Search results for 'feedback loop' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Etienne Farcot & Jean-Luc Gouzé (2009). Periodic Solutions of Piecewise Affine Gene Network Models with Non Uniform Decay Rates: The Case of a Negative Feedback Loop. Acta Biotheoretica 57 (4).score: 180.0
    This paper concerns periodic solutions of a class of equations that model gene regulatory networks. Unlike the vast majority of previous studies, it is not assumed that all decay rates are identical. To handle this more general situation, we rely on monotonicity properties of these systems. Under an alternative assumption, it is shown that a classical fixed point theorem for monotone, concave operators can be applied to these systems. The required assumption is expressed in geometrical terms as an alignment condition (...)
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  2. Evandro Agazzi (2008). Epistemology and the Social: A Feedback Loop. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 96 (1):19-31.score: 164.0
    A sociological study of science is not very recent and has never been seen as particularly problematic since science, and especially modern science, constitutes an impressive and extremely ramified "social system" of activities, institutions, relations and interferences with other social systems. Less favourable, however, has been the consideration of a more recent trend in the philosophy of science known as the "sociological" philosophy of science, whose most debatable point consists in directly challenging the traditional epistemology of science and, in particular, (...)
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  3. Todd D. Nelson (1995). The Control of Consciousness Via a Neuropsychological Feedback Loop. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (4):690.score: 150.0
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  4. Marcel Kinsbourne (1995). Septohippocampal Comparator: Consciousness Generator or Attention Feedback Loop? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (4):687.score: 150.0
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  5. Steven M. Picksley & David P. Lane (1993). What the Papers Say: The P53‐Mdm2 Autoregulatory Feedback Loop: A Paradigm for the Regulation of Growth Control by P53? Bioessays 15 (10):689-690.score: 150.0
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  6. Paul Schuurman (2013). Determinism and Causal Feedback Loops in Montesquieu's Explanations for the Military Rise and Fall of Rome. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 21 (3):507-528.score: 72.0
    Montesquieu's Considérations sur les causes de la grandeur des Romains et de leur décadence (1733/1734) is a methodological exercise in causal explanation on the meso-level applied to the subject of the military rise and fall of Rome. Rome is described as a system with contingent initial conditions that have a strong path-determining effect. Contingent and plastic initial configurations become highly determining in their subsequent operation, thanks to self-reinforcing feedback loops. Montesquieu's method seems influenced by the ruthless commitment to efficient (...)
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  7. Matt L. Drabek (2010). Interactive Classification and Practice in the Social Sciences. Poroi 6 (2):62-80.score: 60.0
    This paper examines the ways in which social scientific discourse and classification interact with the objects of social scientific investigation. I examine this interaction in the context of the traditional philosophical project of demarcating the social sciences from the natural sciences. I begin by reviewing Ian Hacking’s work on interactive classification and argue that there are additional forms of interaction that must be treated.
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  8. Anton Lethin (2005). Covert Agency with Proprioceptive Feedback. Journal of Consciousness Studies 12 (s 4-5):96-114.score: 60.0
    : Marcel says that the experience of ownership of actions is given in the specifications for action. He is referring not to a bodily movement but that which precedes it. Is the body involved or are all the changes in the brain? This paper examines the evidence for changes in the spinal cord and muscles that occur with motor imagery, simulation and preparation. There are changes in the alpha motoneurons and in the gamma motoneurons to the muscle spindles. These may (...)
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  9. Minh-Uyen Dao Thi, Candice Trocmé, Marie-Paule Montmasson, Eric Fanchon, Bertrand Toussaint & Philippe Tracqui (forthcoming). Investigating Metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 Mechanosensitivity to Feedback Loops Involved in the Regulation of In Vitro Angiogenesis by Endogenous Mechanical Stresses. [REVIEW] Acta Biotheoretica.score: 60.0
    Abstract Angiogenesis is a complex morphogenetic process regulated by growth factors, but also by the force balance between endothelial cells (EC) traction stresses and extracellular matrix (ECM) viscoelastic resistance. Studies conducted with in vitro angiogenesis assays demonstrated that decreasing ECM stiffness triggers an angiogenic switch that promotes organization of EC into tubular cords or pseudo-capillaries. Thus, mechano-sensitivity of EC with regard to proteases secretion, and notably matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), should likely play a pivotal role in this switching mechanism. While most (...)
