Search results for 'general reduction-replacement model' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Ronald P. Endicott (2007). Reinforcing the Three ‘R's: Reduction, Reception, and Replacement. In M. Schouten & H. Looren de Jong (eds.), The Matter of the Mind: Philosophical Essays on Psychology, Neuroscience, and Reduction. Blackwell
    Philosophers of science have offered different accounts of what it means for one scientific theory to reduce to another. I propose a more or less friendly amendment to Kenneth Schaffner’s “General Reduction-Replacementmodel of scientific unification. Schaffner interprets scientific unification broadly in terms of a continuum from theory reduction to theory replacement. As such, his account leaves no place on its continuum for type irreducible and irreplaceable theories. The same is true for other accounts that incorporate Schaffner's (...)
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  2.  19
    Joshua Rosaler, Theory Reduction in Physics: A Model-Based, Dynamical Systems Approach.
    In 1973, Nickles identified two senses in which the term `reduction' is used to describe the relationship between physical theories: namely, the sense based on Nagel's seminal account of reduction in the sciences, and the sense that seeks to extract one physical theory as a mathematical limit of another. These two approaches have since been the focus of most literature on the subject, as evidenced by recent work of Batterman and Butterfield, among others. In this paper, I discuss a third (...)
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  3.  37
    Eric R. Scerri (1991). The Electronic Configuration Model, Quantum Mechanics and Reduction. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 42 (3):309-325.
    The historical development of the electronic configuration model is traced and the status of the model with respect to quantum mechanics is examined. The successes and problems raised by the model are explored, particularly in chemical ab initio calculations. The relevance of these issues to whether chemistry has been reduced to quantum mechanics is discussed, as are some general notions on reduction.
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  4.  69
    C. Ulises Moulines (2006). Ontology, Reduction, Emergence: A General Frame. Synthese 151 (3):313-323.
    In a scientific context, ontological commitments should be considered as supervenient over accepted scientific theories. This implies that the primarily ontological notions of reduction and emergence of entities of different kinds should be reformulated in terms of relations between existing empirical theories. For this, in turn, it is most convenient to employ a model-theoretic view of scientific theories: the identity criterion of a scientific theory is essentially given by a class of models. Accordingly, reduction and emergence are to be (...)
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  5.  6
    C. Ulises Moulines (2006). Ontology, Reduction, Emergence: A General Frame. Synthese 151 (3):313-323.
    In a scientific context, ontological commitments should be considered as supervenient over accepted scientific theories. This implies that the primarily ontological notions of reduction and emergence of entities of different kinds should be reformulated in terms of relations between existing empirical theories. For this, in turn, it is most convenient to employ a model-theoretic view of scientific theories: the identity criterion of a scientific theory is essentially given by a class of models. Accordingly, reduction and emergence are to be (...)
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  6.  10
    James Gaa (1975). The Replacement of Scientific Theories: Reduction and Explication. Philosophy of Science 42 (4):349-372.
    An examination of earlier views yields an account of theoretic change on which changes in theory which do involve changes in meanings of terms are classified as a special (and by no means exhaustive) case of theoretic change which, latter, is construed as a more general phenomenon. Only the general problem is given detailed consideration here. The account given considers the problem of how replacement of intensional theories by extensional ones may be treated within the general framework (...)
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  7.  6
    Shaughan Lavine (1993). Generalized Reduction Theorems for Model-Theoretic Analogs of the Class of Coanalytic Sets. Journal of Symbolic Logic 58 (1):81-98.
    Let A be an admissible set. A sentence of the form ∀R̄φ is a ∀1(A) (∀s 1(A),∀1(Lω1ω)) sentence if φ ∈ A (φ is $\bigvee\Phi$ , where Φ is an A-r.e. set of sentences from A; φ ∈ Lω1ω). A sentence of the form ∃R̄φ is an ∃2(A) (∃s 2(A),∃2(Lω1ω)) sentence if φ is a ∀1(A) (∀s 1(A),∀1(Lω1ω)) sentence. A class of structures is, for example, a ∀1(A) class if it is the class of models of a ∀1(A) sentence. Thus (...)
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    Massimo Negrotti (2004). Naturoids: From Representations to Concrete Realizations. Pragmatics and Cognition 12 (1):37-56.
