Search results for 'four causes' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Boris Hennig (2009). The Four Causes. Journal of Philosophy 106 (3):137-160.score: 60.0
    I will argue that Aristotle’s fourfold division of four causes naturally arises from a combination of two distinctions (a) between things and changes, and (b) between that which potentially is something and what it potentially is. Within this scheme, what is usually called the “efficient cause” is something that potentially is a certain natural change, and the “final cause” is, at least in a basic sense, what the efficient cause potentially is. I will further argue that the essences (...)
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  2. Mohan Matthen (1989). The Four Causes in Aristotle's Embryology. Apeiron 22 (4):159 - 179.score: 45.0
  3. Rosamond Kent Sprague (1968). The Four Causes. The Monist 52 (2):298-300.score: 45.0
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  4. Newton P. Stallknecht (1934). Art and the Four Causes. Journal of Philosophy 31 (26):710-717.score: 45.0
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  5. William Crews (1969). Four Causes of Reality. New York, Philosophical Library.score: 45.0
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  6. Noone (1958). The Logical Foundations of the Four Causes. The Modern Schoolman 35 (4):287-294.score: 45.0
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  7. John B. Noone, (2012). The Logical Foundations of the Four Causes. Modern Schoolman 35 (4):287-294.score: 45.0
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  8. Spencer E. Young (2012). Prohibition-Era Aristotelianism: Parisian Theologians and the Four Causes. Bulletin de Philosophie Médiévale 53:41 - 59.score: 45.0
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  9. J. Raymond Zimmer (forthcoming). A Category-Based Diagram of the Scholastic Doctrine of Four Causes. Semiotics:18-25.score: 45.0
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  10. Rich Cameron (2003). The Ontology of Aristotle's Final Cause. Apeiron 35 (2):153-79.score: 36.0
    Modern philosophy is, for what appear to be good reasons, uniformly hostile to sui generis final causes. And motivated to develop philosophically and scientifically plausible interpretations, scholars have increasingly offered reductivist and eliminitivist accounts of Aristotle's teleological commitment. This trend in contemporary scholarship is misguided. We have strong grounds to believe Aristotle accepted unreduced sui generis teleology, and reductivist and eliminitivist accounts face insurmountable textual and philosophical difficulties. We offer Aristotelians cold comfort by replacing his apparent view with failed (...)
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  11. Olivier Rieppel (1990). Structuralism, Functionalism, and the Four Aristotelian Causes. Journal of the History of Biology 23 (2):291 - 320.score: 36.0
  12. Nathan Spiegel (1975). The Significance of "Mimesis" in the Light of Aristotle's Doctrine of the Four Ontological Causes. Revue Belge de Philologie Et D'Histoire 53 (1):5-23.score: 36.0
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  13. Toby Handfield (2009). The Metaphysics of Dispositions and Causes. In , Dispositions and Causes. Clarendon Press. 1--30.score: 21.0
    This article gives a general overview of recent metaphysical work on dispositional properties and causal relations. It serves as an introduction to the edited volume, Dispositions and Causes.
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  14. Timothy O'Connor (ed.) (1995). Agents, Causes, and Events: Essays on Indeterminism and Free Will. Oxford University Press.score: 21.0
    Many philosophers are persuaded by familiar arguments that free will is incompatible with causal determinism. Yet, notoriously, past attempts to articulate how the right type of indeterminism might secure the capacity for autonomous action have generally been regarded as either demonstrably inadequate or irremediably obscure. This volume gathers together the most significant recent discussions concerning the prospects for devising a satisfactory indeterministic account of freedom of action. These essays give greater precision to traditional formulations of the problems associated with indeterministic (...)
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  15. Hans Paul Prümm (2009). Reducing Irrationality of Legal Methodology by Realistic Description of Interpretative Tools and Teaching the Causes of Irrationality in Legal Education. Jurisprudence 115 (1):199-219.score: 21.0
    Lawyers pretend as if the process of application of laws, as well as its outcome, could be an analytic-deductive derivation; especially law students learn that legal decision-making is primarily a logic process. But we know that application of laws depends on analytic-logical as well as on voluntaristic (wilful) elements. Exact relations between these components are unknown and will be unknown. At most German law schools students as the most important imperative tool learn the so called “Auslegung” through the use of (...)