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  10. Sui Huang (2013). When Peers Are Not Peers and Don't Know It: The Dunning‐Kruger Effect and Self‐Fulfilling Prophecy in Peer‐Review. Bioessays 35 (5):414-416.score: 60.0
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  11. Man‐Sun Kim, Jeong‐Rae Kim & Kwang‐Hyun Cho (2010). Dynamic Network Rewiring Determines Temporal Regulatory Functions in Drosophilamelanogaster Development Processes. Bioessays 32 (6):505-513.score: 60.0
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  12. Germund Hesslow (1996). Positive Cerebellar Feedback Loops. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (3):455-456.score: 60.0
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  13. Karola Pitsch, Anna-Lisa Vollmer, Katharina J. Rohlfing, Jannik Fritsch & Britta Wrede (2014). Tutoring in Adult-Child Interaction: On the Loop of the Tutor’s Action Modification and the Recipient’s Gaze. [REVIEW] Interaction Studies 15 (1):55-98.score: 54.0
    Research of tutoring in parent-infant interaction has shown that tutors – when presenting some action – modify both their verbal and manual performance for the learner (‘motherese’, ‘motionese’). Investigating the sources and effects of the tutors’ action modifications, we suggest an interactional account of ‘motionese’. Using video-data from a semi-experimental study in which parents taught their 8- to 11-month old infants how to nest a set of differently sized cups, we found that the tutors’ action modifications (in particular: high arches) (...)
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  14. Warren Mansell (2011). Control of Perception Should Be Operationalized as a Fundamental Property of the Nervous System. Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (2):257-261.score: 42.0
    This commentary proposes that “cognitive control” is neither componential nor emergent, but a fundamental feature of behavior. The term “control” requires an operational definition. This is best provided by the negative feedback loop that utilizes behavior to control perception; it does not control behavior per se. In order to model complex cognitive control, Perceptual Control Theory proposes that loops are organized into a dissociable hierarchical network (PCT; Powers, Clark, & McFarland, 1960; Powers, 1973a, 2008). In this way, behavior (...)
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  15. Dennis Norris, James M. McQueen & Anne Cutler (2000). Merging Information in Speech Recognition: Feedback is Never Necessary. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (3):299-325.score: 40.0
    Top-down feedback does not benefit speech recognition; on the contrary, it can hinder it. No experimental data imply that feedback loops are required for speech recognition. Feedback is accordingly unnecessary and spoken word recognition is modular. To defend this thesis, we analyse lexical involvement in phonemic decision making. TRACE (McClelland & Elman 1986), a model with feedback from the lexicon to prelexical processes, is unable to account for all the available data on phonemic decision making. The (...)
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  16. Christian Mühl Fabien Lotte, Florian Larrue (2013). Flaws in Current Human Training Protocols for Spontaneous Brain-Computer Interfaces: Lessons Learned From Instructional Design. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 36.0
    While recent research on Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) has highlighted their potential for many applications, they remain barely used outside laboratories. The main reason is their lack of robustness. Indeed, with current BCI, mental state recognition is usually slow and often incorrect. Spontaneous BCI (i.e., mental imagery-based BCI) often rely on mutual learning efforts by the user and the machine, with BCI users learning to produce stable EEG patterns (spontaneous BCI control being widely acknowledged as a skill) while the computer learns (...)
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  17. George Ainslie & John Monterosso (2005). Why Not Emotions as Motivated Behaviors? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (2):194-195.score: 30.0
    Lewis's dynamic systems approach is a refreshing change from the reflexology of most neuroscience, but it could go a step further: It could include the expected rewardingness of an emotion in the recursive feedback loop that determines whether the emotion will occur. Two possible objections to such a model are discussed: that emotions are not deliberate, and that negative emotions should lose out as instrumental choices.
