Search results for 'general reduction-replacement model' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Ronald P. Endicott (2007). Reinforcing the Three ‘R's: Reduction, Reception, and Replacement. In M. Schouten & H. Looren de Jong (eds.), The Matter of the Mind: Philosophical Essays on Psychology, Neuroscience, and Reduction. Blackwell.score: 192.0
    Philosophers of science have offered different accounts of what it means for one scientific theory to reduce to another. I propose a more or less friendly amendment to Kenneth Schaffner’s “General Reduction-Replacementmodel of scientific unification. Schaffner interprets scientific unification broadly in terms of a continuum from theory reduction to theory replacement. As such, his account leaves no place on its continuum for type irreducible and irreplaceable theories. The same is true for other accounts that incorporate Schaffner's (...)
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  2. Shaughan Lavine (1993). Generalized Reduction Theorems for Model-Theoretic Analogs of the Class of Coanalytic Sets. Journal of Symbolic Logic 58 (1):81-98.score: 70.0
    Let A be an admissible set. A sentence of the form ∀R̄φ is a ∀1(A) (∀s 1(A),∀1(Lω1ω)) sentence if φ ∈ A (φ is $\bigvee\Phi$ , where Φ is an A-r.e. set of sentences from A; φ ∈ Lω1ω). A sentence of the form ∃R̄φ is an ∃2(A) (∃s 2(A),∃2(Lω1ω)) sentence if φ is a ∀1(A) (∀s 1(A),∀1(Lω1ω)) sentence. A class of structures is, for example, a ∀1(A) class if it is the class of models of a ∀1(A) sentence. Thus (...)
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  3. Kenneth B. Little, Yvonne Brackbill, Robert B. Isaacs & Norman Smelkinson (1963). A Further Test of a General Utility Theory Model for Probability Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 66 (1):107.score: 67.5
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  4. Eric R. Scerri (1991). The Electronic Configuration Model, Quantum Mechanics and Reduction. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 42 (3):309-325.score: 63.0
    The historical development of the electronic configuration model is traced and the status of the model with respect to quantum mechanics is examined. The successes and problems raised by the model are explored, particularly in chemical ab initio calculations. The relevance of these issues to whether chemistry has been reduced to quantum mechanics is discussed, as are some general notions on reduction.
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  5. Cory D. Wright (2000). Eliminativist Undercurrents in the New Wave Model of Psychoneural Reduction. Journal of Mind and Behavior 21 (4):413-436.score: 54.0
    "New wave" reductionism aims at advancing a kind of reduction that is stronger than unilateral dependency of the mental on the physical. It revolves around the idea that reduction between theoretical levels is a matter of degree, and can be laid out on a continuum between a "smooth" pole (theoretical identity) and a "bumpy" pole (extremely revisionary). It also entails that both higher and lower levels of the reductive relationship sustain some degree of explanatory autonomy. The new wave predicts that (...)
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  6. C. Ulises Moulines (2006). Ontology, Reduction, Emergence: A General Frame. Synthese 151 (3):313-323.score: 54.0
    In a scientific context, ontological commitments should be considered as supervenient over accepted scientific theories. This implies that the primarily ontological notions of reduction and emergence of entities of different kinds should be reformulated in terms of relations between existing empirical theories. For this, in turn, it is most convenient to employ a model-theoretic view of scientific theories: the identity criterion of a scientific theory is essentially given by a class of models. Accordingly, reduction and emergence are to be (...)
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  7. Raphael van Riel (2011). Nagelian Reduction Beyond the Nagel Model. Philosophy of Science 78 (3):353-375.score: 54.0
    Nagel’s official model of theory-reduction and the way it is represented in the literature are shown to be incompatible with the careful remarks on the notion of reduction Nagel gave while developing his model. Based on these remarks, an alternative model is outlined which does not face some of the problems the official model faces. Taking the context in which Nagel developed his model into account, it is shown that the way Nagel shaped his (...) and, thus, its well-known deficiencies, are best conceived of as a mere by-product of his philosophical background. (shrink)
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  8. G. C. Ghirardi, R. Grassi & P. Pearle (1990). Relativistic Dynamical Reduction Models: General Framework and Examples. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 20 (11):1271-1316.score: 54.0
    The formulation of a relativistic theory of state-vector reduction is proposed and analyzed, and its conceptual consequences are elucidated. In particular, a detailed discussion of stochastic invariance and of local and nonlocal aspects at the level of individual systems is presented.