    It is a commonplace to maintain that technology will never be able to reproduce a natural object in full detail. Nevertheless, if one tries to rigorously demonstrate the methodological foundation on which such an assumption is based, one finds a number of interesting problems to clarify. This paper attempts to provide a general framework for the understanding of naturoids , arguing that every naturoid — and the cognitive model upon which it is based — is the result of (...)
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  9.  2
    Kenneth B. Little, Yvonne Brackbill, Robert B. Isaacs & Norman Smelkinson (1963). A Further Test of a General Utility Theory Model for Probability Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 66 (1):107.
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  10.  48
    J. Butterfield (2011). Less is Different: Emergence and Reduction Reconciled. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 41 (6):1065-1135.
    This is a companion to another paper. Together they rebut two widespread philosophical doctrines about emergence. The first, and main, doctrine is that emergence is incompatible with reduction. The second is that emergence is supervenience; or more exactly, supervenience without reduction.In the other paper, I develop these rebuttals in general terms, emphasising the second rebuttal. Here I discuss the situation in physics, emphasising the first rebuttal. I focus on limiting relations between theories and illustrate my claims with four examples, (...)
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  11. Raphael van Riel (2011). Nagelian Reduction Beyond the Nagel Model. Philosophy of Science 78 (3):353-375.
    Nagel’s official model of theory-reduction and the way it is represented in the literature are shown to be incompatible with the careful remarks on the notion of reduction Nagel gave while developing his model. Based on these remarks, an alternative model is outlined which does not face some of the problems the official model faces. Taking the context in which Nagel developed his model into account, it is shown that the way Nagel shaped his (...) and, thus, its well-known deficiencies, are best conceived of as a mere by-product of his philosophical background. (shrink)
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  12. Cory D. Wright (2000). Eliminativist Undercurrents in the New Wave Model of Psychoneural Reduction. Journal of Mind and Behavior 21 (4):413-436.
    "New wave" reductionism aims at advancing a kind of reduction that is stronger than unilateral dependency of the mental on the physical. It revolves around the idea that reduction between theoretical levels is a matter of degree, and can be laid out on a continuum between a "smooth" pole (theoretical identity) and a "bumpy" pole (extremely revisionary). It also entails that both higher and lower levels of the reductive relationship sustain some degree of explanatory autonomy. The new wave predicts that (...)
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  13.  1
    Shira Calamaro & Gaja Jarosz (2015). Learning General Phonological Rules From Distributional Information: A Computational Model. Cognitive Science 39 (3):647-666.
    Phonological rules create alternations in the phonetic realizations of related words. These rules must be learned by infants in order to identify the phonological inventory, the morphological structure, and the lexicon of a language. Recent work proposes a computational model for the learning of one kind of phonological alternation, allophony . This paper extends the model to account for learning of a broader set of phonological alternations and the formalization of these alternations as general rules. In Experiment (...)
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  14.  1
    Kenneth B. Little, Yvonne Brackbill & Stephen H. Kassel (1962). A Test of a General Utility Theory Model for Probability Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 63 (4):404.
  15.  12
    V. Csanyi (1987). The Replicative Model of Evolution: A General Theory. World Futures 23 (1):31-65.
    Formulation of a general model of evolution is presented which is based upon the recognition of the ?biosocial? entity, that is the biosphere and human society, as a component?system. It can be demonstrated that the interactions of the components (moleculas, cells, organisms, ecosystems in the biological realms and people, artifacts and ideas in the societies) have replicative organization. We suggest an explanation for the spontaneous emergence of replicative function and organization, a process called autogenesis. During autogenesis, hierarchical levels (...)
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  16.  80
    Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther (2009). Schaffner's Model of Theory Reduction: Critique and Reconstruction. Philosophy of Science 76 (2):119-142.
    Schaffner’s model of theory reduction has played an important role in philosophy of science and philosophy of biology. Here, the model is found to be problematic because of an internal tension. Indeed, standard antireductionist external criticisms concerning reduction functions and laws in biology do not provide a full picture of the limits of Schaffner’s model. However, despite the internal tension, his model usefully highlights the importance of regulative ideals associated with the search for derivational, and embedding, (...)