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  18. John Storrs Hall (2007). Self-Improving AI: An Analysis. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 17 (3):249-259.score: 30.0
    Self-improvement was one of the aspects of AI proposed for study in the 1956 Dartmouth conference. Turing proposed a “child machine” which could be taught in the human manner to attain adult human-level intelligence. In latter days, the contention that an AI system could be built to learn and improve itself indefinitely has acquired the label of the bootstrap fallacy. Attempts in AI to implement such a system have met with consistent failure for half a century. Technological optimists, however, have (...)
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  19. Karen Jones (2012). The Politics of Intellectual Self-Trust. Social Epistemology 26 (2):237-251.score: 30.0
    Just as testimony is affected by unjust social relations, so too is intellectual self-trust. I defend an account of intellectual self-trust that explains both why it is properly thought of as trust and why it is directed at the self, and explore its relationship to social power. Intellectual self-trust is neither a matter of having dispositions to rely on one?s epistemic methods and mechanisms, nor having a set of beliefs about which ones are reliable. Instead, it is a stance that (...)
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  20. Ben Jeffares (2010). The Co-Evolution of Tools and Minds: Cognition and Material Culture in the Hominin Lineage. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 9 (4):503-520.score: 30.0
    The structuring of our environment to provide cues and reminders for ourselves is common: We leave notes on the fridge, we have a particular place for our keys where we deposit them, making them easy to find. We alter our world to streamline our cognitive tasks. But how did hominins gain this capacity? What pushed our ancestors to structure their physical environment in ways that buffered thinking and began the process of using the world cognitively? I argue that the capacity (...)
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  21. Jonathan Lowell (2012). Managers and Moral Dissonance: Self Justification as a Big Threat to Ethical Management? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 105 (1):17-25.score: 30.0
    This article discusses the implications of moral dissonance for managers, and how dissonance induced self justification can create an amplifying feedback loop and downward spiral of immoral behaviour. After addressing the nature of moral dissonance, including the difference between moral and hedonistic dissonance, the writer then focuses on dissonance reduction strategies available to managers such as rationalization, self affirmation, self justification, etc. It is noted that there is a considerable literature which views the organization as a potentially corrupting (...)
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  22. Peter Fleming & Stelios C. Zyglidopoulos (2008). The Escalation of Deception in Organizations. Journal of Business Ethics 81 (4):837 - 850.score: 30.0
    Drawing on a number of recent high-profile cases of corporate corruption, we develop a process model that explains the escalation of deception in corrupt firms. If undetected, an initial lie can begin a process whereby the ease, severity and pervasiveness of deception increases overtime so that it eventually becomes an organization level phenomenon. We propose that organizational complexity has an amplifying effect. A␣feedback loop between organization level deception and each of the escalation stages positively reinforces the process. In (...)
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  23. Warren S. Brown (1997). Mac Kay's View of Conscious Agents in Dialogue: Speculations on the Embodiment of Soul. Philosophical Psychology 10 (4):497 – 505.score: 30.0
    Donald MacKay's description of the embodiment of an efficacious conscious mind is reviewed as a version of non-reductive physicalism. Particular focus is given to MacKay's analysis of the emergence of consciousness in the capacity for self-evaluation which results from informational feedback regarding the results of action. Unique to MacKay's posthumously published Gifford Lectures is his analysis of agents in dialog as a particular form of an environmental feedback loop. His analysis of dialog is reviewed and expanded (...)
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  24. Simone van der Burg (2011). Taking the “Soft Impacts” of Technology Into Account: Broadening the Discourse in Research Practice. Social Epistemology 23 (3):301-316.score: 30.0
    Public funding institutions are able to influence what aspects researchers take into account when they consider the future impacts of their research. On the basis of a description of the evaluation systems that public research funding institutes in the Netherlands (STW and SenterNovem) use to estimate the quality of engineering science, this article shows that researchers are now predominantly required to reflect on the intellectual merit of their research and on the usability and marketability of the technology it contributes to. (...)
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  25. Jason Pridmore (2010). Reflexive Marketing: The Cultural Circuit of Loyalty Programs. [REVIEW] Identity in the Information Society 3 (3):565-581.score: 30.0
    The amount of personal data now collected through contemporary marketing practices is indicative of the shifting landscape of contemporary capitalism. Loyalty programs can be seen as one exemplar of this, using the ‘add-ons’ of ‘points’ and ‘miles’ to entice consumers into divulging a range of personal information. These consumers are subject to surveillance practices that have digitally identified them as significant in the eyes of a corporation, yet they are also part of a feedback loop subject to ongoing (...)