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  9. Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther (2009). Schaffner's Model of Theory Reduction: Critique and Reconstruction. Philosophy of Science 76 (2):119-142.score: 53.0
    Schaffner’s model of theory reduction has played an important role in philosophy of science and philosophy of biology. Here, the model is found to be problematic because of an internal tension. Indeed, standard antireductionist external criticisms concerning reduction functions and laws in biology do not provide a full picture of the limits of Schaffner’s model. However, despite the internal tension, his model usefully highlights the importance of regulative ideals associated with the search for derivational, and embedding, (...)
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  10. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2006). Reduction: The Cheshire Cat Problem and a Return to Roots. Synthese 151 (3):377 - 402.score: 50.0
    In this paper, I propose two theses, and then examine what the consequences of those theses are for discussions of reduction and emergence. The first thesis is that what have traditionally been seen as robust, reductions of one theory or one branch of science by another more fundamental one are a largely a myth. Although there are such reductions in the physical sciences, they are quite rare, and depend on special requirements. In the biological sciences, these prima facie sweeping reductions (...)
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  11. Karl-Georg Niebergall (2002). Structuralism, Model Theory and Reduction. Synthese 130 (1):135 - 162.score: 48.0
    In this paper, the (possible) role of model theory forstructuralism and structuralist definitions of ``reduction'' arediscussed. Whereas it is somewhat undecisive with respect tothe first point – discussing some pro's and con's ofthe model theoretic approach when compared with a syntacticand a structuralist one – it emphasizes that severalstructuralist definitions of ``reducibility'' do not providegenerally acceptable explications of ``reducibility''. This claimrests on some mathematical results proved in this paper.
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  12. Nicholaos Jones (2009). General Relativity and the Standard Model: Why Evidence for One Does Not Disconfirm the Other. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 40 (2):124-132.score: 48.0
    General Relativity and the Standard Model often are touted as the most rigorously and extensively confirmed scientific hypotheses of all time. Nonetheless, these theories appear to have consequences that are inconsistent with evidence about phenomena for which, respectively, quantum effects and gravity matter. This paper suggests an explanation for why the theories are not disconfirmed by such evidence. The key to this explanation is an approach to scientific hypotheses that allows their actual content to differ from their apparent (...)
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  13. Emma Ruttkamp & Johannes Heidema (2005). Reviewing Reduction in a Preferential Model-Theoretic Context. [REVIEW] International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 19 (2):123 – 146.score: 48.0
    In this article, we redefine classical notions of theory reduction in such a way that model-theoretic preferential semantics becomes part of a realist depiction of this aspect of science. We offer a model-theoretic reconstruction of science in which theory succession or reduction is often better - or at a finer level of analysis - interpreted as the result of model succession or reduction. This analysis leads to 'defeasible reduction', defined as follows: The conjunction of the assumptions of (...)
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  14. Brian Hill (2008). Towards a “Sophisticated” Model of Belief Dynamics. Part I: The General Framework. Studia Logica 89 (1):81 - 109.score: 48.0
    It is well-known that classical models of belief are not realistic representations of human doxastic capacity; equally, models of actions involving beliefs, such as decisions based on beliefs, or changes of beliefs, suffer from a similar inaccuracies. In this paper, a general framework is presented which permits a more realistic modelling both of instantaneous states of belief, and of the operations involving them. This framework is motivated by some of the inadequacies of existing models, which it overcomes, whilst retaining (...)
