Search results for 'final cause' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  43
    T. L. Short (2002). Darwin's Concept of Final Cause: Neither New nor Trivial. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 17 (3):323-340.
    Darwin'suse of final cause accords with the Aristotelian idea of finalcauses as explanatory types – as opposed to mechanical causes, which arealways particulars. In Wright's consequence etiology, anadaptation is explained by particular events, namely, its past consequences;hence, that etiology is mechanistic at bottom. This justifies Ghiselin'scharge that such versions of teleology trivialize the subject, But a purelymechanistic explanation of an adaptation allows it to appear coincidental.Patterns of outcome, whether biological or thermodynamic, cannot be explainedbytracing causal chains, even were (...)
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  2. Rich Cameron (2003). The Ontology of Aristotle's Final Cause. Apeiron 35 (2):153-79.
    Modern philosophy is, for what appear to be good reasons, uniformly hostile to sui generis final causes. And motivated to develop philosophically and scientifically plausible interpretations, scholars have increasingly offered reductivist and eliminitivist accounts of Aristotle's teleological commitment. This trend in contemporary scholarship is misguided. We have strong grounds to believe Aristotle accepted unreduced sui generis teleology, and reductivist and eliminitivist accounts face insurmountable textual and philosophical difficulties. We offer Aristotelians cold comfort by replacing his apparent view with failed (...)
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  3.  54
    Stephen B. Hawkins (2007). Desire and Natural Classification: Aristotle and Peirce on Final Cause. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 43 (3):521 - 541.
    : Peirce was greatly influenced by Aristotle, particularly on the topic of final cause. Commentators are therefore right to draw on Aristotle in the interpretation of Peirce's teleology. But these commentators sometimes fail to distinguish clearly between formal cause and final cause in Aristotle's philosophy. Unless form and end are clearly distinguished, no sense can be made of Peirce's important claim that 'desires create classes.' Understood in the context of his teleology, this claim may be (...)
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  4.  11
    T. M. Forsyth (1947). Aristotle's Concept of God as Final Cause. Philosophy 22 (82):112 - 123.
    During my student days at Edinburgh I became particularly interested in Aristotle's doctrine of God as Final Cause. Concern with other problems and periods of Philosophy, along with many years of teaching in most of its branches, has kept me from ever writing anything down on the subject except in the very briefest way. But it has always seemed to me to claim fuller attention than is commonly accorded to it. That Aristotle's conception, however independently it was worked (...)
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  5.  7
    Rich Cameron (2002). The Ontology of Aristotle's Final Cause. Apeiron 35 (2).
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  6. D. J. Furley (1996). What Kind of Cause is Aristotle's Final Cause?'. In Michael Frede & Gisela Striker (eds.), Rationality in Greek Thought. Oxford University Press 59--80.
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  7. Carl W. Grindel (1949). Problem : The Relation Between Formal and Final Cause. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 23:131.
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  8.  1
    B. Dobbs (1994). Newton as Final Cause and First Mover. Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 85:633-643.
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  9.  6
    Aaron Ben-Zeev (1985). Aristotle, Final Cause, and the Intentional Stance. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (4):758-759.
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  10.  11
    Carl W. Grindel (1949). The Relation Between Formal and Final Cause. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 23:131-136.
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  11.  6
    James A. McWilliams (1951). The Interrelationship of Nature and the Final Cause. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 25:108-116.
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  12.  10
    Andrei Iu Seval'nikov (2010). The Concept of a Final Cause and Contemporary Science. Russian Studies in Philosophy 49 (3):43-57.
    The author explains why some scientists try to resolve the paradoxes of quantum physics by adopting a teleological approach and attributing consciousness to matter. He presents a philosophical critique of this type of approach.
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  13.  3
    José Antônio de C. R. De Souza (2008). As Causas Eficiente E Final Do Poder Espiritual Na Visão de D. Frei Álvaro PaisThe Efficient and Final Cause of Spiritual Power. The Vision of D. Frei Álvaro Pais. [REVIEW] Cultura:77-111.
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  14.  2
    Howard Rachlin (1993). Optimality and Aristotle's Concept of Final Cause. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (3):623.
