Search results for 'formalized knolwledge' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Jonathan Birch (2014). Has Grafen Formalized Darwin? Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):175-180.score: 12.0
    One key aim of Grafen’s Formal Darwinism project is to formalize ‘modern biology’s understanding and updating of Darwin’s central argument’. In this commentary, I consider whether Grafen has succeeded in this aim.
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  2. P. Clote, P. Hájek & J. Paris (1990). On Some Formalized Conservation Results in Arithmetic. Archive for Mathematical Logic 30 (4):201-218.score: 12.0
    IΣ n andBΣ n are well known fragments of first-order arithmetic with induction and collection forΣ n formulas respectively;IΣ n 0 andBΣ n 0 are their second-order counterparts. RCA0 is the well known fragment of second-order arithmetic with recursive comprehension;WKL 0 isRCA 0 plus weak König's lemma. We first strengthen Harrington's conservation result by showing thatWKL 0 +BΣ n 0 is Π 1 1 -conservative overRCA 0 +BΣ n 0 . Then we develop some model theory inWKL 0 and illustrate (...)
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  3. Edward Nieznański (2013). The First Formalized Proof of the Indestructibility of a Subsistent Form. Studies in East European Thought 65 (1-2):65-73.score: 12.0
    The article presents a formalization of Thomas Aquinas proof for the indestructibility of the human soul. The author of the formalization—the first of its kind in the history of philosophy—is Father Joseph Maria Bocheński. The presentation involves no more than updating the logical symbolism used and accompanies the logical formulae with ordinary language paraphrases in order to ease the reader’s understanding of the formulae. “The fundamental idea of the Thomist proof is of utmost simplicity: things which are destructible are destructible (...)
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  4. Harvey Friedman, Can Mathematics Be Formalized?score: 10.0
    It has been accepted since the early part of the Century that there is no problem formalizing mathematics in standard formal systems of axiomatic set theory. Most people feel that they know as much as they ever want to know about how one can reduce natural numbers, integers, rationals, reals, and complex numbers to sets, and prove all of their basic properties. Furthermore, that this can continue through more and more complicated material, and that there is never a real problem.
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  5. Charles F. Kielkopf (1995). ‘Surveyablity’ Should Not Be Formalized. Philosophia Mathematica 3 (2):175-178.score: 10.0
    There is a review of how Mark Addis has made a case that it would require great effort for scant philosophical profit to formalize a notion of surveyability as a metamathematical predicate demarcating strict finitistic mathematics. It is then suggested how the notion of surveyability is useful in informal philosophizing about mathematics.
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  6. Nneka Mokwunye, Virginia Brown, John Lynch & Evan DeRenzo (2010). Hiring a Hospital Staff Clinical Ethicist: Creating a Formalized Behavioral Interview Model. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 22 (1):51-63.score: 10.0
    This paper presents the behavioral interview model that we developed to formalize our hiring practices when we, most recently, needed to hire a new clinical ethicist to join our staff at the Center for Ethics at Washington Hospital Center.
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  7. Lars Hansen (2004). Formalized Token Models and Duality in Semantics: An Algebraic Approach. Journal of Symbolic Logic 69 (2):443 - 477.score: 10.0
    Employing the theory of Birkhoff polarities as a model of model theory yields an inductively defined dual structure which is a formalization of semantics and which allows for simple proofs of some new results for model theory.
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  8. Martin J. Pickering & Nick Chater (1995). Why Cognitive Science is Not Formalized Folk Psychology. Minds and Machines 5 (3):309-337.score: 9.0
    It is often assumed that cognitive science is built upon folk psychology, and that challenges to folk psychology are therefore challenges to cognitive science itself. We argue that, in practice, cognitive science and folk psychology treat entirely non-overlapping domains: cognitive science considers aspects of mental life which do not depend on general knowledge, whereas folk psychology considers aspects of mental life which do depend on general knowledge. We back up our argument on theoretical grounds, and also illustrate the separation between (...)
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  9. G. Kreisel (1953). The Diagonal Method in Formalized Arithmetic. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 3 (12):364-374.score: 9.0
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  10. Francisco Antonio Doria (2007). Informal Versus Formal Mathematics. Synthese 154 (3):401 - 415.score: 9.0
    We discuss Kunen’s algorithmic implementation of a proof for the Paris–Harrington theorem, and the author’s and da Costa’s proposed “exotic” formulation for the P = NP hypothesis. Out of those two examples we ponder the relation between mathematics within an axiomatic framework, and intuitive or informal mathematics.