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  15. M. Cini, M. De Maria, G. Mattioli & F. Nicolò (1979). Wave Packet Reduction in Quantum Mechanics: A Model of a Measuring Apparatus. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 9 (7-8):479-500.score: 48.0
    We investigate the problem of “wave packet reduction” in quantum mechanics by solving the Schrödinger equation for a system composed of a model measuring apparatusM interacting with a microscopic objects. The “instrument” is intended to be somewhat more realistic than others previously proposed, but at the same time still simple enough to lead to an explicit solution for the time-dependent density matrix. It turns out that,practically, everything happens as if the wave packet reduction had occurred. This is a consequence (...)
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  16. V. Csanyi (1987). The Replicative Model of Evolution: A General Theory. World Futures 23 (1):31-65.score: 48.0
    Formulation of a general model of evolution is presented which is based upon the recognition of the ?biosocial? entity, that is the biosphere and human society, as a component?system. It can be demonstrated that the interactions of the components (moleculas, cells, organisms, ecosystems in the biological realms and people, artifacts and ideas in the societies) have replicative organization. We suggest an explanation for the spontaneous emergence of replicative function and organization, a process called autogenesis. During autogenesis, hierarchical levels (...)
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  17. James Gaa (1975). The Replacement of Scientific Theories: Reduction and Explication. Philosophy of Science 42 (4):349-372.score: 48.0
    An examination of earlier views yields an account of theoretic change on which changes in theory which do involve changes in meanings of terms are classified as a special (and by no means exhaustive) case of theoretic change which, latter, is construed as a more general phenomenon. Only the general problem is given detailed consideration here. The account given considers the problem of how replacement of intensional theories by extensional ones may be treated within the general framework (...)
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  18. T. Kushner (1981). Doctor-Patient Relationships in General Practice--A Different Model. Journal of Medical Ethics 7 (3):128-131.score: 48.0
    Philosophical concerns cannot be excluded from even a cursory examination of the physician-patient relationship. Two possible alternatives for determining what this relationship entails are the teleological (outcome) approach vs the deontological (process) one. Traditionally, this relationship has been structured around the 'clinical model' which views the physician-patient relationship in teleological terms. Data on the actual content of general medical practice indicate the advisability of reassessing this relationship, and suggest that the 'clinical model' may be too limiting, and (...)
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  19. Sahotra Sarkar (1990). On Adaptation: A Reduction of the Kauffman-Levin Model to a Problem in Graph Theory and its Consequences. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 5 (2):127-148.score: 48.0
    It is shown that complex adaptations are best modelled as discrete processes represented on directed weighted graphs. Such a representation captures the idea that problems of adaptation in evolutionary biology are problems in a discrete space, something that the conventional representations using continuous adaptive landscapes does not. Further, this representation allows the utilization of well-known algorithms for the computation of several biologically interesting results such as the accessibility of one allele from another by a specified number of point mutations, the (...)
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  20. Kim F. Nimon (2012). Statistical Assumptions of Substantive Analyses Across the General Linear Model: A Mini-Review. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 48.0
    The validity of inferences drawn from statistical test results depends on how well data meet associated assumptions. Yet, research (e.g., Hoekstra, Kiers, & Johnson, 2012) indicates that such assumptions are rarely reported in literature and that some researchers might be unfamiliar with the techniques and remedies that are pertinent to the statistical tests they conduct. This article seeks to support researchers by concisely reviewing key statistical assumptions associated with substantive statistical tests across the general linear model. Additionally, the (...)
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  21. Kenneth B. Little, Yvonne Brackbill & Stephen H. Kassel (1962). A Test of a General Utility Theory Model for Probability Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 63 (4):404.score: 46.5
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  22. Ausonio Marras (2002). Kim on Reduction. Erkenntnis 57 (2):231-57.score: 45.0
    In Mind in a Physical World (1998), Jaegwon Kim has recently extended his ongoing critique of `non-reductive materialist' positions in philosophy of mind by arguing that Nagel's model of reduction is the wrong paradigm in terms of which to contest the issue of psychophysical reduction, and that an altogether different model of scientific reduction – a functional model of reduction – is needed. In this paper I argue, first, that Kim's conception of the Nagelian model is (...)
