Search results for 'formal logic' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  22
    Donald L. Hatcher (1999). Why Formal Logic is Essential for Critical Thinking. Informal Logic 19 (1).
    After critiquing the arguments against using formal logic to teach critical thinking, this paper argues that for theoretical, practical, and empirical reasons, instruction in the fundamentals of formal logic is essential for critical thinking, and so should be included in every class that purports to teach critical thinking.
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  2.  10
    Brian Macpherson (2016). Overcoming Instructor‐Originated Math Anxiety in Philosophy Students: A Consideration of Proven Techniques for Students Taking Formal Logic. Metaphilosophy 47 (1):122-146.
    Every university student has his or her nemesis. Biology and social science students anticipate with great apprehension their required statistics course, while many philosophy students live in fear of formal logic. Math anxiety is the common thread uniting all of them. This article argues that since formal logic is an algebra requiring similar kinds of symbol-manipulation skills needed to succeed in a basic mathematics course, then if logic students have math anxiety, this can impede their (...)
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  3.  7
    Aneta Markoska-Cubrinovska (forthcoming). Possible Worlds in “The Craft of Formal Logic”. Synthese:1-13.
    “The Craft of Formal Logic” is Arthur Prior’s unpublished textbook, written in 1950–51, in which he developed a theory of modality as quantification over possible worlds-like objects. This theory predates most of the prominent pioneering texts in possible worlds semantics and anticipates the significance of its basic concept in modal logic. Prior explicitly defines modal operators as quantifiers of ‘entities’ with modal character. Although he talks about these ‘entities’ only informally, and hesitates how to name them, using (...)
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  4.  8
    Dragan Stoianovici (2010). Formal Logic Vs. Philosophical Argument. Argumentation 24 (1):125-133.
    The wider topic to which the content of this paper belongs is that of the relationship between formal logic and real argumentation. Of particular potential interest in this connection are held to be substantive arguments constructed by philosophers reputed equally as authorities in logical theory. A number of characteristics are tentatively indicated by the author as likely to be encountered in such arguments. The discussion centers afterwards, by way of specification, on a remarkable piece of argument quoted in (...)
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  5.  55
    Ralph H. Johnson (1999). The Relation Between Formal and Informal Logic. Argumentation 13 (3):265-274.
    The issue of the relationship between formal and informal logic depends strongly on how one understands these two designations. While there is very little disagreement about the nature of formal logic, the same is not true regarding informal logic, which is understood in various (often incompatible) ways by various thinkers. After reviewing some of the more prominent conceptions of informal logic, I will present my own, defend it and then show how informal logic, (...)
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  6.  27
    Richard C. Jeffrey (2004). Formal Logic: Its Scope and Limits. Hackett Pub..
    This brief paperback is designed for symbolic/formal logic courses. It features the tree method proof system developed by Jeffrey. The new edition contains many more examples and exercises and is reorganized for greater accessibility.
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  7.  22
    Lilian Bermejo-Luque (2009). Logic as (Normative) Inference Theory: Formal Vs. Non-Formal Theories of Inference Goodness. Informal Logic 28 (4):315-334.
    I defend a conception of Logic as normative for the sort of activities in which inferences super-vene, namely, reasoning and arguing. Toulmin’s criticism of formal logic will be our framework to shape the idea that in order to make sense of Logic as normative, we should con-ceive it as a discipline devoted to the layout of arguments, understood as the representations of the semantic, truth relevant, properties of the inferences that we make in arguing and reason-ing.
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  8.  60
    David Sherry (2006). Formal Logic for Informal Logicians. Informal Logic 26 (2):199-220.
    Classical logic yields counterintuitive results for numerous propositional argument forms. The usual alternatives (modal logic, relevance logic, etc.) generate counterintuitive results of their own. The counterintuitive results create problems—especially pedagogical problems—for informal logicians who wish to use formal logic to analyze ordinary argumentation. This paper presents a system, PL– (propositional logic minus the funny business), based on the idea that paradigmatic valid argument forms arise from justificatory or explanatory discourse. PL– avoids the pedagogical difficulties (...)