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  11. Solomon Feferman (1957). Degrees of Unsolvability Associated with Classes of Formalized Theories. Journal of Symbolic Logic 22 (2):161-175.score: 9.0
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  12. Tadeusz Kubiński (1965). Two Kinds of Quotation Mark Expressions in Formalized Languages. Studia Logica 17 (1):31 - 51.score: 9.0
  13. Alfred Tarski (1936/1956). The Concept of Truth in Formalized Languages. In A. Tarski (ed.), Logic, Semantics, Metamathematics. Oxford University Press. 152--278.score: 9.0
  14. Jerzy Łoś (1963). Semantic Representation of the Probability of Formulas in Formalized Theories. Studia Logica 14 (1):183 - 196.score: 9.0
  15. W. A. Verloren van Themaat (1962). Formalized and Artificial Languages. Synthese 14 (4):320-326.score: 9.0
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  16. L. Gumański (1969). Remarks on Formalized Proof and Consequence. Studia Logica 25 (1):158-158.score: 9.0
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  17. Andrzej Mostowski (1952/1982). Sentences Undecidable in Formalized Arithmetic: An Exposition of the Theory of Kurt Gödel. Greenwood Press.score: 9.0
     
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  18. Robert Rogers (1971). Mathematical Logic and Formalized Theories. Amsterdam,North-Holland Pub. Co..score: 9.0
     
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  19. Iannis Xenakis (1971). Formalized Music. Bloomington,Indiana University Press.score: 9.0
     
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  20. James Griesemer (2013). Formalization and the Meaning of “Theory” in the Inexact Biological Sciences. Biological Theory 7 (4):298-310.score: 8.0
    Exact sciences are described as sciences whose theories are formalized. These are contrasted to inexact sciences, whose theories are not formalized. Formalization is described as a broader category than mathematization, involving any form/content distinction allowing forms, e.g., as represented in theoretical models, to be studied independently of the empirical content of a subject-matter domain. Exactness is a practice depending on the use of theories to control subject-matter domains and to align theoretical with empirical models and not merely a (...)
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  21. Giovanni Boniolo & Silvio Valentini (2012). Objects: A Study in Kantian Formal Epistemology. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 53 (4):457-478.score: 7.0
    We propose a formal representation of objects , those being mathematical or empirical objects. The powerful framework inside which we represent them in a unique and coherent way is grounded, on the formal side, in a logical approach with a direct mathematical semantics in the well-established field of constructive topology, and, on the philosophical side, in a neo-Kantian perspective emphasizing the knowing subject’s role, which is constructive for the mathematical objects and constitutive for the empirical ones.
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  22. Sarah Moss (2013). Epistemology Formalized. Philosophical Review 122 (1):1-43.score: 6.0
    This paper argues that just as full beliefs can constitute knowledge, so can properties of your credence distribution. The resulting notion of probabilistic knowledge helps us give a natural account of knowledge ascriptions embedding language of subjective uncertainty, and a simple diagnosis of probabilistic analogs of Gettier cases. Just like propositional knowledge, probabilistic knowledge is factive, safe, and sensitive. And it helps us build knowledge-based norms of action without accepting implausible semantic assumptions or endorsing the claim that knowledge is interest-relative.
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  23. Horacio Banega (2012). Formal Ontology as an Operative Tool in the Theories of Objecs of the Life-World: Stumpf, Husserl and Ingarden. Symposium 16 (2):64-88.score: 6.0
    Formal ontology as it is presented in Husserl`s Third Logical Investigation can be interpreted as a fundamental tool to describe objects in a formal sense. It is presented one of the main sources: chapter five of Carl Stumpf`s Ûber den psycholoogischen Ursprung der Raumovorstellung (1873), and then it is described how Husserlian Formal Ontology is applied in Fifth Logical Investigation. Finally, it is applied to dramatic structures, in the spirit of Roman Ingarden.
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  24. John-Michael M. Kuczynski (2006). Formal Operations and Simulated Thought. Philosophical Explorations 9 (2):221-234.score: 6.0
    A series of representations must be semantics-driven if the members of that series are to combine into a single thought. Where semantics is not operative, there is at most a series of disjoint representations that add up to nothing true or false, and therefore do not constitute a thought at all. There is necessarily a gulf between simulating thought, on the one hand, and actually thinking, on the other. A related point is that a popular doctrine - the so-called 'computational (...)
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  25. Michael Baumgartner & Timm Lampert (2008). Adequate Formalization. Synthese 164 (1):93-115.score: 6.0
    This article identifies problems with regard to providing criteria that regulate the matching of logical formulae and natural language. We then take on to solve these problems by defining a necessary and sufficient criterion of adequate formalization. On the basis of this criterion we argue that logic should not be seen as an ars iudicandi capable of evaluating the validity or invalidity of informal arguments, but as an ars explicandi that renders transparent the formal structure of informal reasoning.