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  17. Marie I. Kaiser (2012). Why It Is Time To Move Beyond Nagelian Reduction. In D. Dieks, W. J. Gonzalez, S. Hartmann, M. Stöltzner & M. Weber (eds.), Probabilities, Laws, and Structures. The Philosophy of Science in a European Perspective. Springer
    In this paper I argue that it is finally time to move beyond the Nagelian framework and to break new ground in thinking about epistemic reduction in biology. I will do so, not by simply repeating all the old objections that have been raised against Ernest Nagel’s classical model of theory reduction. Rather, I grant that a proponent of Nagel’s approach can handle several of these problems but that, nevertheless, Nagel’s general way of thinking about epistemic reduction in (...)
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  18.  8
    Ivan Boldyrev & Alexey Ushakov (2015). Adjusting the Model to Adjust the World: Constructive Mechanisms in Postwar General Equilibrium Theory. Journal of Economic Methodology 23 (1):38-56.
    Economic methodologists most often study the relations between models and reality while focusing on the issues of the model's epistemic relevance in terms of its relation to the ‘real world’ and representing the real world in a model. We complement the discussion by bringing the model's constructive mechanisms or self-implementing technologies in play. By this, we mean the elements of the economic model that are aimed at ‘implementing’ it by envisaging the ways to change the reality (...)
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  19.  18
    Brian Hill (2008). Towards a “Sophisticated” Model of Belief Dynamics. Part I: The General Framework. Studia Logica 89 (1):81 - 109.
    It is well-known that classical models of belief are not realistic representations of human doxastic capacity; equally, models of actions involving beliefs, such as decisions based on beliefs, or changes of beliefs, suffer from a similar inaccuracies. In this paper, a general framework is presented which permits a more realistic modelling both of instantaneous states of belief, and of the operations involving them. This framework is motivated by some of the inadequacies of existing models, which it overcomes, whilst retaining (...)
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  20. Karl-Georg Niebergall (2002). Structuralism, Model Theory and Reduction. Synthese 130 (1):135 - 162.
    In this paper, the (possible) role of model theory forstructuralism and structuralist definitions of ``reduction'' arediscussed. Whereas it is somewhat undecisive with respect tothe first point – discussing some pro's and con's ofthe model theoretic approach when compared with a syntacticand a structuralist one – it emphasizes that severalstructuralist definitions of ``reducibility'' do not providegenerally acceptable explications of ``reducibility''. This claimrests on some mathematical results proved in this paper.
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  21.  60
    Nicholaos Jones (2009). General Relativity and the Standard Model: Why Evidence for One Does Not Disconfirm the Other. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 40 (2):124-132.
    General Relativity and the Standard Model often are touted as the most rigorously and extensively confirmed scientific hypotheses of all time. Nonetheless, these theories appear to have consequences that are inconsistent with evidence about phenomena for which, respectively, quantum effects and gravity matter. This paper suggests an explanation for why the theories are not disconfirmed by such evidence. The key to this explanation is an approach to scientific hypotheses that allows their actual content to differ from their apparent (...)
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  22.  2
    Sue Taylor Parker (1997). A General Model for the Adaptive Function of Self-Knowledge in Animals and Humans. Consciousness and Cognition 6 (1):75-86.
    This article offers a general definition of self-knowledge that embraces all forms and levels of self-knowledge in animals and humans. It is hypothesized that various levels of self-knowledge constitute an ordinal scale such that each species in a lineage displays the forms of self-knowledge found in related species as well as new forms it and its sister species may have evolved. Likewise, it is hypothesized that these various forms of levels of self-knowledge develop in the sequence in which they (...)
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  23.  6
    David Pearce & Veikko Rantala (1982). Constructing a General Model of Theory Dynamics. Bulletin of the Section of Logic 11 (1/2):56-60.
    Though formal metascience has made rapid advances over the past few decades, it has seldom been seen to contribute much to the rational reconstruction of scientic development; for the most part, logical concepts have found application in the synchronic analysis of scientic theories. It should be important, therefore, to consider to what extent diachronic or dynamic aspects of scientic theorizing may also be captured within the connes of a formal metascientic framework, and what tools are best suited for constructing a (...)
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  24.  3
    Steve Maxwell (1998). A General Model Completeness Result for Expansions of the Real Ordered Field. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 95 (1-3):185-227.
