Search results for 'formal logic' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Donald L. Hatcher (1999). Why Formal Logic is Essential for Critical Thinking. Informal Logic 19 (1).score: 246.0
    After critiquing the arguments against using formal logic to teach critical thinking, this paper argues that for theoretical, practical, and empirical reasons, instruction in the fundamentals of formal logic is essential for critical thinking, and so should be included in every class that purports to teach critical thinking.
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  2. Dragan Stoianovici (2010). Formal Logic Vs. Philosophical Argument. Argumentation 24 (1):125-133.score: 240.0
    The wider topic to which the content of this paper belongs is that of the relationship between formal logic and real argumentation. Of particular potential interest in this connection are held to be substantive arguments constructed by philosophers reputed equally as authorities in logical theory. A number of characteristics are tentatively indicated by the author as likely to be encountered in such arguments. The discussion centers afterwards, by way of specification, on a remarkable piece of argument quoted in (...)
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  3. Ralph H. Johnson (1999). The Relation Between Formal and Informal Logic. Argumentation 13 (3):265-274.score: 210.0
    The issue of the relationship between formal and informal logic depends strongly on how one understands these two designations. While there is very little disagreement about the nature of formal logic, the same is not true regarding informal logic, which is understood in various (often incompatible) ways by various thinkers. After reviewing some of the more prominent conceptions of informal logic, I will present my own, defend it and then show how informal logic, (...)
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  4. Lilian Bermejo-Luque (2009). Logic as (Normative) Inference Theory: Formal Vs. Non-Formal Theories of Inference Goodness. Informal Logic 28 (4):315-334.score: 204.0
    I defend a conception of Logic as normative for the sort of activities in which inferences super-vene, namely, reasoning and arguing. Toulmin’s criticism of formal logic will be our framework to shape the idea that in order to make sense of Logic as normative, we should con-ceive it as a discipline devoted to the layout of arguments, understood as the representations of the semantic, truth relevant, properties of the inferences that we make in arguing and reason-ing.
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  5. David Sherry (2006). Formal Logic for Informal Logicians. Informal Logic 26 (2):199-220.score: 198.0
    Classical logic yields counterintuitive results for numerous propositional argument forms. The usual alternatives (modal logic, relevance logic, etc.) generate counterintuitive results of their own. The counterintuitive results create problems—especially pedagogical problems—for informal logicians who wish to use formal logic to analyze ordinary argumentation. This paper presents a system, PL– (propositional logic minus the funny business), based on the idea that paradigmatic valid argument forms arise from justificatory or explanatory discourse. PL– avoids the pedagogical difficulties (...)
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  6. Jonathan P. Seldin (2000). On the Role of Implication in Formal Logic. Journal of Symbolic Logic 65 (3):1076-1114.score: 198.0
    Evidence is given that implication (and its special case, negation) carry the logical strength of a system of formal logic. This is done by proving normalization and cut elimination for a system based on combinatory logic or λ-calculus with logical constants for and, or, all, and exists, but with none for either implication or negation. The proof is strictly finitary, showing that this system is very weak. The results can be extended to a "classical" version of the (...)
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  7. Peter Smith (2003). An Introduction to Formal Logic. Cambridge University Press.score: 192.0
    Formal logic provides us with a powerful set of techniques for criticizing some arguments and showing others to be valid. These techniques are relevant to all of us with an interest in being skilful and accurate reasoners. In this highly accessible book, Peter Smith presents a guide to the fundamental aims and basic elements of formal logic. He introduces the reader to the languages of propositional and predicate logic, and then develops formal systems for (...)
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  8. Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen (2003). Games as Formal Tools Versus Games as Explanations in Logic and Science. Foundations of Science 8 (4):317-364.score: 192.0
    This paper addresses the theoretical notion of a game as it arisesacross scientific inquiries, exploring its uses as a technical andformal asset in logic and science versus an explanatory mechanism. Whilegames comprise a widely used method in a broad intellectual realm(including, but not limited to, philosophy, logic, mathematics,cognitive science, artificial intelligence, computation, linguistics,physics, economics), each discipline advocates its own methodology and aunified understanding is lacking. In the first part of this paper, anumber of game theories in formal (...)
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  9. Richard Bornat (2005). Proof and Disproof in Formal Logic: An Introduction for Programmers. New Yorkoxford University Press.score: 192.0
    Proof and Disproof in Formal Logic is a lively and entertaining introduction to formal logic providing an excellent insight into how a simple logic works. Formal logic allows you to check a logical claim without considering what the claim means. This highly abstracted idea is an essential and practical part of computer science. The idea of a formal system-a collection of rules and axioms, which define a universe of logical proofs-is what gives (...)