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  26. Juan Barba (2007). Formal Semantics in the Age of Pragmatics. Linguistics and Philosophy 30 (6):637-668.score: 6.0
    This paper aims to argue for two related statements: first, that formal semantics should not be conceived of as interpreting natural language expressions in a single model (a very large one representing the world as a whole, or something like that) but as interpreting them in many different models (formal counterparts, say, of little fragments of reality); second, that accepting such a conception of formal semantics yields a better comprehension of the relation between semantics and pragmatics and of the role (...)
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  27. Walter Carnielli & Rodrigues Abilio, On the Philosophical Motivations for the Logics of Formal Consistency and Inconsistency.score: 6.0
    We present a philosophical motivation for the logics of formal inconsistency (LFIs), a family of paraconsistent logics whose distinctive feature is that of having resources for expressing the notion of consistency (and inconsistency as well) within the object language. We shall defend the view according to which logics of formal inconsistency are theories of logical consequence of normative and epistemic character. This approach not only allows us to make inferences in the presence of contradictions, but offers a philosophically acceptable account (...)
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  28. Fabrice Teroni (2007). Emotions and Formal Objects. Dialectica 61 (3):395-415.score: 6.0
    It is often claimed that emotions are linked to formal objects. But what are formal objects? What roles do they play? According to some philosophers, formal objects are axiological properties which individuate emotions, make them intelligible and give their correctness conditions. In this paper, I evaluate these claims in order to answer the above questions. I first give reasons to doubt the thesis that formal objects individuate emotions. Second, I distinguish different ways in which emotions are intelligible and argue that (...)
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  29. Daniel Steel (2009). Testability and Ockham's Razor: How Formal and Statistical Learning Theory Converge in the New Riddle of Induction. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (5):471 - 489.score: 6.0
    Nelson Goodman’s new riddle of induction forcefully illustrates a challenge that must be confronted by any adequate theory of inductive inference: provide some basis for choosing among alternative hypotheses that fit past data but make divergent predictions. One response to this challenge is to distinguish among alternatives by means of some epistemically significant characteristic beyond fit with the data. Statistical learning theory takes this approach by showing how a concept similar to Popper’s notion of degrees of testability is linked to (...)
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  30. Daniel Guevara (2008). Rebutting Formally Valid Counterexamples to the Humean “is-Ought” Dictum. Synthese 164 (1):45-60.score: 6.0
    Various formally valid counterexamples have been adduced against the Humean dictum that one cannot derive an “ought” from an “is.” There are formal rebuttals—some very sophisticated now (e.g., Charles R. Pigden’s and Gerhard Schurz’s)—to such counterexamples. But what follows is an intuitive and informal argument against them. I maintain that it is better than these sophisticated formal defenses of the Humean dictum and that it also helps us see why it implausible to think that we can be as decisive about (...)
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  31. John MacFarlane (2000). What Does It Mean to Say That Logic is Formal? Dissertation, University of Pittsburghscore: 6.0
    Much philosophy of logic is shaped, explicitly or implicitly, by the thought that logic is distinctively formal and abstracts from material content. The distinction between formal and material does not appear to coincide with the more familiar contrasts between a priori and empirical, necessary and contingent, analytic and synthetic—indeed, it is often invoked to explain these. Nor, it turns out, can it be explained by appeal to schematic inference patterns, syntactic rules, or grammar. What does it mean, then, to say (...)
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  32. Steven Ravett Brown (2000). Peirce and Formalization of Thought: The Chinese Room Argument. Journal of Mind and Behavior.score: 6.0
    Whether human thinking can be formalized and whether machines can think in a human sense are questions that have been addressed by both Peirce and Searle. Peirce came to roughly the same conclusion as Searle, that the digital computer would not be able to perform human thinking or possess human understanding. However, his rationale and Searle's differ on several important points. Searle approaches the problem from the standpoint of traditional analytic philosophy, where the strict separation of syntax and semantics (...)
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  33. Giovanni Boniolo & Silvio Valentini (2008). Vagueness, Kant and Topology: A Study of Formal Epistemology. Journal of Philosophical Logic 37 (2):141 - 168.score: 6.0
    In this paper we propose an approach to vagueness characterised by two features. The first one is philosophical: we move along a Kantian path emphasizing the knowing subject’s conceptual apparatus. The second one is formal: to face vagueness, and our philosophical view on it, we propose to use topology and formal topology. We show that the Kantian and the topological features joined together allow us an atypical, but promising, way of considering vagueness.