    We approach the subject of o-minimality from the point of view of tame systems, following the work of Charbonnel and Wilkie. This gives some general sufficient conditions for a system to be model complete and o-minimal. We are then able to obtain the following generalisation of a recent result of Gabrielov : A polynomially bounded o-minimal expansion of the real ordered field by a collection of restricted C∝ functions, which is closed under partial differentiation, is model complete.
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  25.  32
    Max Kistler (2006). Reduction and Emergence in the Physical Sciences: Reply to Rueger. Synthese 151 (3):347 - 354.
    I analyse Rueger’s application of Kim’s model of functional reduction to the relation between the thermal conductivities of metal bars at macroscopic and atomic scales. 1) I show that it is a misunderstanding to accuse the functional reduction model of not accounting for the fact that there are causal powers at the micro-level which have no equivalent at the macro-level. The model not only allows but requires that the causal powers by virtue of which a functional predicate (...)
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  26.  6
    M. Cini, M. De Maria, G. Mattioli & F. Nicolò (1979). Wave Packet Reduction in Quantum Mechanics: A Model of a Measuring Apparatus. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 9 (7-8):479-500.
    We investigate the problem of “wave packet reduction” in quantum mechanics by solving the Schrödinger equation for a system composed of a model measuring apparatusM interacting with a microscopic objects. The “instrument” is intended to be somewhat more realistic than others previously proposed, but at the same time still simple enough to lead to an explicit solution for the time-dependent density matrix. It turns out that,practically, everything happens as if the wave packet reduction had occurred. This is a consequence (...)
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  27.  6
    T. Kushner (1981). Doctor-Patient Relationships in General Practice--A Different Model. Journal of Medical Ethics 7 (3):128-131.
    Philosophical concerns cannot be excluded from even a cursory examination of the physician-patient relationship. Two possible alternatives for determining what this relationship entails are the teleological (outcome) approach vs the deontological (process) one. Traditionally, this relationship has been structured around the 'clinical model' which views the physician-patient relationship in teleological terms. Data on the actual content of general medical practice indicate the advisability of reassessing this relationship, and suggest that the 'clinical model' may be too limiting, and (...)
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  28.  5
    Walter Carnielli, Marcelo E. Coniglio, Rodrigo Podiacki & Tarcísio Rodrigues (2014). On the Way to a Wider Model Theory: Completeness Theorems for First-Order Logics of Formal Inconsistency. Review of Symbolic Logic 7 (3):548-578.
    This paper investigates the question of characterizing first-order LFIs (logics of formal inconsistency) by means of two-valued semantics. LFIs are powerful paraconsistent logics that encode classical logic and permit a finer distinction between contradictions and inconsistencies, with a deep involvement in philosophical and foundational questions. Although focused on just one particular case, namely, the quantified logic QmbC, the method proposed here is completely general for this kind of logics, and can be easily extended to a large family of quantified (...)
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  29.  15
    Emma Ruttkamp & Johannes Heidema (2005). Reviewing Reduction in a Preferential Model-Theoretic Context. [REVIEW] International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 19 (2):123 – 146.
    In this article, we redefine classical notions of theory reduction in such a way that model-theoretic preferential semantics becomes part of a realist depiction of this aspect of science. We offer a model-theoretic reconstruction of science in which theory succession or reduction is often better - or at a finer level of analysis - interpreted as the result of model succession or reduction. This analysis leads to 'defeasible reduction', defined as follows: The conjunction of the assumptions of (...)
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  30.  10
    Sahotra Sarkar (1990). On Adaptation: A Reduction of the Kauffman-Levin Model to a Problem in Graph Theory and its Consequences. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 5 (2):127-148.
    It is shown that complex adaptations are best modelled as discrete processes represented on directed weighted graphs. Such a representation captures the idea that problems of adaptation in evolutionary biology are problems in a discrete space, something that the conventional representations using continuous adaptive landscapes does not. Further, this representation allows the utilization of well-known algorithms for the computation of several biologically interesting results such as the accessibility of one allele from another by a specified number of point mutations, the (...)
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  31.  3
    Dirk Ullrich (2014). A General Principle for Purely Model-Theoretical Proofs of Gödel’s Second Incompleteness Theorem. Logic and Logical Philosophy 6:173.