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  9.  86
    Peter Smith (2003). An Introduction to Formal Logic. Cambridge University Press.
    Formal logic provides us with a powerful set of techniques for criticizing some arguments and showing others to be valid. These techniques are relevant to all of us with an interest in being skilful and accurate reasoners. In this highly accessible book, Peter Smith presents a guide to the fundamental aims and basic elements of formal logic. He introduces the reader to the languages of propositional and predicate logic, and then develops formal systems for (...)
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  10.  24
    Jonathan P. Seldin (2000). On the Role of Implication in Formal Logic. Journal of Symbolic Logic 65 (3):1076-1114.
    Evidence is given that implication (and its special case, negation) carry the logical strength of a system of formal logic. This is done by proving normalization and cut elimination for a system based on combinatory logic or λ-calculus with logical constants for and, or, all, and exists, but with none for either implication or negation. The proof is strictly finitary, showing that this system is very weak. The results can be extended to a "classical" version of the (...)
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  11.  1
    Marcelo E. Coniglio, Francesc Esteva & Lluís Godo (2014). Logics of Formal Inconsistency Arising From Systems of Fuzzy Logic. Logic Journal of the IGPL 22 (6):880-904.
    This article proposes the meeting of fuzzy logic with paraconsistency in a very precise and foundational way. Specifically, in this article we introduce expansions of the fuzzy logic MTL by means of primitive operators for consistency and inconsistency in the style of the so-called Logics of Formal Inconsistency (LFIs). The main novelty of the present approach is the definition of postulates for this type of operators over MTL-algebras, leading to the definition and axiomatization of a family of (...)
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  12.  3
    K. Ishii (2003). New Sequent Calculi for Visser's Formal Propositional Logic. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 49 (5):525.
    Two cut-free sequent calculi which are conservative extensions of Visser's Formal Propositional Logic are introduced. These satisfy a kind of subformula property and by this property the interpolation theorem for FPL are proved. These are analogies to Aghaei-Ardeshir's calculi for Visser's Basic Propositional Logic.
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  13.  34
    Arthur N. Prior (1962). Formal Logic. Oxford, Clarendon Press.
    This book was designed primarily as a textbook; though the author hopes that it will prove to be of interests to others beside logic students. Part I of this book covers the fundamentals of the subject the propositional calculus and the theory of quantification. Part II deals with the traditional formal logic and with the developments which have taken that as their starting-point. Part III deals with modal, three-valued, and extensional systems.
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  14.  21
    Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen (2003). Games as Formal Tools Versus Games as Explanations in Logic and Science. Foundations of Science 8 (4):317-364.
    This paper addresses the theoretical notion of a game as it arisesacross scientific inquiries, exploring its uses as a technical andformal asset in logic and science versus an explanatory mechanism. Whilegames comprise a widely used method in a broad intellectual realm(including, but not limited to, philosophy, logic, mathematics,cognitive science, artificial intelligence, computation, linguistics,physics, economics), each discipline advocates its own methodology and aunified understanding is lacking. In the first part of this paper, anumber of game theories in formal (...)
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  15.  13
    Richard Bornat (2005). Proof and Disproof in Formal Logic: An Introduction for Programmers. New Yorkoxford University Press.
    Proof and Disproof in Formal Logic is a lively and entertaining introduction to formal logic providing an excellent insight into how a simple logic works. Formal logic allows you to check a logical claim without considering what the claim means. This highly abstracted idea is an essential and practical part of computer science. The idea of a formal system-a collection of rules and axioms, which define a universe of logical proofs-is what gives (...)
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  16.  94
    David Christensen (2004). Putting Logic in its Place: Formal Constraints on Rational Belief. Oxford University Press.
    What role, if any, does formal logic play in characterizing epistemically rational belief? Traditionally, belief is seen in a binary way - either one believes a proposition, or one doesn't. Given this picture, it is attractive to impose certain deductive constraints on rational belief: that one's beliefs be logically consistent, and that one believe the logical consequences of one's beliefs. A less popular picture sees belief as a graded phenomenon.
