-162.score: 24.0
    When ethical decisions have to be taken in critical, complex medical situations, they often involve decisions that set the course for or against life-sustaining treatments. Therefore the decisions have far-reaching consequences for the patients, their relatives, and often for the clinical staff. Although the rich psychology literature provides evidence that reasoning may be affected by undesired influences that may undermine the quality of the decision outcome, not much attention has been given to this phenomenon in health care or ethics consultation. (...)
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  41. Liche Seniati (2010). Pengaruh Elongation Bias Terhadap Keutusan Konsumen Untuk Membeli Produk. Phronesis 8 (2).score: 24.0
    Elongation bias is consumer’s faulty perception toward a product. Elongation bias happens on visual, touch, and hearing senses. This research focused on product of tea that bottled in different kind of container and volume. Results on visual perception show that elongation bias exists in subject’s perception about the volume of tea. A taller bottle is always perceived has a greater volume than a shorter one. Therefore for the economical reason, with the same price of tea, subjects prefer (...)
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  42. Ana Torres, Andrés Catena, Antonio Cándido, Antonio Maldonado, Alberto Megías & José César Perales (2013). Cocaine Dependent Individuals and Gamblers Present Different Associative Learning Anomalies in Feedback-Driven Decision Making: A Behavioral and ERP Study. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    Several recent studies have demonstrated that addicts behave less flexibly than healthy controls in the probabilistic reversal-learning task (PRLT), in which participants must gradually learn to choose between a probably-rewarded option and an improbably-rewarded one, on the basis of corrective feedback, and in which preferences must adjust to abrupt reward contingency changes (reversals). In the present study, pathological gamblers (PG) and cocaine-dependent individuals (CDI) showed different learning curves in the PRLT. PG also showed a reduced electroencephalographic response to (...) (Feedback-Related Negativity, FRN) when compared to controls. CDI’s FRN was not significantly different either from PG or HC’s. Additionally, according to sLORETA analysis, cortical activity in regions of interest (previously selected by virtue of their involvement in FRN generation in controls) strongly differed between CDI and PG. However, the nature of such anomalies varied within-groups across individuals. Cocaine use severity had a strong deleterious impact on the learning asymptote, whereas gambling intensity significantly increased reversal cost. These two effects have remained confounded in most previous studies, which can be hiding important associative learning differences between different populations of addicts. (shrink)
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  43. Pierre Philippot Alexandre Heeren, Rudi De Raedt, Ernst H. W. Koster (2013). The (Neuro)Cognitive Mechanisms Behind Attention Bias Modification in Anxiety: Proposals Based on Theoretical Accounts of Attentional Bias. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Recently, researchers have investigated the causal nature of attentional bias for threat (AB) in the maintenance of anxiety disorders by experimentally manipulating it. They found that training anxious individuals to attend to nonthreat stimuli reduces AB, which, in turn, reduces anxiety. This effect supports the hypothesis that AB can causally impact the maintenance of anxiety. At a fundamental level, however, uncertainty still abounds regarding the nature of the processes that mediate this effect. In the present paper, we propose that (...)
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  44. Elizabeth Cashdan & Matthew Steele (2013). Pathogen Prevalence, Group Bias, and Collectivism in the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample. Human Nature 24 (1):59-75.score: 24.0
    It has been argued that people in areas with high pathogen loads will be more likely to avoid outsiders, to be biased in favor of in-groups, and to hold collectivist and conformist values. Cross-national studies have supported these predictions. In this paper we provide new pathogen codes for the 186 cultures of the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample and use them, together with existing pathogen and ethnographic data, to try to replicate these cross-national findings. In support of the theory, we found that (...)
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  45. Felicia Pei-Hsin Cheng, Michael Grossbach & Eckart Altenmüller (2013). Altered Sensory Feedbacks in Pianist's Dystonia: The Altered Auditory Feedback Paradigm and the Glove Effect. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:868.score: 24.0
    Background: This study investigates the effect of altered auditory feedback (AAF) in musician's dystonia (MD) and discusses whether altered auditory feedback can be considered as a sensory trick in MD. Furthermore, the effect of AAF is compared with altered tactile feedback, which can serve as a sensory trick in several other forms of focal dystonia. Methods: The method is based on scale analysis (Jabusch et al. 2004). Experiment 1 employs synchronization paradigm: 12 MD patients and 25 healthy (...)