    By generalizing Kreisel’s proof of the Second Incompleteness Theorem of G¨odel I extract a general principle which can also be used for otherpurely model-theoretical proofs of that theorem.
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  32. David Colander (ed.) (2006). Post Walrasian Macroeconomics: Beyond the Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium Model. Cambridge University Press.
    Macroeconomics is evolving in an almost dialectic fashion. The latest evolution is the development of a new synthesis that combines insights of new classical, new Keynesian and real business cycle traditions into a dynamic, stochastic general equilibrium model that serves as a foundation for thinking about macro policy. That new synthesis has opened up the door to a new antithesis, which is being driven by advances in computing power and analytic techniques. This new synthesis is coalescing around developments (...)
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  33. Jeffrey E. Foss (1995). Materialism, Reduction, Replacement, and the Place of Consciousness in Science. Journal of Philosophy 92 (8):401-29.
  34.  7
    Michael E. Ruse (1971). Reduction, Replacement, and Molecular Biology. Dialectica 25 (1):39-72.
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  35. W. D. Christensen & C. A. Hooker (forthcoming). A General Interactivist-Constructivist Model of Intentionality. Contemporary Naturalist Theories of Evolution and Intentionality, Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Special Supplementary Volume.
     
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  36. Jeffrey E. Foss (1995). Materialism, Reduction, Replacement, and the Place of Consciousness in Science. Journal of Philosophy 92 (8):401-429.
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  37. D. M. Warburton & James G. Greeno (1970). General Shape Function Model of Learning with Applications in Psychobiology. Psychological Review 77 (4):348-352.
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  38. Joel P. Wiesen (1971). Comment on "General Shape Function Model of Learning with Applications in Psychobiology.". Psychological Review 78 (3):272-273.
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  39. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1967). Approaches to Reduction. Philosophy of Science 34 (2):137-147.
    Four current accounts of theory reduction are presented, first informally and then formally: (1) an account of direct theory reduction that is based on the contributions of Nagel, Woodger, and Quine, (2) an indirect reduction paradigm due to Kemeny and Oppenheim, (3) an "isomorphic model" schema traceable to Suppes, and (4) a theory of reduction that is based on the work of Popper, Feyerabend, and Kuhn. Reference is made, in an attempt to choose between these schemas, to the explanation (...)
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  40. Stuart Glennan (2010). Mechanisms, Causes, and the Layered Model of the World. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 81 (2):362-381.
    Most philosophical accounts of causation take causal relations to obtain between individuals and events in virtue of nomological relations between properties of these individuals and events. Such views fail to take into account the consequences of the fact that in general the properties of individuals and events will depend upon mechanisms that realize those properties. In this paper I attempt to rectify this failure, and in so doing to provide an account of the causal relevance of higher-level properties. I (...)
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  41.  2
    Mandana Shirazi, Seyed Mohammad Assadi, Majid Sadeghi, Ali A. Zeinaloo, Ahmad S. Kashani, Mohammad Arbabi, Farshid Alaedini, Kirsti Lonka & Rolf Wahlstrom (2007). Applying a Modified Prochaska's Model of Readiness to Change for General Practitioners on Depressive Disorders in CME Programmes: Validation of Tool. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (2):298-302.
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  42.  5
    Yilun Shang (2013). Deffuant Model with General Opinion Distributions: First Impression and Critical Confidence Bound. Complexity 19 (2):38-49.
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  43.  11
    Kun Zhang, Zhikun Wang, Jiji Zhang & Bernhard Scholkopf, On Estimation of Functional Causal Models : General Results and Application to the Post-Nonlinear Causal Model.
    Compared to constraint-based causal discovery, causal discovery based on functional causal models is able to identify the whole causal model under appropriate assumptions [Shimizu et al. 2006; Hoyer et al. 2009; Zhang and Hyvärinen 2009b]. Functional causal models represent the effect as a function of the direct causes together with an independent noise term. Examples include the linear non-Gaussian acyclic model, nonlinear additive noise model, and post-nonlinear model. Currently, there are two ways to estimate the parameters (...)
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  44.  15
    Rens Bod (2006). Towards a General Model of Applying Science. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 20 (1):5 – 25.