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  34. Paul Thom (2010). Three Conceptions of Formal Logic. Vivarium 48 (1-2):228-242.score: 6.0
    Aristotle's logical and metaphysical works contain elements of three distinct types of formal theory: an ontology, a theory of consequences, and a theory of reasoning. His formal ontology (unlike that of certain later thinkers) does not require all propositions of a given logical form to be true. His formal syllogistic (unlike medieval theories of consequences) was guided primarily by a conception of logic as a theory of reasoning; and his fragmentary theory of consequences exists merely as an adjunct to the (...)
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  35. Ralph H. Johnson (1999). The Relation Between Formal and Informal Logic. Argumentation 13 (3):265-274.score: 6.0
    The issue of the relationship between formal and informal logic depends strongly on how one understands these two designations. While there is very little disagreement about the nature of formal logic, the same is not true regarding informal logic, which is understood in various (often incompatible) ways by various thinkers. After reviewing some of the more prominent conceptions of informal logic, I will present my own, defend it and then show how informal logic, so understood, is complementary to formal logic.
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  36. Robert S. Summers (1999). Formal Legal Truth and Substantive Truth in Judicial Fact-Finding -- Their Justified Divergence in Some Particular Cases. Law and Philosophy 18 (5):497 - 511.score: 6.0
    Truth is a fundamental objective of adjudicative processes; ideally, substantive as distinct from formal legal truth. But problems of evidence, for example, may frustrate finding of substantive truth; other values may lead to exclusions of probative evidence, e.g., for the sake of fairness. Jury nullification and jury equity. Limits of time, and definitiveness of decision, require allocation of burden of proof. Degree of truth-formality is variable within a system and across systems.
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  37. Alexandre Guay & Brian Hepburn (2009). Symmetry and its Formalisms: Mathematical Aspects. Philosophy of Science 76 (2):160-178.score: 6.0
    This article explores the relation between the concept of symmetry and its formalisms. The standard view among philosophers and physicists is that symmetry is completely formalized by mathematical groups. For some mathematicians however, the groupoid is a competing and more general formalism. An analysis of symmetry that justifies this extension has not been adequately spelled out. After a brief explication of how groups, equivalence, and symmetries classes are related, we show that, while it’s true in some instances that groups (...)
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  38. Marcello Frixione & Antonio Lieto (2012). Representing Concepts in Formal Ontologies: Compositionality Vs. Typicality Effects&Quot;,. Logic and Logical Philosophy 21 ( Logic, Reasoning and Rationalit):391-414.score: 6.0
    The problem of concept representation is relevant for many sub-fields of cognitive research, including psychology and philosophy, as well as artificial intelligence. In particular, in recent years it has received a great deal of attention within the field of knowledge representation, due to its relevance for both knowledge engineering as well as ontology-based technologies. However, the notion of a concept itself turns out to be highly disputed and problematic. In our opinion, one of the causes of this state of affairs (...)
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  39. Samir Okasha & Cedric Paternotte (2012). Group Adaptation, Formal Darwinism and Contextual Analysis. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 25 (6):1127–1139.score: 6.0
    We consider the question: under what circumstances can the concept of adaptation be applied to groups, rather than individuals? Gardner and Grafen (2009, J. Evol. Biol.22: 659–671) develop a novel approach to this question, building on Grafen's ‘formal Darwinism’ project, which defines adaptation in terms of links between evolutionary dynamics and optimization. They conclude that only clonal groups, and to a lesser extent groups in which reproductive competition is repressed, can be considered as adaptive units. We re-examine the conditions under (...)
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  40. Georg Brun (2008). Formalization and the Objects of Logic. Erkenntnis 69 (1):1 - 30.score: 6.0
    There is a long-standing debate whether propositions, sentences, statements or utterances provide an answer to the question of what objects logical formulas stand for. Based on the traditional understanding of logic as a science of valid arguments, this question is firstly framed more exactly, making explicit that it calls not only for identifying some class of objects, but also for explaining their relationship to ordinary language utterances. It is then argued that there are strong arguments against the proposals commonly put (...)
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  41. Ard Van Moer (2006). The Intentionality of Formal Systems. Foundations of Science 11 (1-2):81-119.score: 6.0
    One of the most interesting and entertaining philosophical discussions of the last few decades is the discussion between Daniel Dennett and John Searle on the existence of intrinsic intentionality. Dennett denies the existence of phenomena with intrinsic intentionality. Searle, however, is convinced that some mental phenomena exhibit intrinsic intentionality. According to me, this discussion has been obscured by some serious misunderstandings with regard to the concept ‘intrinsic intentionality’. For instance, most philosophers fail to realize that it is possible that the (...)