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  17.  36
    Samuel D. Guttenplan (1997). The Languages of Logic: An Introduction to Formal Logic. Blackwell Publishers.
    With the same intellectual goals as the first edition, this innovative introductory logic textbook explores the relationship between natural language and logic, motivating the student to acquire skills and techniques of formal logic. This new and revised edition includes substantial additions which make the text even more useful to students and instructors alike. Central to these changes is an Appendix, 'How to Learn Logic', which takes the student through fourteen compact and sharply directed lessons with (...)
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  18. Arnold Vander Nat (2010). Simple Formal Logic: With Common-Sense Symbolic Techniques. Routledge.
    Perfect for students with no background in logic or philosophy, Simple Formal Logic provides a full system of logic adequate to handle everyday and philosophical reasoning. By keeping out artificial techniques that aren’t natural to our everyday thinking process, Simple Formal Logic trains students to think through formal logical arguments for themselves, ingraining in them the habits of sound reasoning. Simple Formal Logic features: a companion website with abundant exercise worksheets, study (...)
     
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  19.  14
    Anssi Korhonen (2015). Other Logics: Alternatives to Formal Logic in the History of Thought and Contemporary Philosophy. History and Philosophy of Logic 36 (2):190-194.
    This is a review of A. Skodo (ed.) "Other Logics: Alternatives to Formal Logic in the History of Thought and Contemporary Philosophy".
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  20. Joke Meheus & Diderik Batens (2006). A Formal Logic for Abductive Reasoning. Logic Journal of the IGPL 14 (2):221-236.
    This paper presents and illustrates a formal logic for the abduction of singular hypotheses. The logic has a semantics and a dynamic proof theory that is sound and complete with respect to the semantics. The logic presupposes that, with respect to a specific application, the set of explananda and the set of possible explanantia are disjoint . Where an explanandum can be explained by different explanantia, the logic allows only for the abduction of their disjunction.
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  21.  62
    Paul Thom (2010). Three Conceptions of Formal Logic. Vivarium 48 (1-2):228-242.
    Aristotle's logical and metaphysical works contain elements of three distinct types of formal theory: an ontology, a theory of consequences, and a theory of reasoning. His formal ontology (unlike that of certain later thinkers) does not require all propositions of a given logical form to be true. His formal syllogistic (unlike medieval theories of consequences) was guided primarily by a conception of logic as a theory of reasoning; and his fragmentary theory of consequences exists merely as (...)
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  22.  42
    David Hitchcock (2000). Fallacies and Formal Logic in Aristotle. History and Philosophy of Logic 21 (3):207-221.
    The taxonomy and analysis of fallacies in Aristotle's Sophistical Refutations pre-date the formal logic of his Prior Analytics A4-6. Of the 64 fully described examples of ?sophistical refutations? which are fallacious because they are only apparently valid, 49 have the wrong number of premisses or the wrong form of premiss or conclusion for analysis by the Prior Analytics theory of the categorical syllogism. The rest Aristotle either frames so that they do not look like categorical syllogisms or analyses (...)
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  23.  21
    Thom Paul (2010). Three Conceptions of Formal Logic. Vivarium 48 (1-2):228-242.
    Aristotle's logical and metaphysical works contain elements of three distinct types of formal theory: an ontology, a theory of consequences, and a theory of reasoning. His formal ontology (unlike that of certain later thinkers) does not require all propositions of a given logical form to be true. His formal syllogistic (unlike medieval theories of consequences) was guided primarily by a conception of logic as a theory of reasoning; and his fragmentary theory of consequences exists merely as (...)
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  24.  91
    Inoue Kazumi (2014). Dialectical Contradictions and Classical Formal Logic. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (2):113-132.
    A dialectical contradiction can be appropriately described within the framework of classical formal logic. It is in harmony with the law of noncontradiction. According to our definition, two theories make up a dialectical contradiction if each of them is consistent and their union is inconsistent. It can happen that each of these two theories has an intended model. Plenty of examples are to be found in the history of science.