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  26. William H. Calvin, Email || Home Page || Publication List.score: 30.0
    Plan-ahead becomes necessary for those movements which are over-and-done in less time than it takes for the feedback loop to operate. Natural selection for one of the ballistic movements (hammering, clubbing, and throwing) could evolve a plan-ahead serial buffer for hand-arm commands that would benefit the other ballistic movements as well. This same circuitry may also sequence other muscles (children learning handwriting often screw up their faces and tongues) and so novel oral-facial sequences may also benefit (as might (...)
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  27. Elana Gomel (2011). Science (Fiction) and Posthuman Ethics: Redefining the Human. The European Legacy 16 (3):339-354.score: 30.0
    The boundaries of the ethical have traditionally coincided with the boundaries of humanity. This, however, is no longer the case. Scientific developments, such as genetic engineering, stem-cell research, cloning, the Human Genome Project, new paleontological evidence, and the rise of neuropsychology call into question the very notion of human being and thus require a new conceptual map for ethical judgment. The contours of this map may be seen to emerge in works of science fiction (SF), which not only vividly dramatize (...)
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  28. Anton Benz (2012). Errors in Pragmatics. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 21 (1):97-116.score: 30.0
    In this paper we are going to show that error coping strategies play an essential role in linguistic pragmatics. We study the effect of noisy speaker strategies within a framework of signalling games with feedback loop. We distinguish between cases in which errors occur in message selection and cases in which they occur in signal selection. The first type of errors affects the content of an utterance, and the second type its linguistic expression. The general communication model is (...)
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  29. Jean McGuire, Lois Wright Morton & Alicia D. Cast (2013). Reconstructing the Good Farmer Identity: Shifts in Farmer Identities and Farm Management Practices to Improve Water Quality. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 30 (1):57-69.score: 30.0
    All farmers have their own version of what it means to be a good farmer. For many US farmers a large portion of their identity is defined by the high input, high output production systems they manage to produce food, fiber or fuel. However, the unintended consequences of highly productivist systems are often increased soil erosion and the pollution of ground and surface water. A large number of farmers have conservationist identities within their good farmer identity, however their conservation goals (...)
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  30. Douglas Walton & Ralph Johnson (2011). Introduction: Special Issue on Charles Hamblin. Informal Logic 31 (4).score: 30.0
    It is unfortunate that Hamblin’s contributions do not get him the credit he deserves for his remarkable achievements. Although his contributions to philosophy are well enough recognized, and his early contributions to computing have been acknowledged, it seems strange that his work has not been widely enough recognized for the interdisciplinary effect it has had. There has been a feedback loop whereby his theories on formal dialogue systems and imperatives were taken up in argumentation, applied in computing, and (...)
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  31. Paul Davies (2010). The Nature of the Laws of Physics and Their Mysterious Bio-Friendliness. In Science and Religion in Dialogue. Wiley-Blackwell. 767--788.score: 30.0
    This chapter contains sections titled: * 1 The Universe Is Weirdly Fine-Tuned for Life * 2 The Cosmic Code * 3 The Concept of Laws * 4 Are the Laws Real? * 5 Does a Multiverse Explain the Goldilocks Enigma? * 6 Many Scientists Hate the Multiverse Idea * 7 Who Designed the Multiverse? * 8 If There Were a Unique Final Theory, God Would Be Redundant * 9 What Exists and What Doesn’t: Who or What Gets to Decide? * (...)
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  32. Alex Englander (2013). Herder's 'Expressivist' Metaphysics and the Origins of German Idealism. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 21 (5):902 - 924.score: 30.0
    Charles Taylor's influential exposition of Hegel made the doctrine of expressivism of central importance and identified Herder as its exemplary historical advocate. The breadth and generality of Taylor's use of ?expressivism? have led the concept into some disrepute, but a more precise formulation of the doctrine as a theory of meaning can both demonstrate what is worthwhile and accurate in Taylor's account, and allow us a useful point of entry into Herder's multifaceted philosophy. A reconstruction of Herder's overall philosophical position, (...)