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  10. Arthur N. Prior (1962). Formal Logic. Oxford, Clarendon Press.score: 192.0
    This book was designed primarily as a textbook; though the author hopes that it will prove to be of interests to others beside logic students. Part I of this book covers the fundamentals of the subject the propositional calculus and the theory of quantification. Part II deals with the traditional formal logic and with the developments which have taken that as their starting-point. Part III deals with modal, three-valued, and extensional systems.
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  11. Richard C. Jeffrey (2004). Formal Logic: Its Scope and Limits. Hackett Pub..score: 192.0
    This brief paperback is designed for symbolic/formal logic courses. It features the tree method proof system developed by Jeffrey. The new edition contains many more examples and exercises and is reorganized for greater accessibility.
     
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  12. Arnold Vander Nat (2010). Simple Formal Logic: With Common-Sense Symbolic Techniques. Routledge.score: 192.0
    Perfect for students with no background in logic or philosophy, Simple Formal Logic provides a full system of logic adequate to handle everyday and philosophical reasoning. By keeping out artificial techniques that aren’t natural to our everyday thinking process, Simple Formal Logic trains students to think through formal logical arguments for themselves, ingraining in them the habits of sound reasoning. Simple Formal Logic features: a companion website with abundant exercise worksheets, study (...)
     
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  13. Paul Thom (2010). Three Conceptions of Formal Logic. Vivarium 48 (1-2):228-242.score: 186.0
    Aristotle's logical and metaphysical works contain elements of three distinct types of formal theory: an ontology, a theory of consequences, and a theory of reasoning. His formal ontology (unlike that of certain later thinkers) does not require all propositions of a given logical form to be true. His formal syllogistic (unlike medieval theories of consequences) was guided primarily by a conception of logic as a theory of reasoning; and his fragmentary theory of consequences exists merely as (...)
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  14. David Hitchcock (2000). Fallacies and Formal Logic in Aristotle. History and Philosophy of Logic 21 (3):207-221.score: 186.0
    The taxonomy and analysis of fallacies in Aristotle's Sophistical Refutations pre-date the formal logic of his Prior Analytics A4-6. Of the 64 fully described examples of ?sophistical refutations? which are fallacious because they are only apparently valid, 49 have the wrong number of premisses or the wrong form of premiss or conclusion for analysis by the Prior Analytics theory of the categorical syllogism. The rest Aristotle either frames so that they do not look like categorical syllogisms or analyses (...)
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  15. Thom Paul (2010). Three Conceptions of Formal Logic. Vivarium 48 (1-2):228-242.score: 186.0
    Aristotle's logical and metaphysical works contain elements of three distinct types of formal theory: an ontology, a theory of consequences, and a theory of reasoning. His formal ontology (unlike that of certain later thinkers) does not require all propositions of a given logical form to be true. His formal syllogistic (unlike medieval theories of consequences) was guided primarily by a conception of logic as a theory of reasoning; and his fragmentary theory of consequences exists merely as (...)
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  16. Jean-Yves Beziau (2008). What is “Formal Logic”? Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 13:9-22.score: 180.0
    Formal logic”, an expression created by Kant to characterize Aristotelian logic, has also been used as a name for modern logic, originated by Boole and Frege, which in many aspects differs radically from traditional logic. We shed light on this paradox by distinguishing in this paper five different meanings of the expression “formal logic”: (1) Formal reasoning according to the Aristotelian dichotomy of form and content, (2) Formal logic as a (...)
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  17. Frederick James Crosson (1962). Formal Logic and Formal Ontology in Husserl's Phenomenology. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 3 (4):259-269.score: 180.0
  18. Patrick Suppes, What is “Formal Logic”?score: 180.0
    Many people understand the expression “formal logic” as meaning modern mathematical logic by opposition to traditional logic before the revolution that happened in the second part of the 19th century with Boole, Frege and others. But in fact this expression was created by Kant (see Scholz 1931). Some people like to quote a excerpt of the preface of the second edition of the Critic of pure reason (1787), where Kant says that formal logic (...)