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  25. Jean-Yves Beziau (2008). What is “Formal Logic”? Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 13:9-22.
    Formal logic”, an expression created by Kant to characterize Aristotelian logic, has also been used as a name for modern logic, originated by Boole and Frege, which in many aspects differs radically from traditional logic. We shed light on this paradox by distinguishing in this paper five different meanings of the expression “formal logic”: (1) Formal reasoning according to the Aristotelian dichotomy of form and content, (2) Formal logic as a (...)
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  26.  21
    Claudio Antonio Testi (2010). Analogy and Formal Logic. Studia Neoaristotelica 7 (1):3-27.
    Analogy and Formal Logic: from Leśniewski’s Ontology to Aquinas’ MetaphysicsIn this essay, an attempt is made to formalize the idea of analogy in a way which is as faithful as possible to Thomas Aquinas’ theory of analogy. To accomplish this, we must first present Aquinas’ theory of analogy as it appears in his main works; we then express the contents of Aquinas’ theory of analogy using Leśniewski’s Ontology, a symbolic language which is both rigorous and true to the (...)
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  27.  54
    Patrick Suppes, What is “Formal Logic”?
    Many people understand the expression “formal logic” as meaning modern mathematical logic by opposition to traditional logic before the revolution that happened in the second part of the 19th century with Boole, Frege and others. But in fact this expression was created by Kant. Some people like to quote a excerpt of the preface of the second edition of the Critic of pure reason, where Kant says that formal logic is a finished and closed (...)
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  28. Charles Morgan & Hughes LeBlanc (1983). Probabilistic Semantics for Formal Logic. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 24:161-180.
  29.  16
    A. D. Allen (1973). The Bootstrap From the Perspective of Formal Logic. Foundations of Physics 3 (4):473-475.
    The rules of formal logic favor the bootstrap over the fundamentalist interpretation of hadronic constituents.
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  30. Ryszard Maciołek (2008). Is Formal Logic a Kind of Ontology? Roczniki Filozoficzne 56 (1):191-219.
    This paper addresses the question of the relationship between the object of formal logic and the object of ontology. The history of logic and philosophy shows a kinship and overlapping between the two sciences. The analyses were conducted on the basis of three approaches to formal logic, i.e. Aristotle’s logic Rus­sell’s and Whitehead’s logic, and Leśniewski’s logic. At the same time, it sought to grasp its material and formal object. Now with (...)
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  31.  33
    Frederick James Crosson (1962). Formal Logic and Formal Ontology in Husserl's Phenomenology. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 3 (4):259-269.
  32. Val Plumwood, Carroll Guen Hart, Dorothea Olkowski, Marie-Genevieve Iselin, Lynn Hankinson Nelson, Jack Nelson, Andrea Nye & Pam Oliver (2002). Representing Reason: Feminist Theory and Formal Logic. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Philosophy's traditional "man of reason"—independent, neutral, unemotional—is an illusion. That's because the "man of reason" ignores one very important thing—the woman. Representing Reason: Feminist Theory and Formal Logic collects new and old essays that shed light on the underexplored intersection of logic and feminism.
     
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  33.  9
    S. Summersbee & A. Walters (1963). Programming the Functions of Formal Logic. II. Multi-Valued Logics. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 4 (4):293-305.
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  34.  8
    George Goe (1966). A Reconstruction of Formal Logic. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 7 (2):129-157.
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  35.  6
    Ma Pei (1970). On the Object and the Objective Foundation of Formal Logic (A Discussion with Comrade Wang Fang-Ming). Contemporary Chinese Thought 1 (2):164-194.
    In the "Discussion" column of Teaching and Research, 1957, Nos. 1-5, Comrade Wang Fang-ming successively contributed five articles: "Concerning 'Preliminary Laws and Forms of Correct Thought,'" "On the State of Relative Stability and Qualitative Specificity of Objective Entities," and others. In these articles he discusses a series of problems on formal logic and makes some critical comments on some popular current views in studies of logic. In the No. 6 issue of the same journal, Comrade Wang also (...)