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  16. Susanne Bobzien (1999). Chrysippus' Theory of Causes. In Katerina Ierodiakonou (ed.), Topics in Stoic Philosophy. Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
    ABSTRACT: A systematic reconstruction of Chrysippus’ theory of causes, grounded on the Stoic tenets that causes are bodies, that they are relative, and that all causation can ultimately be traced back to the one ‘active principle’ which pervades all things. I argue that Chrysippus neither developed a finished taxonomy of causes, nor intended to do so, and that he did not have a set of technical terms for mutually exclusive classes of causes. Rather, the various adjectives (...)
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  17. Kristin Mickelson (2010). The Soft-Line Solution to Pereboom's Four-Case Argument. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 88 (4):595-617.score: 18.0
    Derk Pereboom's Four-Case Argument is among the most famous and resilient manipulation arguments against compatibilism. I contend that its resilience is not a function of the argument's soundness but, rather, the ill-gotten gain from an ambiguity in the description of the causal relations found in the argument's foundational case. I expose this crucial ambiguity and suggest that a dilemma faces anyone hoping to resolve it. After a thorough search for an interpretation which avoids both horns of this dilemma, I (...)
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  18. Sarah Moss (2012). Four-Dimensionalist Theories of Persistence. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 90 (4):671-686.score: 18.0
    I demonstrate that the theory of persistence defended in Sider [2001] does not accommodate our intuitions about counting sentences. I develop two theories that improve on Sider's: a contextualist theory and an error theory. I argue that the latter is stronger, simpler, and better fitted to some important ordinary language judgments than rival four-dimensionalist theories of persistence.
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  19. Ishtiyaque Haji & Stefaan E. Cuypers (2006). Hard- and Soft-Line Responses to Pereboom's Four-Case Manipulation Argument. Acta Analytica 21 (4):19 - 35.score: 18.0
    Derk Pereboom has advanced a four-case manipulation argument that, he claims, undermines both libertarian accounts of free action not committed to agent-causation and compatibilist accounts of such action. The first two cases are meant to be ones in which the key agent is not responsible for his actions owing to his being manipulated. We first consider a “hard-line” response to this argument that denies that the agent is not morally responsible in these cases. We argue that this response invites (...)
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  20. Sheldon R. Smith (2010). Elementary Classical Mechanics and the Principle of the Composition of Causes. Synthese 173 (3):353 - 373.score: 18.0
    In this paper, I explore whether elementary classical mechanics adheres to the Principle of Composition of Causes as Mill claimed and as certain contemporary authors still seem to believe. Among other things, I provide a proof that if one reads Mill’s description of the principle literally (as I think many do), it does not hold in any general sense. In addition, I explore a separate notion of Composition of Causes and note that it too does not hold in (...)
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  21. John-stewart Gordon, Oliver Rauprich & Jochen Vollmann (2011). Applying the Four-Principle Approach. Bioethics 25 (6):293-300.score: 18.0
    The four-principle approach to biomedical ethics is used worldwide by practitioners and researchers alike but it is rather unclear what exactly people do when they apply this approach. Ranking, specification, and balancing vary greatly among different people regarding a particular case. Thus, a sound and coherent applicability of principlism seems somewhat mysterious. What are principlists doing? The article examines the methodological strengths and weaknesses of the applicability of this approach. The most important result is that a sound and comprehensible (...)
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  22. Thomas A. C. Reydon (2008). Species in Three and Four Dimensions. Synthese 164 (2):161 - 184.score: 18.0
    There is an interesting parallel between two debates in different domains of contemporary analytic philosophy. One is the endurantism–<span class='Hi'>perdurantism</span>, or three-dimensionalism vs. four-dimensionalism, debate in analytic metaphysics. The other is the debate on the species problem in philosophy of biology. In this paper I attempt to cross-fertilize these debates with the aim of exploiting some of the potential that the two debates have to advance each other. I address two issues. First, I explore what the case of species (...)
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  23. A. P. Taylor (2013). The Frustrating Problem For Four-Dimensionalism. Philosophical Studies 165 (3):1097-1115.score: 18.0
    I argue that four-dimensionalism and the desire satisfaction account of well-being are incompatible. For every person whose desires are satisfied, there will be many shorter-lived individuals (‘person-stages’ or ‘subpersons’) who share the person’s desires but who do not exist long enough to see those desires satisfied; not only this, but in many cases their desires are frustrated so that the desires of the beings in whom they are embedded as proper temporal parts may be fulfilled. I call this the (...)