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  15.  3
    Shadworth H. Hodgson (1902). Time, Necessity, Law, Freedom, Final Cause, Design in Nature. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 3:47 - 79.
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  16. B. J. T. Dobbs (1994). Newton as Final Cause and First Mover. Isis 85 (4):633-643.
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  17. Shadworth H. Hodgson (1903). III.—Time, Necessity, Law, Freedom, Final Cause, Design in Nature. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 3 (1):47-79.
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  18. James A. Mcwilliams (1951). Problem : The Interrelationship of Nature and the Final Cause. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 25:108.
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  19. B. Rang (1993). Suitability, Final Cause and Integrity of Organic Nature, Teleological Weltanschaaung in Kant'kritik der Urteilskraft'. Philosophisches Jahrbuch 100 (1):39-71.
     
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  20. Emanuel Swedenborg & Lewis Field Hite (1902). The Infinite and the Final Cause of Creation Also the Intercourse Between the Soul and the Body Outlines of a Philosophical Argument. Swedenborg Society.
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  21. Benjamin Smart, A Critique of Humean and Anti-Humean Metaphysics of Cause and Law - Final Version.
    Metaphysicians play an important role in our understanding of the universe. In recent years, physicists have focussed on finding accurate mathematical formalisms of the evolution of our physical system - if a metaphysician can uncover the metaphysical underpinnings of these formalisms; that is, why these formalisms seem to consistently map the universe, then our understanding of the world and the things in it is greatly enhanced. Science, then, plays a very important role in our project, as the best scientific formalisms (...)
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  22.  11
    Lucas Mix (2016). Nested Explanation in Aristotle and Mayr. Synthese 193 (6):1817-1832.
    Both Aristotle and Ernst Mayr present theories of dual explanation in biology, with proximal, clearly physical explanations and more distal, biology-specific explanations. Aristotle’s presentation of final cause explanations in Posterior Analytics relates final causes to the necessary material, formal, and efficient causes that mediate them. Johnson and Leunissen demonstrate the problematic nature of historical and recent interpretations and open the door for a new interpretation consistent with modern evolutionary theory. Mayr’s differentiation of proximate and ultimate/evolutionary causes provides (...)
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  23.  45
    Marco Solinas (2012). L'impronta dell'inutilità. Dalla teleologia di Aristotele alle genealogie di Darwin (pdf: Introduzione). ETS.
    The book aims to offer a contribution to the historiographical and conceptual reconfiguration of the evolutionary revolution in the light of the centuries-old tenets of the Aristotelian biological tradition. Darwin’s breakthrough constitutes a thorough overturning of the fixist, essentialist and teleological framework created by Aristotle, a framework still dominant in the 17th Century world of Harvey and Ray, as well as Galileo, and then hegemonic until Linnaeus and Cuvier. This change is exemplified in the morphological analysis of useless parts, such (...)
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  24.  16
    Uwe Steinhoff (forthcoming). Just Cause and the Continuous Application of Jus Ad Bellum. In Larry May May, Shannon Elizabeth Fyfe & Eric Joseph Ritter (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook on Just War Theory. Cambridge University Press
    What one is ultimately interested in with regard to ‘just cause’ is whether a specific war, actual or potential, is justified. I call this ‘the applied question’. Answering this question requires knowing the empirical facts on the ground. However, an answer to the applied question regarding a specific war requires a prior answer to some more general questions, both descriptive and normative. These questions are: What kind of thing is a ‘just cause’ for war (an aim, an injury (...)
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  25.  21
    David Haig (2013). Proximate and Ultimate Causes: How Come? And What For? [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 28 (5):781-786.
    Proximate and ultimate causes in evolutionary biology have come to conflate two distinctions. The first is a distinction between immediate and historical causes. The second is between explanations of mechanism and adaptive function. Mayr emphasized the first distinction but many evolutionary biologists use proximate and ultimate causes to refer to the second. I recommend that ‘ultimate cause’ be abandoned as ambiguous.
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  26.  66
    David Torrijos-Castrillejo (2013). La causalidad del motor inmóvil. Hypnos 31 (2):234-266.
