Search results for 'four causes' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Boris Hennig (2009). The Four Causes. Journal of Philosophy 106 (3):137-160.
    I will argue that Aristotle’s fourfold division of four causes naturally arises from a combination of two distinctions (a) between things and changes, and (b) between that which potentially is something and what it potentially is. Within this scheme, what is usually called the “efficient cause” is something that potentially is a certain natural change, and the “final cause” is, at least in a basic sense, what the efficient cause potentially is. I will further argue that the essences (...)
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    Spencer E. Young (2012). Prohibition-Era Aristotelianism: Parisian Theologians and the Four Causes. Bulletin de Philosophie Medievale 53:41 - 59.
    In this essay, I examine the reception and use of Aristotle’s four causes by twelfth- and thirteenth-century Latin Christian theologians, primarily at Paris. I pay special attention to the early thirteenth century, when Aristotle’s works on natural philosophy were officially prohibited in the French capital. By looking at a wide range of texts from both prominent and obscure theologians, I hope to contribute to an expanded view of the ways in which intellectuals in the Latin west received and (...)
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  3. Mohan Matthen (1989). The Four Causes in Aristotle's Embryology. Apeiron 22 (4):159 - 179.
  4.  12
    J. Raymond Zimmer (2006). A Category-Based Diagram of the Scholastic Doctrine of Four Causes. Semiotics:18-25.
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    Rosamond Kent Sprague (1968). The Four Causes: Aristotle’s Exposition and Ours. The Monist 52 (2):298-300.
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  6.  30
    Rosamond Kent Sprague (1968). The Four Causes. The Monist 52 (2):298-300.
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  7.  7
    Noone (1958). The Logical Foundations of the Four Causes. Modern Schoolman 35 (4):287-294.
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  8.  11
    J. Raymond Zimmer (2006). A Category-Based Diagram of the Scholastic Doctrine of Four Causes. Semiotics:18-25.
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  9.  5
    John B. Noone Jr (2012). The Logical Foundations of the Four Causes. Modern Schoolman 35 (4):287-294.
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    Newton P. Stallknecht (1934). Art and the Four Causes. Journal of Philosophy 31 (26):710-717.
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  11. William Crews (1969). Four Causes of Reality. New York, Philosophical Library.
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  12.  13
    Olivier Rieppel (1990). Structuralism, Functionalism, and the Four Aristotelian Causes. Journal of the History of Biology 23 (2):291 - 320.
  13.  2
    Nathan Spiegel (1975). The Significance of "Mimesis" in the Light of Aristotle's Doctrine of the Four Ontological Causes. Revue Belge de Philologie Et D’Histoire 53 (1):5-23.
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  14. Olivier Rieppel (1990). Structuralism, Functionalism, and the Four Aristotelian Causes. Journal of the History of Biology 23 (2):291-320.
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  15. Mauricio Suárez, Four Theses on Probabilities, Causes, Propensities.
    This volume defends a novel approach to the philosophy of physics: it is the first book devoted to a comparative study of probability, causality, and propensity, and their various interrelations, within the context of contemporary physics -- particularly quantum and statistical physics. The philosophical debates and distinctions are firmly grounded upon examples from actual physics, thus exemplifying a robustly empiricist approach. The essays, by both prominent scholars in the field and promising young researchers, constitute a pioneer effort in bringing out (...)
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  16. Rich Cameron (2003). The Ontology of Aristotle's Final Cause. Apeiron 35 (2):153-79.
    Modern philosophy is, for what appear to be good reasons, uniformly hostile to sui generis final causes. And motivated to develop philosophically and scientifically plausible interpretations, scholars have increasingly offered reductivist and eliminitivist accounts of Aristotle's teleological commitment. This trend in contemporary scholarship is misguided. We have strong grounds to believe Aristotle accepted unreduced sui generis teleology, and reductivist and eliminitivist accounts face insurmountable textual and philosophical difficulties. We offer Aristotelians cold comfort by replacing his apparent view with failed (...)
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  17.  14
    David Ebrey (2014). Making Room for Matter: Material Causes in the Phaedo and the Physics. Apeiron 47 (2):245–265.
    It is often claimed that Socrates rejects material causes in the Phaedo because they are not rational or not teleological. In this paper I argue for a new account: Socrates ultimately rejects material causes because he is committed to each change having a single cause. Because each change has a single cause, this cause must, on its own, provide an adequate explanation for the change. Material causes cannot provide an adequate explanation on their own and so Socrates (...)