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  24. Enrique Romerales (2007). Persistence, Ontic Vagueness and Identity: Towards a Substantialist Four–Dimensionalism. [REVIEW] Metaphysica 9 (1):33-55.score: 18.0
    Four-dimensionalism, the stage theory version in particular, has been defended as the best solution for avoiding vagueness in regards to composition, persistence and identity. Stage theory is highly problematic by itself, and the two views usually packed with it, unrestricted composition and counterpart theory, are a heavy burden. However, dispensing with these two views, four-dimensionalism could avoid vague persistence by issuing a criterion that would establish sharp temporal boundaries for the existence of genuine entities (simples, molecules and living (...)
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  25. Alexander Gersten (2005). Experiment to Test Whether We Live in a Four-Dimensional Physical Space–Time. Foundations of Physics 35 (8):1445-1452.score: 18.0
    For quantum systems, whose energy ratios En/E0 are integers, and |E0| is the smallest energy, the time dependent wavefunctions and expectation values of time independent operators have time periodicitiy with a time period T equal to T = h/|E0|, where h is the Planck constant. This periodicity is imposed on the wavefunctions due to undersampling in energy, but following a similarity with aliasing in signal analysis, it may allow to probe future and past events under the condition that our world (...)
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  26. Ariel Meirav (2009). Properties That Four-Dimensional Objects Cannot Have. Metaphysica 10 (2):135-148.score: 18.0
    The paper argues that four-dimensionalism is incompatible with the existence of additively cumulative properties, including mass, volume, and electrical charge. These properties add up over disjoint objects: for example, the mass of a whole composed of two disjoint objects is a sum of the individual masses of the objects. The difficulty with such properties for four-dimensionalism stems from the way this theory makes persistence depend on the existence of disjoint objects at disjoint times. I consider various possible responses (...)
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  27. Josep Maria Font & Petr Hájek (2002). On Łukasiewicz's Four-Valued Modal Logic. Studia Logica 70 (2):157-182.score: 18.0
    ukasiewicz''s four-valued modal logic is surveyed and analyzed, together with ukasiewicz''s motivations to develop it. A faithful interpretation of it in classical (non-modal) two-valued logic is presented, and some consequences are drawn concerning its classification and its algebraic behaviour. Some counter-intuitive aspects of this logic are discussed in the light of the presented results, ukasiewicz''s own texts, and related literature.
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  28. J. L. Benson (2004). The Inner Nature of Color: Studies on the Philosophy of the Four Elements. Steinerbooks.score: 18.0
    In this fascinating work, J. Leonard Benson describes the spiritual and esoteric nature of color in relation to the four elements -- fire, earth, air and water.
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  29. Dominic Griffiths (2012). “Now and in England:” Four Quartets, Place and Martin Heidegger’s Concept of Dwelling. Yeats Eliot Review 29 (1/2):3-18.score: 18.0
    T.S. Eliot’s Four Quartets is foremost a meditation on the significance of place. Each quartet is named for a place which holds importance for Eliot, either because of historical or personal memory. I argue that this importance is grounded in an ontological topology, by which I mean that the poem explores the fate of the individual and his/her heritage as inextricably bound up with the notion of place. This sense of place extends beyond the borders of a single life (...)
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  30. Michael C. Rea (2003). Four-Dimensionalism. In Michael J. Loux & Dean W. Zimmerman (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Metaphysics. Oxford University Press. 1-59.score: 18.0
    This article characterizes the varieties of four-dimensionalism and provides a critical overview of the main arguments in support of it.
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  31. Marcelo E. Coniglio & Martín Figallo (forthcoming). On a Four-Valued Modal Logic with Deductive Implication. Bulletin of the Section of Logic.score: 18.0
    In this paper we propose to enrich the four-valued modal logic associated to Monteiro's Tetravalent modal algebras (TMAs) with a deductive implication, that is, such that the Deduction Meta-theorem holds in the resulting logic. All this lead us to establish some new connections between TMAs, symmetric (or involutive) Boolean algebras, and modal algebras for extensions of S5, as well as their logical counterparts.