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  42. Patrick Allo (2008). Vincent Hendricks, Mainstream and Formal Epistemology. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 69 (3):427-432.score: 6.0
    As Vincent Hendricks remarks early on in this book, the formal and mainstream traditions of epistemic theorising have mostly evolved independently of each other. This initial impression is confirmed by a comparison of the main problems and methods practitioners in each tradition are concerned with. Mainstream epistemol- ogy engages in a dialectical game of proposing and challenging definitions of knowledge. Formal epistemologists proceed differently, as they design a wide variety of axiomatic and model-theoretic methods whose consequences they investigate independently of (...)
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  43. Mariusz Tabaczek (2013). The Metaphysics of Downward Causation: Rediscovering the Formal Cause. Zygon 48 (2):380-404.score: 6.0
    The methodological nonreductionism of contemporary biology opens an interesting discussion on the level of ontology and the philosophy of nature. The theory of emergence (EM), and downward causation (DC) in particular, bring a new set of arguments challenging not only methodological, but also ontological and causal reductionism. This argumentation provides a crucial philosophical foundation for the science/theology dialogue. However, a closer examination shows that proponents of EM do not present a unified and consistent definition of DC. Moreover, they find it (...)
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  44. Jörgen Sjögren (2010). A Note on the Relation Between Formal and Informal Proof. Acta Analytica 25 (4):447-458.score: 6.0
    Using Carnap’s concept explication, we propose a theory of concept formation in mathematics. This theory is then applied to the problem of how to understand the relation between the concepts formal proof (deduction) and informal, mathematical proof.
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  45. Sven Ove Hansson (2000). Formalization in Philosophy. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 6 (2):162-175.score: 6.0
    The advantages and disadvantages of formalization in philosophy are summarized. It is concluded that formalized philosophy is an endangered speciality that needs to be revitalized and to increase its interactions with non-formalized philosophy. The enigmatic style that is common in philosophical logic must give way to explicit discussions of the problematic relationship between formal models and the philosophical concepts and issues that motivated their development.
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  46. Fernando Tohmé, Claudio Delrieux & Otávio Bueno (2011). Defeasible Reasoning + Partial Models: A Formal Framework for the Methodology of Research Programs. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 16 (1):47-65.score: 6.0
    In this paper we show that any reasoning process in which conclusions can be both fallible and corrigible can be formalized in terms of two approaches: (i) syntactically, with the use of defeasible reasoning, according to which reasoning consists in the construction and assessment of arguments for and against a given claim, and (ii) semantically, with the use of partial structures, which allow for the representation of less than conclusive information. We are particularly interested in the formalization of scientific (...)
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  47. Elin Palm (2013). Who Cares? Moral Obligations in Formal and Informal Care Provision in the Light of ICT-Based Home Care. Health Care Analysis 21 (2):171-188.score: 6.0
    An aging population is often taken to require a profound reorganization of the prevailing health care system. In particular, a more cost-effective care system is warranted and ICT-based home care is often considered a promising alternative. Modern health care devices admit a transfer of patients with rather complex care needs from institutions to the home care setting. With care recipients set up with health monitoring technologies at home, spouses and children are likely to become involved in the caring process and (...)
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  48. Susan Haack (2005). Formal Philosophy? A Plea for Pluralism. In John Symonds Vincent Henricks (ed.), Formal Philosophy. 77--98.score: 6.0
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  49. Pablo Zoghbi-Manrique-de-Lara (2010). Do Unfair Procedures Predict Employees' Ethical Behavior by Deactivating Formal Regulations? Journal of Business Ethics 94 (3):411 - 425.score: 6.0
    The purpose of this study was to extend the knowledge about why procedural justice (PJ) has behavioral implications within organizations. Since prior studies show that PJ leads to legitimacy, the author suggests that, when formal regulations are unfairly implemented, they lose their validity or efficacy (becoming deactivated even if they are formally still in force). This "rule deactivation," in turn, leads to two proposed destructive work behaviors, namely, workplace deviance and decreased citizenship behaviors (OCBs). The results support this mediating role (...)
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  50. James Franklin (1999). Structure and Domain-Independence in the Formal Sciences. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 30:721-723.score: 6.0
    Replies to Kevin de Laplante’s ‘Certainty and Domain-Independence in the Sciences of Complexity’ (de Laplante, 1999), defending the thesis of J. Franklin, ‘The formal sciences discover the philosophers’ stone’, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 25 (1994), 513-33, that the sciences of complexity can combine certain knowledge with direct applicability to reality.
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