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  33. Paul Schuurman (2012). Fénelon on Luxury, War and Trade in the Telemachus. History of European Ideas 38 (2):179-199.score: 30.0
    Summary In his novel The Adventures of Telemachus, François de la Mothe-Fénelon (1651?1715) presents a utopian society, Boetica, in which the role of luxury, war and trade is extremely limited. In unreformed Salentum, on the other hand, Fénelon shows the opposite image, one in which the three elements reinforce each other in a fatal feedback-loop. I analyse the relationship between luxury, war and trade in the Telemachus and I sketch the background to Fénelon's views, with special attention to (...)
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  34. Donna Vaughan (2011). The Importance of Capabilities in the Sustainability of Information and Communications Technology Programs: The Case of Remote Indigenous Australian Communities. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 13 (2):131-150.score: 30.0
    The use of the capability approach as an evaluative tool for Information and Communication Technology (ICT) policy and programs in developing countries, in particular at a grass-roots community level, is an emerging field of application. However, one of the difficulties with ICT for development (ICT4D) evaluations is in linking what is often no more than a resource, for example basic access, to actual outcomes, or means to end. This article argues that the capability approach provides a framework for evaluating the (...)
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  35. R. H. Phaf & G. Wolters (1997). A Constructivist and Connectionist View on Conscious and Nonconscious Processes. Philosophical Psychology 10 (3):287-307.score: 26.0
    Recent experimental findings reveal dissociations of conscious and nonconscious performance in many fields of psychological research, suggesting that conscious and nonconscious effects result from qualitatively different processes. A connectionist view of these processes is put forward in which consciousness is the consequence of construction processes taking place in three types of working memory in a specific type of recurrent neural network. The recurrences arise by feeding back output to the input of a central (representational) network. They are assumed to be (...)
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  36. Rick Grush (2004). The Emulation Theory of Representation: Motor Control, Imagery, and Perception. Behavioral And Brain Sciences 27 (3):377-396.score: 24.0
    The emulation theory of representation is developed and explored as a framework that can revealingly synthesize a wide variety of representational functions of the brain. The framework is based on constructs from control theory (forward models) and signal processing (Kalman filters). The idea is that in addition to simply engaging with the body and environment, the brain constructs neural circuits that act as models of the body and environment. During overt sensorimotor engagement, these models are driven by efference copies in (...)
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  37. Rick Grush (2003). In Defense of Some "Cartesian" Assumption Concerning the Brain and its Operation. Biology and Philosophy 18 (1):53-92.score: 24.0
    I argue against a growing radical trend in current theoretical cognitive science that moves from the premises of embedded cognition, embodied cognition, dynamical systems theory and/or situated robotics to conclusions either to the effect that the mind is not in the brain or that cognition does not require representation, or both. I unearth the considerations at the foundation of this view: Haugeland's bandwidth-component argument to the effect that the brain is not a component in cognitive activity, and arguments inspired by (...)
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  38. S. Matthew Liao (2009). The Loop Case and Kamm's Doctrine of Triple Effect. Philosophical Studies 146 (2):223 - 231.score: 24.0
    Judith Jarvis Thomson’s Loop Case is particularly significant in normative ethics because it questions the validity of the intuitively plausible Doctrine of Double Effect, according to which there is a significant difference between harm that is intended and harm that is merely foreseen and not intended. Recently, Frances Kamm has argued that what she calls the Doctrine of Triple Effect (DTE), which draws a distinction between acting because-of and acting in-order-to, can account for our judgment about the Loop (...)
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  39. Christine C. Dantas (2013). An Approach to Loop Quantum Cosmology Through Integrable Discrete Heisenberg Spin Chains. Foundations of Physics 43 (2):236-242.score: 24.0
    The quantum evolution equation of Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC)—the quantum Hamiltonian constraint—is a difference equation. We relate the LQC constraint equation in vacuum Bianchi I separable (locally rotationally symmetric) models with an integrable differential-difference nonlinear Schrödinger type equation, which in turn is known to be associated with integrable, discrete Heisenberg spin chain models in condensed matter physics. We illustrate the similarity between both systems with a simple constraint in the linear regime.