     
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  32. Niels Lynöe & Niklas Juth (2013). Does Proficiency Creativity Solve Legal Dilemmas? Experimental Study of Medical Students' Ideas About Death-Causes. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (4):789-793.score: 18.0
    The aim of the present study was to compare and examine how medical students on term one and nine understand and adopt ideas and reasoning when estimating death-causes. Our hypothesis was that compared to students in the beginning of their medical curriculum, term nine students would be more inclined to adopt ideas about causality that allows physicians to alleviate an imminently dying patient, without being suspected for manslaughter—a practice referred to as proficiency creativity. We used a questionnaire containing two (...)
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  33. Arash Abizadeh (2011). Hobbes on the Causes of War: A Disagreement Theory. American Political Science Review 105 (02):298-315.score: 16.0
    Hobbesian war primarily arises not because material resources are scarce; or because humans ruthlessly seek survival before all else; or because we are naturally selfish, competitive, or aggressive brutes. Rather, it arises because we are fragile, fearful, impressionable, and psychologically prickly creatures susceptible to ideological manipulation, whose anger can become irrationally inflamed by even trivial slights to our glory. The primary source of war, according to Hobbes, is disagreement, because we read into it the most inflammatory signs of contempt. Both (...)
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  34. Massimo Pigliucci (2003). From Molecules to Phenotypes? The Promise and Limits of Integrative Biology. Basic and Applied Ecology 4:297-306.score: 15.0
    Is integrative biology a good idea, or even possible? There has been much interest lately in the unifica- tion of biology and the integration of traditionally separate disciplines such as molecular and develop- mental biology on one hand, and ecology and evolutionary biology on the other. In this paper I ask if and under what circumstances such integration of efforts actually makes sense. I develop by example an analogy with Aristotle’s famous fourcauses” that one can investigate concerning (...)
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  35. Andrea Falcon, Aristotle on Causality. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 15.0
    Each Aristotelian science consists in the causal investigation of a specific department of reality. If successful, such an investigation results in causal knowledge; that is, knowledge of the relevant or appropriate causes. The emphasis on the concept of cause explains why Aristotle developed a theory of causality which is commonly known as the doctrine of the four causes. For Aristotle, a firm grasp of what a cause is, and how many kinds of causes there are, is (...)
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  36. Charlotte Witt, Aristotle on Deformed Kinds.score: 15.0
    In thinking about Aristotle in relation to the idea of natural kinds it is useful to begin with his definition of nature or what is natural, and then to consider his discussion of biological kinds or ?????. In recent philosophy, there is a tendency to contrast natural kinds with linguistic or conventional kinds, but we do not find that contrast in Aristotle. Instead, he distinguishes natural beings from artifacts, and that contrast, in turn, draws upon his theory of causation or (...)
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  37. des Chene, Suárez on Propinquity and the Efficient Cause.score: 15.0
    In the Principles, Descartes declares that of the four Aristotelian causes, he will retain only one: the efficient. Though some natural philosophers argued on behalf of the final cause, and others held that form could be rehabilitated, the efficient cause was in fact the only one of the four to flourish in the new philosophy. Descartes’ claim would lead one to believe that he preserved the efficient cause—that here, at least, we find continuity. But it is reasonable (...)
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  38. David Ebrey, Aristotle's Motivation for Matter.score: 15.0
    Aristotle’s Motivation for Matter Why does Aristotle make matter so central to his account of the natural world, making it a principle of nature and one of the four causes? Although there is considerable interest in how Aristotle conceives of matter, scholars rarely investigate why he thinks of it as fundamental to the natural world. Some simply ask why Aristotle thinks there must be matter (without asking how this fits into his account of the natural world). Other interpreters (...)
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  39. Nathanael Stein (2011). Aristotle's Causal Pluralism. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 93 (2):121-147.score: 15.0
    Central to Aristotle's metaphysics and epistemology is the claim that ‘ aitia ’ – ‘cause’ – is “said in many ways”, i.e., multivocal. Though the importance of the four causes in Aristotle's system cannot be overstated, the nature of his pluralism about aitiai has not been addressed. It is not at all obvious how these modes of causation are related to one another, or why they all deserve a common term. Nor is it clear, in particular, whether the (...)