    How is scientific knowledge used, adapted, and extended in deriving phenomena and real-world systems? This paper aims at developing a general account of 'applying science' within the exemplar-based framework of Data-Oriented Processing (DOP), which is also known as Exemplar-Based Explanation (EBE). According to the exemplar-based paradigm, phenomena are explained not by deriving them all the way down from theoretical laws and boundary conditions but by modelling them on previously derived phenomena that function as exemplars. To accomplish this, DOP proposes (...)
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  45.  51
    John Sutton (1995). Reduction and Levels of Explanation in Connectionism. In P. Slezak, T. Caelli & R. Clark (eds.), Perspectives on cognitive science: theories, experiments, and foundations. Ablex 347-368.
    Recent work in the methodology of connectionist explanation has I'ocrrsccl on the notion of levels of explanation. Specific issucs in conncctionisrn hcrc intersect with rvider areas of debate in the philosophy of psychology and thc philosophy of science generally. The issues I raise in this chapter, then, are not unique to cognitive science; but they arise in new and important contexts when connectionism is taken seriously as a model of cognition. The general questions are the relation between levels (...)
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  46. Roger Penrose & Stuart Hameroff (1996). Orchestrated Objective Reduction of Quantum Coherence in Brain Microtubules: The "Orch OR" Model for Consciousness. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 40:453-480.
    Features of consciousness difficult to understand in terms of conventional neuroscience have evoked application of quantum theory, which describes the fundamental behavior of matter and energy. In this paper we propose that aspects of quantum theory (e.g. quantum coherence) and of a newly proposed physical phenomenon of quantum wave function "self-collapse"(objective reduction: OR -Penrose, 1994) are essential for consciousness, and occur in cytoskeletal microtubules and other structures within each of the brain's neurons. The particular characteristics of microtubules suitable for quantum (...)
     
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  47.  25
    G. C. Ghirardi, R. Grassi & P. Pearle (1990). Relativistic Dynamical Reduction Models: General Framework and Examples. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 20 (11):1271-1316.
    The formulation of a relativistic theory of state-vector reduction is proposed and analyzed, and its conceptual consequences are elucidated. In particular, a detailed discussion of stochastic invariance and of local and nonlocal aspects at the level of individual systems is presented.
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  48.  26
    Xabier de Donato Rodríguez & Marek Polanski (2006). Superveniencia, propiedades maximales y teoría de modelos (Supervenience, Maximal Properties, and Model Theory). Theoria 21 (3):257-276.
    En el presente artículo, se examinan y discuten dos argumentos con consecuencias reduccionistas debidos a Jaegwon Kim y a Theodore Sider respectivamente. De acuerdo con el argumento de Kim, la superveniencia fuerte implicaría la coexistencia necesaria de propiedades (es decir, tal y como normalmente se interpreta, la reducción). De acuerdo con el de Sider, ocurriría lo mismo con la superveniencia global. Uno y otro hacen un uso esencial de sendas nociones de propiedad maximal, las cuales son discutidas aquí a la (...)
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  49.  7
    Paul L. Gersper, Carmen S. Rodríguez-Barbosa & Laura F. Orlando (1993). Soil Conservation in Cuba: A Key to the New Model for Agriculture. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 10 (3):16-23.
    Most aspects of agriculture in Cuba prior to 1989 were comparable to California: a high energy input, conventional agriculture (based on what the Cubans now call the “classical model”) in which little was done to protect the nation's soils from erosion, loss of fertility, salinization, and other forms of degradation. In stark contrast the new “Alternative Model,” which has been rapidly replacing the previous model since 1989, emphasizes soil conservation and rehabilitation and the general improvement of (...)
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  50.  12
    Helmut F. Spinner (1973). Science Without Reduction. Inquiry 16 (1-4):16 – 94.
    The aim of this essay is a criticism of reductionism ? both in its ?static? interpretation (usually referred to as the layer model or level?picture of science) and in its ?dynamic? interpretation (as a theory of the growth of scientific knowledge), with emphasis on the latter ? from the point of view of Popperian fallibilism and Feyerabendian pluralism, but without being committed to the idiosyncrasies of these standpoints. In both aspects of criticism, the rejection is based on the proposal (...)
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