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  19. Varol Akman (1995). Book Review -- Hans Kamp and Uwe Reyle, From Discourse to Logic: Introduction to Model-Theoretic Semantics of Natural Language, Formal Logic and Discourse Representation Theory. [REVIEW] Philosophical Explorations.score: 180.0
    This is a review of From Discourse to Logic: Introduction to Model-theoretic Semantics of Natural Language, Formal Logic and Discourse Representation Theory, by Hans Kamp and Uwe Reyle, published by Kluwer Academic Publishers in 1993.
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  20. S. Summersbee & A. Walters (1963). Programming the Functions of Formal Logic. II. Multi-Valued Logics. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 4 (4):293-305.score: 180.0
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  21. Joseph J. Sikora (1965). Some Thomistic Reflections on the Foundations of Formal Logic. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 6 (1):1-38.score: 180.0
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  22. Kazumi Inoue (2014). Dialectical Contradictions and Classical Formal Logic. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (2):113-132.score: 180.0
    A dialectical contradiction can be appropriately described within the framework of classical formal logic. It is in harmony with the law of noncontradiction. According to our definition, two theories make up a dialectical contradiction if each of them is consistent and their union is inconsistent. It can happen that each of these two theories has an intended model. Plenty of examples are to be found in the history of science.
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  23. George Goe (1966). A Reconstruction of Formal Logic. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 7 (2):129-157.score: 180.0
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  24. Jennifer Faust (2007). Unreasonable Accommodations?: Waiving Formal Logic Requirements for Students with (Relevant) Disabilities. Teaching Philosophy 30 (4):357-381.score: 180.0
    Since formal logic courses are typically required in philosophy programs, students with certain cognitive disabilities are barred from pursuing philosophy degrees. Are philosophy programs (legally or morally) obligated to waive such requirements in the case of students with disabilities? A comparison is made between the formal logic requirement and the foreign language competency requirement, which leads to a discussion of what areas of study are essential to mastery of philosophy. Ultimately, it is concluded that at this (...)
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  25. A. D. Allen (1973). The Bootstrap From the Perspective of Formal Logic. Foundations of Physics 3 (4):473-475.score: 180.0
    The rules of formal logic favor the bootstrap over the fundamentalist interpretation of hadronic constituents.
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  26. George Goe (1970). Reconstructing Formal Logic: Further Developments and Considerations. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 11 (1):37-75.score: 180.0
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  27. S. Summersbee & A. Walters (1962). Programming the Functions of Formal Logic. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 3 (3):133-141.score: 180.0
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  28. Ryszard Maciołek (2008). Is Formal Logic a Kind of Ontology? Roczniki Filozoficzne 56 (1):191-219.score: 180.0
    This paper addresses the question of the relationship between the object of formal logic and the object of ontology. The history of logic and philosophy shows a kinship and overlapping between the two sciences. The analyses were conducted on the basis of three approaches to formal logic, i.e. Aristotle’s logic Rus­sell’s and Whitehead’s logic, and Leśniewski’s logic. At the same time, it sought to grasp its material and formal object. Now with (...)
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  29. Charles Morgan & Hughes LeBlanc (1983). Probabilistic Semantics for Formal Logic. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 24:161-180.score: 180.0
  30. Claudio Antonio Testi (2010). Analogy and Formal Logic. Studia Neoaristotelica 7 (1):3-27.score: 180.0
    Analogy and Formal Logic: from Leśniewski’s Ontology to Aquinas’ MetaphysicsIn this essay, an attempt is made to formalize the idea of analogy in a way which is as faithful as possible to Thomas Aquinas’ theory of analogy. To accomplish this, we must first present Aquinas’ theory of analogy as it appears in his main works; we then express the contents of Aquinas’ theory of analogy using Leśniewski’s Ontology, a symbolic language which is both rigorous and true to the (...)
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  31. Peter Smith, Formal Logic.score: 176.0
    ... and a reading knowledge of formal logical symbolism is essential too. (Philosophers often use bits of logical symbolism to clarify their arguments.) Because the artificial and simply formal languages of logic give us highly illuminating objects of comparison when we come thinking about how natural languages work. (Relevant to topics in ‘philosophical logic’ and the philosophy of language.) But mainly because it us the point of entry into the study of one of the major intellectual (...)
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  32. Paul Livingston (2010). Derrida and Formal Logic: Formalising the Undecidable. Derrida Today 3 (2):221-239.score: 174.0
    Derrida's key concepts or pseudo-concepts of différance, the trace, and the undecidable suggest analogies to some of the most significant results of formal, symbolic logic and metalogic. As early as 1970, Derrida himself pointed out an analogy between his use of ‘undecidable’ and Gödel's incompleteness theorems, which demonstrate the existence, in any sufficiently complex and consistent system, of propositions which cannot be proven or disproven (i.e., decided) within that system itself. More recently, Graham Priest has interpreted différance as (...)