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  18.  2
    James Robert Brown (2005). The Reality of Formal Causes. In Gereon Wolters & Martin Carrier (eds.), Homo Sapiens Und Homo Faber. De Gruyter
    Aristotle claimed there are four causes (and four corresponding types of explanation). The scientific revolution eliminated formal and final, leaving efficient and material. It is argued here that there is a role for formal causes in the sciences, especially in physics.
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  19.  31
    Timothy O'Connor (ed.) (1995). Agents, Causes, and Events: Essays on Indeterminism and Free Will. Oxford University Press.
    Many philosophers are persuaded by familiar arguments that free will is incompatible with causal determinism. Yet, notoriously, past attempts to articulate how the right type of indeterminism might secure the capacity for autonomous action have generally been regarded as either demonstrably inadequate or irremediably obscure. This volume gathers together the most significant recent discussions concerning the prospects for devising a satisfactory indeterministic account of freedom of action. These essays give greater precision to traditional formulations of the problems associated with indeterministic (...)
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  20.  56
    R. Rynasiewicz (1995). By Their Properties, Causes and Effects: Newton's Scholium on Time, Space, Place and Motion--I. The Text. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 26 (1):133-153.
    As I have read the scholium, it divides into three main parts, not including the introductory paragraph. The first consists of paragraphs one to four in which Newton sets out his characterizations of absolute and relative time, space, place, and motion. Although some justificatory material is included here, notably in paragraph three, the second part is reserved for the business of justifying the characterizations he has presented. The main object is to adduce grounds for believing that the (...)
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  21. Timothy O'Connor (ed.) (1995). Agents, Causes, and Events. Oxford University Press Usa.
    Many philosophers are persuaded by familiar arguments that free will is incompatible with causal determinism. Yet, notoriously, past attempts to articulate how the right type of indeterminism might secure the capacity for autonomous action have generally been regarded as either demonstrably inadequate or irremediably obscure. This volume gathers together the most significant recent discussions concerning the prospects for devising a satisfactory indeterministic account of freedom of action. These essays give greater precision to traditional formulations of the problems associated with indeterministic (...)
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  22.  7
    Hans Paul Prümm (2009). Reducing Irrationality of Legal Methodology by Realistic Description of Interpretative Tools and Teaching the Causes of Irrationality in Legal Education. Jurisprudence 115 (1):199-219.
    Lawyers pretend as if the process of application of laws, as well as its outcome, could be an analytic-deductive derivation; especially law students learn that legal decision-making is primarily a logic process. But we know that application of laws depends on analytic-logical as well as on voluntaristic (wilful) elements. Exact relations between these components are unknown and will be unknown. At most German law schools students as the most important imperative tool learn the so called “Auslegung” through the use of (...)
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  23.  10
    Stephen Pratten (2009). Critical Realism and Causality: Tracing the Aristotelian Legacy. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 39 (2):189-218.
    Rom Harré's generative account of causality has been drawn on heavily by advocates of critical realism. Yet Harré argues that critical realists often exaggerate the extent to which powerful causal explanations of social phenomena can be developed. Certain proponents of critical realism have responded to Harré's criticisms by suggesting that it is useful to consider the relevant issues in relation to the familiar Aristotelian classification of four causes. In this paper I contribute to this debate and pursue a (...)
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  24.  12
    Jon M. Shepard, Michael Betz & Lenahan O'Connell (1997). The Proactive Corporation: Its Nature and Causes. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 16 (10):1001-1010.
    We argue that the stakeholder perspective on corporate social responsibility is in the process of being enlarged. Due to the process of institutional isomorphism, corporations are increasingly adopting organizational features designed to promote proactivity over mere reactivity in their stakeholder relationships. We identify two sources of pressure promoting the emergence of the proactive corporation -- stakeholder activism and the recognition of the social embeddedness of the economy. The final section describes four organizational design dimensions being installed by the more (...)
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  25.  6
    Kent Johnson (2016). Realism and Uncertainty of Unobservable Common Causes in Factor Analysis. Noûs 50 (2):329-355.
    Famously, scientific theories are underdetermined by their evidence. This occurs in the factor analytic model, which is often used to connect concrete data to hypothetical notions. After introducing FA, three general topics are addressed. Underdetermination: the precise reasons why FA is underdetermined illuminates various claims about underdetermination, abduction, and theoretical terms. Uncertainties: FA helps distinguish at least four kinds of uncertainties. The prevailing practice, often encoded in statistical software, is to ignore the most difficult kinds, which are essential (...)