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  23. Paul L. Gersper, Carmen S. Rodríguez-Barbosa & Laura F. Orlando (1993). Soil Conservation in Cuba: A Key to the New Model for Agriculture. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 10 (3):16-23.score: 43.0
    Most aspects of agriculture in Cuba prior to 1989 were comparable to California: a high energy input, conventional agriculture (based on what the Cubans now call the “classical model”) in which little was done to protect the nation's soils from erosion, loss of fertility, salinization, and other forms of degradation. In stark contrast the new “Alternative Model,” which has been rapidly replacing the previous model since 1989, emphasizes soil conservation and rehabilitation and the general improvement of (...)
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  24. Max Kistler (2006). Reduction and Emergence in the Physical Sciences: Reply to Rueger. Synthese 151 (3):347 - 354.score: 42.0
    I analyse Rueger’s application of Kim’s model of functional reduction to the relation between the thermal conductivities of metal bars at macroscopic and atomic scales. 1) I show that it is a misunderstanding to accuse the functional reduction model of not accounting for the fact that there are causal powers at the micro-level which have no equivalent at the macro-level. The model not only allows but requires that the causal powers by virtue of which a functional predicate (...)
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  25. J. Butterfield (2011). Less is Different: Emergence and Reduction Reconciled. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 41 (6):1065-1135.score: 42.0
    This is a companion to another paper. Together they rebut two widespread philosophical doctrines about emergence. The first, and main, doctrine is that emergence is incompatible with reduction. The second is that emergence is supervenience; or more exactly, supervenience without reduction.In the other paper, I develop these rebuttals in general terms, emphasising the second rebuttal. Here I discuss the situation in physics, emphasising the first rebuttal. I focus on limiting relations between theories and illustrate my claims with four examples, (...)
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  26. Rens Bod (2006). Towards a General Model of Applying Science. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 20 (1):5 – 25.score: 42.0
    How is scientific knowledge used, adapted, and extended in deriving phenomena and real-world systems? This paper aims at developing a general account of 'applying science' within the exemplar-based framework of Data-Oriented Processing (DOP), which is also known as Exemplar-Based Explanation (EBE). According to the exemplar-based paradigm, phenomena are explained not by deriving them all the way down from theoretical laws and boundary conditions but by modelling them on previously derived phenomena that function as exemplars. To accomplish this, DOP proposes (...)
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  27. Yilun Shang (2013). Deffuant Model with General Opinion Distributions: First Impression and Critical Confidence Bound. Complexity 19 (2):38-49.score: 42.0
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  28. Mandana Shirazi, Seyed Mohammad Assadi, Majid Sadeghi, Ali A. Zeinaloo, Ahmad S. Kashani, Mohammad Arbabi, Farshid Alaedini, Kirsti Lonka & Rolf Wahlstrom (2007). Applying a Modified Prochaska's Model of Readiness to Change for General Practitioners on Depressive Disorders in CME Programmes: Validation of Tool. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (2):298-302.score: 42.0
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  29. Jeffrey E. Foss (1995). Materialism, Reduction, Replacement, and the Place of Consciousness in Science. Journal of Philosophy 92 (8):401-29.score: 40.5
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  30. Anton Markoš & Fatima Cvrčková (2013). The Meaning(s) of Information, Code … and Meaning. Biosemiotics 6 (1):61-75.score: 40.5
    Meaning is a central concept of (bio)semiotics. At the same time, it is also a word of everyday language. Here, on the example of the world information, we discuss the “reduction-inflation model” of evolution of a common word into a scientific concept, to return subsequently into everyday circulation with new connotations. Such may be, in the near future, also the fate of the word meaning if, flexed through objectified semantics, will become considered an objective concept usable in semiotics. We (...)