    This paper looks at the causal activity of the unmoved mover of Aristotle. The author affirms both the efficient causality of God and his teleological role. He thinks that the principal character, by describing God, is ‘thinking on thinking’. That means his most important factor to act cannot only ‘be aimed’ but must also ‘be thought’. There are many new texts to defend such as an efficient causal interpretation and also various philosophical arguments to support final causality.
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  27. Steven G. Smith (1988). The Concept of the Spiritual. An Essay in First Philosophy. Temple University Press.
    Beginning with Anaximenes, philosophers have adopted spirit-words to identify that which is of commanding significance for understanding and living human life. So again here. To be a spiritual being is to be one for whom the first and final determiner of meaning is the question of how best to live in relationship with other beings, preeminently other intenders. Since parties to relationship transcend comprehension, the spirit-as-mind (nous) tradition rests on a fundamental mistake. Validity structures like rationality and culture function (...)
     
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  28.  78
    Juan Jose Sanguineti (2015). The Unity of Biological Systems in Polo's Philosophy. Journal of Polian Studies 2:87-108.
    Life as self-organization is philosophically understood by L. Polo in terms of co-causality between matter, formal configuration and intrinsic efficiency. This characterization provides a dynamic account of life and soul, capable to explain both its identity and its continuous renovation. In this article I especially highlight in this author the metaphysical notions of finality, unity and cosmos, which may be helpful to understand the sense of biological systems in the universe.
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  29. James G. Lennox (1993). Darwin Was a Teleologist. Biology and Philosophy 8 (4):409-421.
    It is often claimed that one of Darwin''s chief accomplishments was to provide biology with a non-teleological explanation of adaptation. A number of Darwin''s closest associates, however, and Darwin himself, did not see it that way. In order to assess whether Darwin''s version of evolutionary theory does or does not employ teleological explanation, two of his botanical studies are examined. The result of this examination is that Darwin sees selection explanations of adaptations as teleological explanations. The confusion in the nineteenth (...)
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  30.  87
    Lenny Moss (2006). The Question of Questions: What is a Gene? Comments on Rolston and Griffths & Stotz. [REVIEW] Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (6):523-534.
    If the question ``What is a gene?'' proves to be worth asking it must be able to elicit an answer which both recognizes and address the reasons why the concept of the gene ever seemed to be something worth getting excited about in the first place as well analyzing and evaluating the latest develops in the molecular biology of DNA. Each of the preceding papers fails to do one of these and sufferrs the consequences. Where Rolston responds to the apparent (...)
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  31.  23
    Marco Solinas (2010). La svista di Darwin. Sulla rivoluzione della tradizione aristotelica. Chronos 29 (1):5-28.
  32.  40
    James G. Lennox (1994). Teleology by Another Name: A Reply to Ghiselin. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 9 (4):493-495.
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  33.  51
    Jonathan Lear, Technique and Final Cause in Psychoanalysis: Four Ways of Looking at One Moment.
    This paper argues that if one considers just a single clinical moment there may be no principled way to choose among different approaches to psychoanalytic technique. One must in addition take into account what Aristotle called the final cause of psychoanalysis, which this paper argues is freedom. However, freedom is itself an open-ended concept with many aspects that need to be explored and developed from a psychoanalytic perspective. This paper considers one analytic moment from the perspectives of the (...)
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  34. des Chene, Suárez on Propinquity and the Efficient Cause.
    In the Principles, Descartes declares that of the four Aristotelian causes, he will retain only one: the efficient. Though some natural philosophers argued on behalf of the final cause, and others held that form could be rehabilitated, the efficient cause was in fact the only one of the four to flourish in the new philosophy. Descartes’ claim would lead one to believe that he preserved the efficient cause—that here, at least, we find continuity. But it is (...)
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  35.  15
    José Antônio De C. R. De Souza (2008). The efficient and final causes of the spiritual power in the D. Friar Álvaro Pais' sigth. Anales Del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía 25:279-311.
    In this study, based in the main political works of D. Fr. Alvarus Pelagius O. Min. (c. 1270- c.1350) we analyze his conception on the origin or efficient cause of the spiritual power and, also, his thought about the finality or final cause of the mentioned power. Referring to the first topic, the Bishop of Silves wants principally refutes some Marsilius of Padua’s thesis contained in the Second Dictio of his Defensor Pacis, completely different of the theology (...)