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  26.  76
    Alfred J. Freddoso (1991). God's General Concurrence with Secondary Causes: Why Conservation is Not Enough. Philosophical Perspectives 5:553-585.
    After an exposition of some key concepts in scholastic ontology, this paper examines four arguments presented by Francisco Suarez for the thesis, commonly held by Christian Aristotelians, that God's causal contribution to effects occurring in the ordinary course of nature goes beyond His merely conserving created substances along with their active and passive causal powers. The postulation of a further causal contribution, known as God's general concurrence (or general concourse), can be viewed as an attempt to accommodate an element (...)
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  27.  30
    Geert Keil (2007). Making Something Happen. Where Causation and Agency Meet. In Francesca Castellani & Josef Quitterer (eds.), Agency and Causation in the Human Sciences. Mentis 19-35.
    1. Introduction: a look back at the reasons vs. causes debate. 2. The interventionist account of causation. 3. Four objections to interventionism. 4. The counterfactual analysis of event causation. 5. The role of free agency. 6. Causality in the human sciences. -- The reasons vs. causes debate reached its peak about 40 years ago. Hempel and Dray had debated the nature of historical explanation and the broader issue of whether explanations that cite an agent’s reasons are causal (...)
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  28.  91
    Max Hocutt (1974). Aristotle's Four Becauses. Philosophy 49 (190):385 - 399.
    What has traditionally been labelled ‘Aristotle's theory of causes’ would be more intelligible if construed as ‘Aristotle's theory of explanations’, where the term ‘explanation’ has substantially the sense of Hempel and Oppenheim, who construe explanations as deductions. For Aristotle, specifying ‘causes’ is constructing demonstrations.
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  29.  10
    Kent Johnson (2014). Realism and Uncertainty of Unobservable Common Causes in Factor Analysis. Noûs 50 (1):n/a-n/a.
    Famously, scientific theories are underdetermined by their evidence. This occurs in the factor analytic model, which is often used to connect concrete data to hypothetical notions. After introducing FA, three general topics are addressed. Underdetermination: the precise reasons why FA is underdetermined illuminates various claims about underdetermination, abduction, and theoretical terms. Uncertainties: FA helps distinguish at least four kinds of uncertainties. The prevailing practice, often encoded in statistical software, is to ignore the most difficult kinds, which are essential (...)
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  30.  31
    Bruce R. Reichenbach (1987). Euthanasia and the Active-Passive Distinction. Bioethics 1 (1):51-73.
    I consider four recently suggested difference between killing and letting die as they apply to active and passive euthanasia : taking vs. taking no action; intending vs. not intending the death of the person; the certainty of the result vs. leaving the situation open to other possible alternative events; and dying from unnatural vs. natural causes. The first three fail to constitute clear differences between killing and letting die, and "ex posteriori" cannot constitute morally (...)
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  31.  24
    Willy Apollon (1993). Four Seasons in Femininity Orfour Men in a Woman's Life. Topoi 12 (2):101-115.
    The feminine complaint that Alex's passion echoes, raising it to a level rarely attained, is not limited to the pursuit of sexual jouissance . Nor can it be reduced to an aversion on the part of women to a morality of the signifier, as maintained by a certain reading of Freud. Very precisely, the persistent note in feminine restlessness is a certain relationship of the subject to the insufficiency of the signifier, which the quest for love registers. The fact that (...)
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  32. Massimo Pigliucci (2003). From Molecules to Phenotypes? The Promise and Limits of Integrative Biology. Basic and Applied Ecology 4:297-306.
    Is integrative biology a good idea, or even possible? There has been much interest lately in the unifica- tion of biology and the integration of traditionally separate disciplines such as molecular and develop- mental biology on one hand, and ecology and evolutionary biology on the other. In this paper I ask if and under what circumstances such integration of efforts actually makes sense. I develop by example an analogy with Aristotle’s famous fourcauses” that one can investigate concerning (...)
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  33.  53
    Lucas Angioni (2011). As quatro causas na filosofia da natureza de Aristóteles. Anais de Filosofia Clássica 10:1-19.
    I have two aims in this paper. First, I argue that, in Aristotle’s theory of the four causes, there is a basic and common feature by which all causes are causes: they all work in a triadic framework in which they explain why a given attribute holds of a given underlying thing. Secondly, I argue against a version of “compatibilism” according to which each kind of cause is complete in its own domain and does not compete (...)
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  34.  12
    Kenneth C. Clatterbaugh (1999). The Causation Debate in Modern Philosophy, 1637-1739. Routledge.