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  36.  25
    Varol Akman (1995). Book Review -- Hans Kamp and Uwe Reyle, From Discourse to Logic: Introduction to Model-Theoretic Semantics of Natural Language, Formal Logic and Discourse Representation Theory. [REVIEW] Philosophical Explorations.
    This is a review of From Discourse to Logic: Introduction to Model-theoretic Semantics of Natural Language, Formal Logic and Discourse Representation Theory, by Hans Kamp and Uwe Reyle, published by Kluwer Academic Publishers in 1993.
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  37.  4
    Dennis Temple (1976). Some Linguistic Puzzles Related to Formal Logic. Dialectica 30 (2‐3):111-116.
    Summary“There are some types of reasoning which are acceptable in a given situation but not justifiable according to the rules of formal logic. This sort of reasoning seems to depend on a judgment about what the speaker knows along with an Assumption of Maximum Information, that if the speaker is serious he is making the logically strongest statement he knows to be true. Because such reasoning can be informally correct, formal logic should be understood as establishing (...)
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  38.  8
    Wang Fang-Hsiang (1970). Dialectical Logic has Broken the Narrow Confines of Formal Logic (A Discussion with Comrade Chu-Ko Yin-T'ung on "Can the Law of Contradiction Be Contravened?"). Contemporary Chinese Thought 1 (2):203-212.
    In connection with the discussion on the problem of logic, both within our country and abroad , it has already turned from the general, comparatively abstract, and difficult-to-resolve problem of the "relationship between formal logic and dialectics" to the more concrete problem of the functional scope of formal logic. Some people have even utilized special articles to inquire about a certain law in formal logic: the functional scope of the law of identity or (...)
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  39.  12
    Jennifer Faust (2007). Unreasonable Accommodations?: Waiving Formal Logic Requirements for Students with (Relevant) Disabilities. Teaching Philosophy 30 (4):357-381.
    Since formal logic courses are typically required in philosophy programs, students with certain cognitive disabilities are barred from pursuing philosophy degrees. Are philosophy programs (legally or morally) obligated to waive such requirements in the case of students with disabilities? A comparison is made between the formal logic requirement and the foreign language competency requirement, which leads to a discussion of what areas of study are essential to mastery of philosophy. Ultimately, it is concluded that at this (...)
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  40.  3
    Ma P'ei (1969). Discussion with Mr. Chou Ku-Ch'eng Concerning Formal Logic and Dialectics. Contemporary Chinese Thought 1 (1):43-54.
    Recently I have read in succession the four articles on formal logic and dialectics in the current year's Hsin chien-she: Mr. Chou Ku-ch'eng's "Formal Logic and Dialectics" in the second issue, Mr. I Chih's "A Criticism of Confused Concepts on Problems of Logic" in the fourth issue, Mr. Shen Ping-yuan's "A Discussion of ‘Formal Logic and Dialectics,’ " and Mr. Chou Ku-ch'eng's "Further Discourse on Formal Logic and Dialectics," both in the (...)
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  41.  11
    Joseph J. Sikora (1965). Some Thomistic Reflections on the Foundations of Formal Logic. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 6 (1):1-38.
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  42.  3
    A. A. Vetrov (1964). Mathematical Logic and Modern Formal Logic. Russian Studies in Philosophy 3 (1):24-33.
    In dealing with the problem of the interrelations between mathematical logic and formal logic, we must first of all make clear just what mathematical logic is. In our opinion, the concept "mathematical logic" is employed in two different senses in mathematical and logical literature. A successful approach to our problem necessitates a clear differentiation between these two senses. Therefore we shall speak hereafter not of mathematical logic in general, but of mathematical logic in (...)
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  43.  2
    P. V. Tavanets (1963). Formal Logic and Philosophy. Russian Studies in Philosophy 2 (1):3-9.
    The problem of the relationship between formal logic and philosophy, which arose when formal logic arose, continues to concern both Soviet and foreign philosophers and logicians. Interest in this problem is traceable to a number of factors, among which, it should be noted at the outset, is the appearance of dialectical, logic. With the emergence of dialectical logic, the question of the relationship of formal logic to philosophy is posed anew. No matter (...)