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  31. W. D. Christensen & C. A. Hooker (forthcoming). A General Interactivist-Constructivist Model of Intentionality. Contemporary Naturalist Theories of Evolution and Intentionality, Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Special Supplementary Volume.score: 40.5
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  32. Michael E. Ruse (1971). Reduction, Replacement, and Molecular Biology. Dialectica 25 (1):39-72.score: 40.5
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  33. Roger Penrose & Stuart Hameroff (1996). Orchestrated Objective Reduction of Quantum Coherence in Brain Microtubules: The "Orch OR" Model for Consciousness. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 40:453-480.score: 39.0
    Features of consciousness difficult to understand in terms of conventional neuroscience have evoked application of quantum theory, which describes the fundamental behavior of matter and energy. In this paper we propose that aspects of quantum theory (e.g. quantum coherence) and of a newly proposed physical phenomenon of quantum wave function "self-collapse"(objective reduction: OR -Penrose, 1994) are essential for consciousness, and occur in cytoskeletal microtubules and other structures within each of the brain's neurons. The particular characteristics of microtubules suitable for quantum (...)
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  34. Masudul Alam Choudhury (2011). A Critique of Economic Theory and Modeling: A Meta-Epistemological General-System Model of Islamic Economics. Social Epistemology 25 (4):423 - 446.score: 39.0
    The scientific methodology underlying model-building is critically investigated. The modeling views of Popper and Samuelson and their prototypes are critically examined in the light of the theme of the moral law of unity of knowledge and unity of the world-system configured by the meta-epistemology of organic unity of knowledge. Upon such critical examination of received methodology of model-building in economics, the extended perspective?namely of integrating the moral law derived from the divine roots as the meta-epistemology?is rigorously studied. The (...)
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  35. Julian C. Leslie (2001). Selection in Operant Learning May Fit a General Model. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):542-543.score: 39.0
    The generic account of selection proposed by Hull et al. readily fits operant learning where, by comparison with natural selection, the process is well understood but little is known about the mechanism. Objections within psychology, that operant learning ignores internal processes, fail to recognise the general significance of behaviour-environment interactions. Variation within operant response classes requires further investigation.
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  36. Russell W. Jennings, Joe Vinovich & Thomas J. Pace (1974). A Simulated Communication Model of Community Action Organizations: An Application of General Systems Theory and General Semantics. In Donald E. Washburn & Dennis R. Smith (eds.), Coping with Increasing Complexity: Implications of General Semantics and General Systems Theory. Gordon and Breach. 208.score: 39.0
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  37. Foad Dizadji-Bahmani, Roman Frigg & Stephan Hartmann (2011). Confirmation and Reduction: A Bayesian Account. Synthese 179 (2):321 - 338.score: 38.0
    Various scientific theories stand in a reductive relation to each other. In a recent article, we have argued that a generalized version of the Nagel-Schaffner model (GNS) is the right account of this relation. In this article, we present a Bayesian analysis of how GNS impacts on confirmation. We formalize the relation between the reducing and the reduced theory before and after the reduction using Bayesian networks, and thereby show that, post-reduction, the two theories are confirmatory of each other. (...)
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  38. Bettina Hannover & Ulrich Kühnen (2007). I-SELF: A Connectionist Model of the Self or Just a General Learing Model? Comment on "Connectionism and Self: James, Mead, and the Stream of Enculturated Consciousness" by Kashima Et Al. Psychological Inquiry 18 (2):102-107.score: 38.0
  39. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1967). Approaches to Reduction. Philosophy of Science 34 (2):137-147.score: 37.5
    Four current accounts of theory reduction are presented, first informally and then formally: (1) an account of direct theory reduction that is based on the contributions of Nagel, Woodger, and Quine, (2) an indirect reduction paradigm due to Kemeny and Oppenheim, (3) an "isomorphic model" schema traceable to Suppes, and (4) a theory of reduction that is based on the work of Popper, Feyerabend, and Kuhn. Reference is made, in an attempt to choose between these schemas, to the explanation (...)
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  40. Helmut F. Spinner (1973). Science Without Reduction. Inquiry 16 (1-4):16 – 94.score: 36.5
    The aim of this essay is a criticism of reductionism ? both in its ?static? interpretation (usually referred to as the layer model or level?picture of science) and in its ?dynamic? interpretation (as a theory of the growth of scientific knowledge), with emphasis on the latter ? from the point of view of Popperian fallibilism and Feyerabendian pluralism, but without being committed to the idiosyncrasies of these standpoints. In both aspects of criticism, the rejection is based on the proposal (...)