    The Causation Debate in Modern Philosophy examines the debate that began as modern science separated itself from natural philosophy in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The book specifically explores the two dominant approaches to causation as a metaphysical problem and as a scientific problem. As philosophy and science turned from the ideas of Aristotle that dominated western thought throughout the renaissance, one of the most pressing intellectual problems was how to replace Aristotelian science with its doctine of the four (...)
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  35. Andrea Falcon, Aristotle on Causality. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Each Aristotelian science consists in the causal investigation of a specific department of reality. If successful, such an investigation results in causal knowledge; that is, knowledge of the relevant or appropriate causes. The emphasis on the concept of cause explains why Aristotle developed a theory of causality which is commonly known as the doctrine of the four causes. For Aristotle, a firm grasp of what a cause is, and how many kinds of causes there are, is (...)
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  36.  51
    Nathanael Stein (2011). Causation and Explanation in Aristotle. Philosophy Compass 6 (10):699-707.
    Aristotle thinks that we understand something when we know its causes. According to Aristotle but contrary to most recent approaches, causation and explanation cannot be understood separately. Aristotle complicates matters by claiming that there are four causes, which have come to be known as the formal, material, final, and efficient causes. To understand Aristotelian causation and its relationship to explanation, then, we must come to a precise understanding of the four causes, and how they (...)
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  37.  43
    Daniel De Haan (2013). Why the Five Ways? Aquinas’s Avicennian Insight Into the Problem of Unity in the Aristotelian Metaphysics and Sacra Doctrina. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 86:141-158.
    This paper will argue that the order and the unity of St. Thomas Aquinas’s five ways can be elucidated through a consideration of St. Thomas’s appropriation of an Avicennian insight that he used to order and unify the wisdom of the Aristotelian and Abrahamic philosophical traditions towards the existence of God. I will begin with a central aporia from Aristotle’s Metaphysics. Aristotle says that the science of first philosophy has three different theoretical vectors: ontology, aitiology, and theology. But how can (...)
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  38.  39
    David Ebrey, Aristotle's Motivation for Matter.
    Aristotle’s Motivation for Matter Why does Aristotle make matter so central to his account of the natural world, making it a principle of nature and one of the four causes? Although there is considerable interest in how Aristotle conceives of matter, scholars rarely investigate why he thinks of it as fundamental to the natural world. Some simply ask why Aristotle thinks there must be matter. Other interpreters do not even agree that we should ask this question; they claim (...)
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  39.  13
    Roberto de Andrade Martins (2013). A doutrina das causas finais na Antiguidade. 2. A teleologia na natureza, segundo Aristóteles. Filosofia E Hist’Oria da Biologia 8 (2):167-209.
    This paper describes the four causes accepted by Aristotle, and then focus upon his concept of final causes, especially emphasizing its use in the study of living beings. The article discusses several difficulties in interpreting Aristotle’s teleology, such as its relation with the concept of a providential god, and the difficulty of understanding goals in processes that do not include intelligent agency. The Aristotelian ideas on final causes are highly complex, and they are widely different from (...)
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  40.  44
    Nathanael Stein (2011). Aristotle's Causal Pluralism. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 93 (2):121-147.
    Central to Aristotle's metaphysics and epistemology is the claim that ‘ aitia ’ – ‘cause’ – is “said in many ways”, i.e., multivocal. Though the importance of the four causes in Aristotle's system cannot be overstated, the nature of his pluralism about aitiai has not been addressed. It is not at all obvious how these modes of causation are related to one another, or why they all deserve a common term. Nor is it clear, in particular, whether the (...)
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  41.  5
    António Manuel Martins (2009). A causalidade em Pedro da Fonseca. Veritas: Revista de Filosofia da PUCRS 54 (3):112-127.
    In this paper we intend to present briefly the way Fonseca deals with the doctrine of causation in his Commentaries on the Metaphysics of Aristotle. We shall begin with the presentation of the map of the disputations on causation in that work (I), then will refer to the position of Fonseca on the definition of cause (II), the relation between cause and principle (III) and, finally, his defense of the Aristotelian four causes (IV).
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  42.  19
    William H. Capitan (1966). Part X of Hume's "Dialogues". American Philosophical Quarterly 3 (1):82-85.