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  40. James Justus (2006). Loop Analysis and Qualitative Modeling: Limitations and Merits. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 21 (5):647-666.score: 24.0
    Richard Levins has advocated the scientific merits of qualitative modeling throughout his career. He believed an excessive and uncritical focus on emulating the models used by physicists and maximizing quantitative precision was hindering biological theorizing in particular. Greater emphasis on qualitative properties of modeled systems would help counteract this tendency, and Levins subsequently developed one method of qualitative modeling, loop analysis, to study a wide variety of biological phenomena. Qualitative modeling has been criticized for being conceptually and methodologically problematic. (...)
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  41. Elise Springer (2008). Moral Feedback and Motivation: Revisiting the Undermining Effect. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 11 (4):407 - 423.score: 24.0
    Social psychologists have evidence that evaluative feedback on others’ choices sometimes has unwelcome negative effects on hearers’ motivation. Holroyd’s article (Holroyd J. Ethical Theory Moral Pract 10:267–278, 2007) draws attention to one such result, the undermining effect, that should help to challenge moral philosophers’ complacency about blame and praise. The cause for concern is actually greater than she indicates, both because there are multiple kinds of negative effect on hearer motivation, and because these are not, as she hopes, reliably (...)
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  42. Dorota Leszczyńska-Jasion (2009). A Loop-Free Decision Procedure for Modal Propositional Logics K4, S4 and S. Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (2):151 - 177.score: 24.0
    The aim of this paper is to present a loop-free decision procedure for modal propositional logics K4, S4 and S5. We prove that the procedure terminates and that it is sound and complete. The procedure is based on the method of Socratic proofs for modal logics, which is grounded in the logic of questions IEL.
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  43. M. D. Maia, S. S. E. Almeida Silva & F. S. Carvalho (2009). Quaternion-Loop Quantum Gravity. Foundations of Physics 39 (11):1273-1279.score: 24.0
    It is shown that the Riemannian curvature of the 3-dimensional hypersurfaces in space-time, described by the Wilson loop integral, can be represented by a quaternion quantum operator induced by the SU(2) gauge potential, thus providing a justification for quaternion quantum gravity at the Tev energy scale.
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  44. Alex Hankey (2014). Complexity Biology-Based Information Structures Can Explain Subjectivity, Objective Reduction of Wave Packets, and Non-Computability. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 10 (1):237-250.score: 24.0
    Background: how mind functions is subject to continuing scientific discussion. A simplistic approach says that, since no convincing way has been found to model subjective experience, mind cannot exist. A second holds that, since mind cannot be described by classical physics, it must be described by quantum physics. Another perspective concerns mind's hypothesized ability to interact with the world of quanta: it should be responsible for reduction of quantum wave packets; physics producing ‘Objective Reduction' is postulated to form the basis (...)
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  45. Kerstin Unger, Sonja Heintz & Jutta Kray (2012). Punishment Sensitivity Modulates the Processing of Negative Feedback but Not Error-Induced Learning. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6:186-186.score: 24.0
    Accumulating evidence suggests that individual differences in punishment and reward sensitivity are associated with functional alterations in neural systems underlying error and feedback processing. In particular, individuals highly sensitive to punishment have been found to be characterized by larger midfrontal error signals as reflected in the error negativity (Ne/ERN) and the FRN (feedback-related negativity). By contrast, reward sensitivity has been shown to relate to the error positivity (Pe). Given that Ne/ERN, FRN, and Pe have been functionally linked to (...)
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  46. Kathryn L. Bollich, Paul M. Johannet & Simine Vazire (2011). In Search of Our True Selves: Feedback as a Path to Self-Knowledge. Frontiers in Psychology 2:312.score: 24.0
    How can self-knowledge of personality be improved? What path is the most fruitful source for learning about our true selves? Previous research has noted two main avenues for learning about the self: looking inward (e.g., introspection) and looking outward (e.g., feedback). Although most of the literature on these topics does not directly measure the accuracy of self-perceptions (i.e., self-knowledge), we review these paths and their potential for improving self-knowledge. We come to the conclusion that explicit feedback, a largely (...)