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  36.  20
    John Peterson (2004). Are There Final Causes? Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 78:161-167.
    Construing all efficient causes as beginning and ceasing with their effects invites the dilemma that a given effect or event either always occurs or neveroccurs. One escapes the dilemma by distinguishing basic and subsidiary efficient causes, according temporal priority of causes to their effects in the case of theformer. In the case of human making and doing, where the two efficient causes belong to the same subject, the two are supplemented by a final cause whichserves to link or (...)
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  37.  5
    Stanley Salthe (2005). Energy and Semiotics: The Second Law and the Origin of Life. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 1 (1):128-145.
    After deconstructing the thermodynamic concepts of work and waste, I take up Howard Odum’s idea of energy quality, which tallies the overall amount of energy needed to be dissipated in order to accomplish some work of interest. This was developed from economic considerations that give obvious meaning to the work accomplished. But the energy quality idea can be used to import meaning more generally into Nature. It could be viewed as projecting meaning back from any marked work into preceding energy (...)
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  38.  1
    Stephen Asma (1996). Following Form and Function: A Philosophical Archeology of Life Science. Northwestern University Press.
    The concepts of form and function have traditionally been defined in terms of biology and then extended to other disciplines. Stephen T. Asma examines the various interpretations of form and function in science and philosophy, reflecting on the philosophical presuppositions underlying the work of Geoffroy, Cuvier, Darwin, and others. -/- In the continental tradition of Canguilhem and Foucault, Asma's treatment of the historical form/function dispute analyzes the complex interactions among ideologies, metaphysical commitments, and research programs. Following Form and Function is (...)
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  39. Claudia Vanney (2009). Epigénesis, evolucion Y ordenamiento Del cosmos. Una visióh desde la causa final. Studia Poliana 11:165-182.
    Polo’s causalistic explanations are compatible with the present paradigm of theoretical biology. Epigenetical processes and evolutionary processes can be explained if vital praxeis are understood as morphotelic co-causalities, since the formal cause in co-causality with the final cause is susceptible to formal amplification. Therefore, the final cause is resposible of promoting the endless morphogenesis of intracosmic formal causes. Within the unity of order of the universe a multitude of living species concur, whose difference is hierarchi. (...)
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  40.  3
    Nikola Regent (2011). Machiavelli: Empier, Virtù and the Final Downfall. History of Political Thought 32 (5):751-772.
    The paper examines two aspects of empire in Machiavelli's thought. First, Machiavelli's model of the empire-building state is analysed.Machiavelli's answer to a classical question of the best form of government is discussed, establishing (1) why Machiavelli prefers a republic to a principality, and (2) why he prefers the expansionistic model of the republic based on Rome over the non-expansionistic model based on Sparta and Venice. In both cases, it is argued, Machiavelli's choice is dictated by his understanding of greatness: the (...)
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  41.  1
    Bérengère Hurand (2006). La cause créatrice chez Anselme de Canterbury. Astérion 4.
    Cet article propose l’analyse de quelques chapitres du Monologion d’Anselme de Canterbury (1033-1109) qui traitent de la création ex nihilo. L’auteur y démontre que le Dieu créateur est une cause uniquement efficiente, et non matérielle, de sa création ; il n’y a donc pas de cause autre qu’efficiente au passage du non-être à l’être, le devenir n’a pas de cause matérielle. La création n’est pas un engendrement, ni l’action conjointe de deux principes (la puissance et la matière, (...)
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  42. Andrea Vestrucci (2013). Le Quattro Cause Della Tragedia. Meta 5 (1):150-178.
    This paper aims to analyze one of the highest achievements of humankind, the classical tragedy, via the application of the heuristic paradigm proposed by Aristotle in his Physics, the fourfold determination of the concept of cause. This scientific methodology – one of the most effective viatica for a comprehensive response to the question of the nature of an object – informs the inquiry into the universal nature of tragedy, its hypercomplexity and hence its ethical and human relevance. Firstly, the (...)
     
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  43.  8
    David Haig (2014). Fighting the Good Cause: Meaning, Purpose, Difference, and Choice. Biology and Philosophy 29 (5):675-697.