    In hume's dialogues, Part x, Philo presents the trilemma attributed to epicurus: "is God willing but unable to prevent evil? able but unwilling? both willing and (...)able? whence, Then is evil?" some critics say philo is trying to disprove god's existence. Some say he is not. I say he grants God exists as the first cause in order to show natural religion is impossible. For natural religion must establish god's benevolence, But it cannot combat "moderate scepticism" to establish any moral attribute of god. It would have to show first that men are for the most part happy--A proposition no one can prove both because it is contrary to everyone's feeling and experience and because it is impossible to compute all the pains and pleasures of all men. Philo's argument stands independently of the more frequently discussed four causes argument of part xi. (shrink)
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  43.  2
    Carlos Herrera Pérez & Tom Ziemke (2007). Aristotle, Autonomy and the Explanation of Behaviour. Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 15 (3):547-571.
    This paper examines Aristotle's notion of autonomy and its implication for the mechanicism/autonomy debate. We introduce the basic principles of Aristotle's scientific framework, including his theory of four causes for the explanation of nature. We draw parallels between these notions of autonomy and causation and autopoietic theory, dynamical systems and robotics, suggesting that they may be compatible with Aristotle's framework. We argue that understanding the problem of design of autonomous robots may benefit from the consideration of integration of (...)
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  44.  3
    Peter R. Killeen (2001). Doing Versus Knowing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (6):1063-1064.
    Aristotle's four causes frame Webb's question. Comprehension requires specification of trigger, function, mechanism, and representation. Robots are real models of function. Physical, biological, and epigenetic constraints delimit the hypothesis space for candidate mechanisms. Robots constitute a simplified system more susceptible to formal representation than the target system. They thus constitute an important tool in a constructivist development of scientific knowledge.
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  45. Robert J. Barry (1996). From Metaphysical to Moral Evil: Thomas Aquinas' Theory of Evil and Sin in the "Disputed Questions de Malo", Questions One to Three. Dissertation, Boston College
    Thomas' theory of sin is a specification of his general theory of metaphysical evil. Both his theory of evil in general and his theory of moral evil specifically provide an understanding that constitutes a scientia, for both theories consist of an explanation of the four causes of evil. As a contrary of good, evil can be explained by means of its causes, for the scientia of good includes the understanding of the contrary of good. Thus sin can (...)
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  46. Andrea Falcon (2015). Efficient Causation: A History Ed. By Tad M. Schmaltz. Journal of the History of Philosophy 53 (3):541-542.
    This volume is a history of the concept of efficient causation in three parts. The natural starting point of this history is Aristotle, who claims to be the first to introduce the concept of the efficient cause. According to Aristotle, his predecessors had at most a confused and inadequate notion of this cause. By contrast, he has a theory of the four causes, and his treatment of the efficient cause is a part of that theory. Note, however, that (...)
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  47. Robert Glenn Friedman (1984). Matter and Necessity in Aristotle's Logical, Physical and Biological Works. Dissertation, University of Virginia
    Aristotle's doctrine of the four causes--formal, final, efficient and material--is famous. But Posterior Analytics B 11 lists "if certain things hold, it is necessary that this does" in place of a standard expression for the material cause. This cause has been dubbed the grounding cause. It has interested scholars since the Greek commentators, who simply assumed that Aristotle meant the material cause. This traditional thesis has been challenged by two views: first, that the grounding cause is a special (...)
     
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  48. Peter Kreeft (2005). Socratic Logic. St. Augustine's Press.
    What good is logic? -- Seventeen ways this book is different -- The two logics -- All of logic in two pages : an overview -- The three acts of the mind -- I. The first act of the mind : understanding -- Understanding : the thing that distinguishes man from both beast and computer -- Concepts, terms and words -- The problem of universals -- The comprehension and extension of terms -- II. Terms -- Classifying terms -- Categories -- (...)
     
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  49. Anna Marmodoro (2012). Potenza, Materia E Forma Nella Metafisica di Aristotele. Philosophical News 5.
    In this paper I investigate Aristotle’s power ontology, and of it argue for a new interpretation of his hylemorphism and theory of the four causes.
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  50. David Roochnik (2002). An Introduction to Greek Philosophy. Teaching Co..
    lecture 1. A dialectical approach to Greek philosophy -- lecture 2. From myth to philosophy, Hesiod and Thales -- lecture 3. The Milesians and the quest for being -- lecture 4. The great intrusion, Heraclitus -- lecture 5. Parmenides, the champion of being -- lecture 6. Reconciling Heraclitus and Parmenides -- lecture 7. The Sophists, Protagoras, the first "humanist" -- lecture 8. Socrates -- lecture 9. An introduction to Plato's Dialogues -- lecture 10. Plato versus the Sophists, I -- lecture (...)
     
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