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  41. C. A. Hooker (1981). Towards a General Theory of Reduction. Part III: Cross-Categorical Reduction. Dialogue 20 (03):496-529.score: 36.0
  42. C. A. Hooker (1981). Towards a General Theory of Reduction. Part II: Identity in Reduction. Dialogue 20 (02):201-236.score: 36.0
  43. Sahotra Sarkar (1992). Models of Reduction and Categories of Reductionism. Synthese 91 (3):167-94.score: 36.0
    A classification of models of reduction into three categories — theory reductionism, explanatory reductionism, and constitutive reductionism — is presented. It is shown that this classification helps clarify the relations between various explications of reduction that have been offered in the past, especially if a distinction is maintained between the various epistemological and ontological issues that arise. A relatively new model of explanatory reduction, one that emphasizes that reduction is the explanation of a whole in terms of its parts (...)
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  44. Stuart Glennan (2010). Mechanisms, Causes, and the Layered Model of the World. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 81 (2):362-381.score: 36.0
    Most philosophical accounts of causation take causal relations to obtain between individuals and events in virtue of nomological relations between properties of these individuals and events. Such views fail to take into account the consequences of the fact that in general the properties of individuals and events will depend upon mechanisms that realize those properties. In this paper I attempt to rectify this failure, and in so doing to provide an account of the causal relevance of higher-level properties. I (...)
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  45. Stuart R. Hameroff & Roger Penrose (1996). Orchestrated Reduction of Quantum Coherence in Brain Microtubules: A Model for Consciousness. In Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness. MIT Press.score: 36.0
  46. Aldo Frigerio, Alessandro Giordani & Luca Mari (2010). Outline of a General Model of Measurement. Synthese 175 (2):123-149.score: 36.0
    Measurement is a process aimed at acquiring and codifying information about properties of empirical entities. In this paper we provide an interpretation of such a process comparing it with what is nowadays considered the standard measurement theory, i.e., representational theory of measurement. It is maintained here that this theory has its own merits but it is incomplete and too abstract, its main weakness being the scant attention reserved to the empirical side of measurement, i.e., to measurement systems and to the (...)
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  47. C. A. Hooker (1981). Towards a General Theory of Reduction. Part I: Historical and Scientific Setting. Dialogue 20 (01):38-59.score: 36.0
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  48. Sven Ove Hansson (2009). Replacement—a Sheffer Stroke for Belief Change. Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (2):127 - 149.score: 36.0
    By replacement is meant an operation that replaces one sentence by another in a belief set. Replacement can be used as a kind of Sheffer stroke for belief change, since contraction, revision, and expansion can all be defined in terms of it. Replacement can also be defined either in terms of contraction or in terms of revision. Close connections are shown to hold between axioms for replacement and axioms for contraction and revision. Partial meet replacement is axiomatically characterized. It is (...)
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  49. Christopher Thompson (2013). A General Model of a Group Search Procedure, Applied to Epistemic Democracy. Synthese 190 (7):1233-1252.score: 36.0
    The standard epistemic justification for inclusiveness in political decision making is the Condorcet Jury Theorem, which states that the probability of a correct decision using majority rule increases in group size (given certain assumptions). Informally, majority rule acts as a mechanism to pool the information contained in the judgements of individual agents. I aim to extend the explanation of how groups of political agents track the truth. Before agents can pool the information, they first need to find truth-conducive information. Increasing (...)
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  50. Nicola Angius (2013). Abstraction and Idealization in the Formal Verification of Software Systems. Minds and Machines 23 (2):211-226.score: 36.0
    Questions concerning the epistemological status of computer science are, in this paper, answered from the point of view of the formal verification framework. State space reduction techniques adopted to simplify computational models in model checking are analysed in terms of Aristotelian abstractions and Galilean idealizations characterizing the inquiry of empirical systems. Methodological considerations drawn here are employed to argue in favour of the scientific understanding of computer science as a discipline. Specifically, reduced models gained by Dataion are acknowledged as (...)
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