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  46. André Brechmann Christin Kohrs, Nicole Angenstein, Henning Scheich (2012). Human Striatum is Differentially Activated by Delayed, Omitted, and Immediate Registering Feedback. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    The temporal contingency of feedback during conversations is an essential requirement of a successful dialog. In the current study, we investigated the effects of delayed and omitted registering feedback on fMRI activation and compared both unexpected conditions to immediate feedback. In the majority of trials of an auditory task, participants received an immediate visual feedback which merely indicated that a button press was registered but not whether the response was correct or not. In a minority of (...)
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  47. Virginia Conde, Eckart Altenmüller, Arno Villringer & Patrick Ragert (2012). Task-Irrelevant Auditory Feedback Facilitates Motor Performance in Musicians. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    An efficient and fast auditory–motor network is a basic resource for trained musicians due to the importance of motor anticipation of sound production in musical performance. When playing an instrument, motor performance always goes along with the production of sounds and the integration between both modalities plays an essential role in the course of musical training. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of task-irrelevant auditory feedback during motor performance in musicians using a serial reaction (...)
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  48. Waka Fujisaki (2012). Effects of Delayed Visual Feedback on Grooved Pegboard Test Performance. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Using four experiments, this study investigates what amount of delay brings about maximal impairment under delayed visual feedback and whether a critical interval, such as that in audition, also exists in vision. The first experiment measured the Grooved Pegboard test performance as a function of visual feedback delays from 120 to 2120 ms in 16 steps. Performance sharply decreased until about 490 ms, then more gradually until 2120 ms, suggesting that two mechanisms were operating under delayed visual (...). Since delayed visual feedback differs from delayed auditory feedback in that the former induces not only temporal but also spatial displacements between motor and sensory feedback, this difference could also exist in the mechanism responsible for spatial displacement. The second experiment was hence conducted to provide simultaneous haptic feedback together with delayed visual feedback to inform correct spatial position. The disruption was significantly ameliorated when information about spatial position was provided from a haptic source. The sharp decrease in performance of up to approximately 300 ms was followed by an almost flat performance. This is similar to the critical interval found in audition. Accordingly, the mechanism that caused the sharp decrease in performance in experiments 1 and 2 was probably mainly responsible for temporal disparity and is common across different modality–motor combinations, while the other mechanism that caused a rather gradual decrease in performance in experiment 1 was mainly responsible for spatial displacement. In experiments 3 and 4, the reliability of spatial information from the haptic source was reduced by wearing a glove or using a tool. When the reliability of spatial information was reduced, the data lay between those of experiments 1 and 2, and that a gradual decrease in performance partially reappeared. These results further support the notion that two mechanisms operate under delayed visual feedback. (shrink)
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  49. D. D. Garrett, S. W. Macdonald & F. I. Craik (2011). Intraindividual Reaction Time Variability is Malleable: Feedback- and Education-Related Reductions in Variability with Age. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6:101-101.score: 24.0
    Intraindividual variability (IIV) in trial-to-trial reaction time is a robust and stable within-person marker of aging. However, it remains unknown whether IIV can be modulated experimentally. In a sample of healthy younger and older adults, we examined the effects of motivation- and performance-based feedback, age, and education level on IIV in a choice RT task (four blocks over 15 minutes). We found that IIV was reduced with block-by-block feedback, particularly for highly educated older adults. Notably, the baseline difference (...)
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  50. Takuya Honda, Nobuhiro Hagura, Toshinori Yoshioka & Hiroshi Imamizu (2013). Imposed Visual Feedback Delay of an Action Changes Mass Perception Based on the Sensory Prediction Error. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    While performing an action, the timing of when the sensory feedback is given can be used to establish the causal link between the action and its consequence. It has been shown that delaying the visual feedback while carrying an object makes people feel the mass of the object to be greater, suggesting that the feedback timing can also impact the perceived quality of an external object. In this study, we investigated the origin of the feedback timing (...)
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