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  33. David Miller, Word Games for Formal Logic.score: 174.0
    Some students in the humanities take fright when introduced to the formal manipulations characteristic of elementary sentential & predicate logic. One way to lessen the pain of initiation is to start with word games, of which Lewis Carroll’s Doublets (section 1) is a familiar example. The paper presents some other games that successively introduce more of the..
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  34. K. Ishii (2003). New Sequent Calculi for Visser's Formal Propositional Logic. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 49 (5):525.score: 174.0
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  35. John MacFarlane (2000). What Does It Mean to Say That Logic is Formal? Dissertation, University of Pittsburghscore: 168.0
    Much philosophy of logic is shaped, explicitly or implicitly, by the thought that logic is distinctively formal and abstracts from material content. The distinction between formal and material does not appear to coincide with the more familiar contrasts between a priori and empirical, necessary and contingent, analytic and synthetic—indeed, it is often invoked to explain these. Nor, it turns out, can it be explained by appeal to schematic inference patterns, syntactic rules, or grammar. What does it (...)
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  36. R. S. Y. Chi (1969/1984). Buddhist Formal Logic. Motilal Banarsidass.score: 168.0
    This work is primarily an interpretation of Indian Logic preserved in China.
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  37. R. M. Martin (1943). A Homogeneous System for Formal Logic. Journal of Symbolic Logic 8 (1):1-23.score: 168.0
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  38. Samuel D. Guttenplan (1997). The Languages of Logic: An Introduction to Formal Logic. Blackwell Publishers.score: 164.0
    Other new material includes a discussion of the truth tree method for both Sentential and Predicate logics, an account of alternative notations and the ...
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  39. David Phiroze Christensen (2004). Putting Logic in its Place: Formal Constraints on Rational Belief. Oxford University Press.score: 162.0
    What role, if any, does formal logic play in characterizing epistemically rational belief? Traditionally, belief is seen in a binary way - either one believes a proposition, or one doesn't. Given this picture, it is attractive to impose certain deductive constraints on rational belief: that one's beliefs be logically consistent, and that one believe the logical consequences of one's beliefs. A less popular picture sees belief as a graded phenomenon.
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  40. Jan Łukasiewicz (1957/1987). Aristotle's Syllogistic From the Standpoint of Modern Formal Logic. Garland Pub..score: 162.0
  41. Francine Abeles (2005). Lewis Carroll's Formal Logic. History and Philosophy of Logic 26 (1):33-46.score: 162.0
    Charles L. Dodgson's reputation as a significant figure in nineteenth-century logic was firmly established when the philosopher and historian of philosophy William Warren Bartley, III published Dodgson's ?lost? book of logic, Part II of Symbolic Logic, in 1977. Bartley's commentary and annotations confirm that Dodgson was a superb technical innovator. In this paper, I closely examine Dodgson's methods and their evolution in the two parts of Symbolic Logic to clarify and justify Bartley's claims. Then, using more (...)
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  42. Kirk Dallas Wilson (1978). Studies in the Formal Logic of Kant's Modal Functions of Judgment. Kant-Studien 69 (1-4):252-272.score: 162.0
  43. L. H. Hackstaff (1967). Systems of Formal Logic. Dordrecht, D. Reidel.score: 162.0
    CHAPTER INTRODUCTION: SOME CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS Arguments and Argument Forms Argumentation takes place whenever reasons are offered to support some ...
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  44. Albert A. Bennett (1939). Formal Logic. New York, Prentice-Hall, Inc..score: 162.0
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  45. Józef M. Bocheński (1951). Ancient Formal Logic. Amsterdam, North-Holland Pub. Co..score: 162.0
     
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  46. Joseph M. Bochenski (1951). Ancient Formal Logic. Amsterdam, North-Holland Pub. Co..score: 162.0
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  47. Józef M. Bocheński (1970). A History of Formal Logic. New York,Chelsea Pub. Co..score: 162.0
  48. Józef M. Bocheński (1961). A History of Formal Logic. Notre Dame, Ind.,University of Notre Dame Press.score: 162.0
  49. John Cleveland Cooley (1942). A Primer of Formal Logic. New York, the Macmillan Company.score: 162.0
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  50. Joseph Dopp (1960). Formal Logic. New York, J. F. Wagner.score: 162.0
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