    Concepts of cause, choice, and information are closely related. A cause is a choice that can be held responsible. It is a difference that makes a difference. Information about past causes and their effects is a valuable commodity because it can be used to guide future choices. Information about criteria of choice is generated by choosing a subset from an ensemble for ‘reasons’ and has meaning for an interpreter when it is used to achieve an end. Natural selection (...)
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  44.  37
    Kathrin Koslicki (2015). The Causal Priority of Form in Aristotle. Studia Philosophica Estonica 7 (2):113.
    In various texts, Aristotle assigns priority to form, in its role as a principle and cause, over matter and the matter-form compound. Given the central role played by this claim in Aristotle's search for primary substance in the Metaphysics, it is important to understand what motivates him in locating the primary causal responsibility for a thing's being what it is with the form, rather than the matter. According to Met. Theta.8, actuality [ energeia / entelecheia ] in general is (...)
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  45.  29
    Myrna Gabbe (2012). Aristotle on the Starting-Point of Motion in the Soul. Phronesis 57 (4):358-379.
    Abstract In Eudemian Ethics 8.2, Aristotle posits god as the starting-point of non-rational desire (particularly for the naturally fortunate), thought, and deliberation. The questions that dominate the literature are: To what does `god' refer? Is it some divine-like entity in the soul that produces thoughts and desires or is it Aristotle's prime mover? And how does god operate as the starting-point of these activities? By providing a careful reconstruction of the context in which god is evoked, I argue against the (...)
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  46.  8
    Julia von Bodelschwingh (2011). Leibniz on Concurrence, Spontaneity, and Authorship. Modern Schoolman 88 (3/4):267-297.
    Leibniz holds that creatures require divine concurrence for all their actions, and that this concurrence is 'special,' that is, directed at the particular qualities of each action. This gives rise to two potential problems. The first is the problem of explaining why special concurrence does not make God a co-author of creaturely actions. Second, divine concurrence may seem incompatible with the central Leibnizian doctrine that substances must act spontaneously, or independently of other substances. Concurrence, in other words, may appear to (...)
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  47.  44
    Christopher Gauker (1990). How to Learn Language Like a Chimpanzee. Philosophical Psychology 4 (1):139-46.
    This paper develops the hypothesis that languages may be learned by means of a kind of cause-effect analysis. This hypothesis is developed through an examination of E. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh's research on the abilities of chimpanzees to learn to use symbols. Savage-Rumbaugh herself tends to conceive of her work as aiming to demonstrate that chimpanzees are able to learn the "referential function" of symbols. Thus the paper begins with a critique of this way of viewing the chimpanzee's achievements. The hypothesis (...)
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  48. Sukjae Lee, Leibniz on Spontaneity: A Sketch of Formal and Final Causation.
    According to a standard picture of Leibniz’s mature views on creaturely causation, Leibniz held what some interpreters have described as his ‘thesis of spontaneity’: “every non-initial, nonmiraculous state of every created substance has as a real cause some preceding state of that very substance.”2 Evidence for this thesis is abundantly available throughout Leibniz’s mature work and here are some prominent instances.
     
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  49. Uwe Meixner (2009). Three Indications for the Existence of God in Causal Metaphysics. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 66 (1):33 - 46.
    With the emergence of modern physics a conflict became apparent between the Principle of Sufficient Cause and the Principle of Physical Causal Closure. Though these principles are not logically incompatible, they could no longer be considered to be both true; one of them had to be false. The present paper makes use of this seldom noticed conflict to argue on the basis of considerations of comparative rationality for the truth of causal statements that have at least some degree of (...)
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  50.  7
    A. Upfal (2005). Jane Austen's Lifelong Health Problems and Final Illness: New Evidence Points to a Fatal Hodgkin's Disease and Excludes the Widely Accepted Addison's. Medical Humanities 31 (1):3-11.
    Next SectionJane Austen is typically described as having excellent health until the age of 40 and the onset of a mysterious and fatal illness, initially identified by Sir Zachary Cope in 1964 as Addison’s disease. Her biographers, deceived both by Cassandra Austen’s destruction of letters containing medical detail, and the cheerful high spirits of the existing letters, have seriously underestimated the extent to which illness affected Austen’s life. A medical history reveals that she was particularly susceptible to infection, and suffered (...)
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