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  44.  1
    Ni Dingfu (1981). The Principle of Sufficient Reason and the Development of Formal Logic. Contemporary Chinese Thought 12 (3):16-28.
    Whether or not the principle of sufficient reason is a fundamental rule of formal logic is a question that merits serious discussion. In debates from as early as the 1960s, when discussing the subject and functions of formal logic, some comrades pointed out that formal logic cannot study just the forms of thought alone. One of their basic arguments was that "the principle of sufficient reason demands that the content of a premise must be (...)
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  45.  1
    Dale Jacquette, On the Relation of Informal to Formal Logic.
    The distinction between formal and informal logic is clarified as a prelude to considering their ideal relation. Aristotle's syllogistic describes forms of valid inference, and is in that sense a formal logic. Yet the square of opposition and rules of middle term distribution of positive or negative propositions in an argument's premises and conclusion are standardly received as devices of so-called informal logic and critical reasoning. I propose a more exact criterion for distinguishing between (...) and informal logic, and then defend a model for fruitful interaction between informal and formal methods of investigating and critically assessing the logic of arguments. (shrink)
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  46.  1
    Chang P'ei (1978). In the Final Analysis, Who "Has Violated Even Formal Logic"? Contemporary Chinese Thought 10 (1):34-43.
    With a vaulting ambition to usurp Party power, the "Gang of Four" has audaciously opposed Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tsetung Thought. Lacking truth in their allegations, they have been compelled to invoke sophistry. Their sophistry runs counter to materialist dialectics and even formal logic. Alien class element Yao Wen-yuan used to accuse others of "violating even formal logic," but it is the "Gang of Four" that ignores the definiteness and distinctiveness of thinking, says black is white, and tramples on (...)
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  47.  6
    I. Ping (1969). Formal Logic and Objective Truth — on the Correctness of Thought Form and the Truthfulness of Thought Content. Contemporary Chinese Thought 1 (1):89-98.
    As we all know, metaphysics and objective truth are basically antagonistic, while dialectical materialism and objective truth are uniform. This is the common sense of Marxist philosophy and needs no argument. What, then, is the relationship between formal logic as a science and objective truth? This involves the problem of the correctness of thought form and the truthfulness of thought content. As shown, this problem is still an unsettled dispute in philosophy and logic circles. There are two (...)
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  48.  2
    Ch'iu Shih (1969). Concerning "Preliminary Laws and Forms of Correct Thought" — A Query on the Scientific Object of Formal Logic. Contemporary Chinese Thought 1 (1):76-88.
    Formal logic is an antiquated science, but there have been no convincing solutions of such theoretical problems as its scientific object and its scientific character. The political report of the Eighth National Party Congress has called on us "to engage in the study of the basic theories of Marxism-Leninism and of the scientific sectors closely related to Marxism-Leninism." Since there is a consensus that formal logic is a discipline that is closely related to the philosophy of (...)
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  49.  5
    Ni Dingfu (1982). The Development of the Law of Sufficient Reason and Formal Logic. Contemporary Chinese Thought 13 (4):66-78.
    Whether or not the law of sufficient reason is a basic law of formal logic is a question that merits in-depth discussion. Back in the 1960s, when discussion was held on the object and function of formal logic, some comrades were of the opinion that formal logic should not be confined to the study of the form of thinking. One of their arguments was "the law of sufficient reason requires that the contents of the (...)
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  50.  4
    Chou Ku-Ch'eng (1969). Formal Logic and Dialectics. Contemporary Chinese Thought 1 (1):5-20.
    I. Formal logic and metaphysics are not the same. Metaphysics asserts certain propositions [chu-chang] about things; formal logic differs in that it does not assert any proposition about any specific thing. It is precisely because formal logic asserts no propositions about things that it can serve metaphysics. For example, according to metaphysics, "All men die." Since formal logic asserts nothing about this, it can deduce a valid syllogism based on it, such as: (...)
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