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  40. Stephen M. Downes (2005). Integrating the Multiple Biological Causes of Human Behavior. Biology and Philosophy 20 (1):177-190.score: 15.0
    I introduce a range of examples of different causal hypotheses about human mate selection. The hypotheses I focus on come from evolutionary psychology, fluctuating asymmetry research and chemical signaling research. I argue that a major obstacle facing an integrated biology of human behavior is the lack of a causal framework that shows how multiple proximate causal mechanisms can act together to produce components of our behavior.
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  41. William H. Capitan (1966). Part X of Hume's "Dialogues&Quot;. American Philosophical Quarterly 3 (1):82 - 85.score: 15.0
    In hume's dialogues, Part x, Philo presents the trilemma attributed to epicurus: "is God willing but unable to prevent evil? able but unwilling? both willing and able? whence, Then is evil?" some critics say philo is trying to disprove god's existence. Some say he is not. I say he grants God exists as the first cause in order to show natural religion is impossible. For natural religion must establish god's benevolence, But it cannot combat "moderate scepticism" to establish any moral (...)
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  42. Michael Knoll & Rolf Dick (2013). Do I Hear the Whistle…? A First Attempt to Measure Four Forms of Employee Silence and Their Correlates. Journal of Business Ethics 113 (2):349-362.score: 15.0
    Silence in organizations refers to a state in which employees refrain from calling attention to issues at work such as illegal or immoral practices or developments that violate personal, moral, or legal standards. While Morrison and Milliken (Acad Manag Rev 25:706–725, 2000) discussed how organizational silence as a top-down organizational level phenomenon can cause employees to remain silent, a bottom-up perspective—that is, how employee motives contribute to the occurrence and maintenance of silence in organizations—has not yet been given much research (...)
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  43. Frank Hindriks, Sara Rachel Chant & Gerhard Preyer (2014). Beyond the Big Four and the Big Five. In Sara Rachel Chant, Frank Hindriks & Gerhard Preyer (eds.), From Individual to Collective Intentionality. 1-9.score: 15.0
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  44. Kenneth C. Clatterbaugh (1999). The Causation Debate in Modern Philosophy, 1637-1739. Routledge.score: 15.0
    The Causation Debate in Modern Philosophy examines the debate that began as modern science separated itself from natural philosophy in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The book specifically explores the two dominant approaches to causation as a metaphysical problem and as a scientific problem. As philosophy and science turned from the ideas of Aristotle that dominated western thought throughout the renaissance, one of the most pressing intellectual problems was how to replace Aristotelian science with its doctine of the four (...)
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  45. Peter R. Killeen (2001). Doing Versus Knowing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (6):1063-1064.score: 15.0
    Aristotle's four causes frame Webb's question. Comprehension requires specification of trigger, function, mechanism, and representation. Robots are real models of function. Physical, biological, and epigenetic constraints delimit the hypothesis space for candidate mechanisms. Robots constitute a simplified system more susceptible to formal representation than the target system. They thus constitute an important tool in a constructivist development of scientific knowledge.
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  46. Michael S. Moore (2012). Four Friendly Critics: A Response. Legal Theory 18 (4):491-542.score: 15.0
    In this reply, I seek to summarize fairly the criticisms advanced by each of my four critics, Jonathan Schaffer, Gideon Yaffe, John Gardner, and Carolina Sartorio. That there is so little overlap either in the aspects of the book on which they focus or in the arguments they advance about those issues has forced me to reply to each of them separately. Schaffer focuses much of his criticisms on my view that absences cannot serve as causal relata and argues (...)
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  47. Gabriela Rossi (2011). El Azar Segun Aristoteles: Estructuras de la Causalidad Accidental En Los Procesos Naturales y En la Accion. Academia Verlag.score: 15.0
    This work is the first monograph devoted to the interpretation of Aristotle’s theory of chance in Physics II 4-6 and its implications and projections in other treatises, including an original and comprehensive account of the Aristotelian conception of chance, of accidental causality in the realm of nature, and of accidental causality in the realm of human action. One of the main interpretative issues around Aristotle’s discussion of chance is its relation to the four causes and to teleology. In (...)
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  48. Hendrika Vande Kemp (2009). Overcoming Contradiction in the Four-Dimensional Dialectic of Action. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 29 (2):85-90.score: 15.0
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  49. John J. Ayres (1966). Some Artifactual Causes of Perceptual Primacy. Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (6):896.score: 15.0
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