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  47. Timothy V. Nguyen Jeffrey T. Fairbrother, David D. Laughlin (2012). Self-Controlled Feedback Facilitates Motor Learning in Both High and Low Activity Individuals. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    The purpose of this study was to determine if high and low activity individuals differed in terms of the effects of self-controlled feedback on the performance and learning of a movement skill. The task consisted of a blindfolded beanbag toss using the non-preferred arm. Participants were pre-screened according to their physical activity level using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. An equal number of high activity (HA) and low activity (LA) participants were assigned to self-control (SC) and yoked (YK) (...) conditions, creating four groups: Self-Control High Activity (SC-HA); Self-Control Low Activity (SC-LA); Yoked High Activity (YK-HA); and Yoked Low Activity (YK-LA). SC condition participants were provided feedback whenever they requested it, while YK condition participants received feedback according to a schedule created by their SC counterpart. Results indicated that the SC condition was more accurate than the YK condition during acquisition and transfer phases, and the HA condition was more accurate than the LA condition during all phases of the experiment. A post-training questionnaire indicated that participants in the SC condition asked for feedback mostly after what they perceived to be “good” trials; those in the YK condition indicated that they would have preferred to receive feedback after “good” trials. This study provided further support for the advantages of self-controlled feedback when learning motor skills, additionally showing benefits for both active and less active individuals. The results suggested that the provision of self-controlled feedback to less active learners may be a potential avenue to teaching motor skills necessary to engage in greater amounts of physical activity. (shrink)
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  48. Randall O'Reilly Dean Wyatte, Seth Herd, Brian Mingus (2012). The Role of Competitive Inhibition and Top-Down Feedback in Binding During Object Recognition. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    How does the brain bind together visual features that are processed concurrently by different neurons into a unified percept suitable for processes such as object recognition? Here, we describe how simple, commonly accepted principles of neural processing can interact over time to solve the brain's binding problem. We focus on mechanisms of neural inhibition and top-down feedback. Specifically, we describe how inhibition creates competition among neural populations that code different features, effectively suppressing irrelevant information, and thus minimizing illusory conjunctions. (...)
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  49. Srikantan S. Nagarajan John F. Houde (2011). Speech Production as State Feedback Control. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 24.0
    Spoken language exists because of a remarkable neural process. Inside a speaker’s brain, an intended message gives rise to neural signals activating the muscles of the vocal tract. The process is remarkable because these muscles are activated in just the right way that the vocal tract produces sounds a listener understands as the intended message. What is the best approach to understanding the neural substrate of this crucial motor control process? One of the key recent modeling developments in neuroscience has (...)
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  50. Ana Torres, Andrés Catena, Antonio Cándido, Antonio Maldonado, Alberto Megías & José César Perales (2013). Cocaine Dependent Individuals and Gamblers Present Different Associative Learning Anomalies in Feedback-Driven Decision Making: A Behavioral and ERP Study. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    Several recent studies have demonstrated that addicts behave less flexibly than healthy controls in the probabilistic reversal-learning task (PRLT), in which participants must gradually learn to choose between a probably-rewarded option and an improbably-rewarded one, on the basis of corrective feedback, and in which preferences must adjust to abrupt reward contingency changes (reversals). In the present study, pathological gamblers (PG) and cocaine-dependent individuals (CDI) showed different learning curves in the PRLT. PG also showed a reduced electroencephalographic response to (...) (Feedback-Related Negativity, FRN) when compared to controls. CDI’s FRN was not significantly different either from PG or HC’s. Additionally, according to sLORETA analysis, cortical activity in regions of interest (previously selected by virtue of their involvement in FRN generation in controls) strongly differed between CDI and PG. However, the nature of such anomalies varied within-groups across individuals. Cocaine use severity had a strong deleterious impact on the learning asymptote, whereas gambling intensity significantly increased reversal cost. These two effects have remained confounded in most previous studies, which can be hiding important associative learning differences between different populations of addicts. (shrink)
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