Search results for 'group selection' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  43
    James R. Griesemer & Michael J. Wade (1988). Laboratory Models, Causal Explanation and Group Selection. Biology and Philosophy 3 (1):67-96.
    We develop an account of laboratory models, which have been central to the group selection controversy. We compare arguments for group selection in nature with Darwin's arguments for natural selection to argue that laboratory models provide important grounds for causal claims about selection. Biologists get information about causes and cause-effect relationships in the laboratory because of the special role their own causal agency plays there. They can also get information about patterns of effects and (...)
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  2.  12
    Eugene Earnshaw (2015). Group Selection and Contextual Analysis. Synthese 192 (1):305-316.
    Multi-level selection can be understood via the Price equation or contextual analysis, which offer incompatible statistical decompositions of evolutionary change into components of group and individual selection. Okasha argued that each approach suffers from problem cases. I introduce further problem cases for the Price approach, arguing that it is appropriate for MLS 2 group selection but not MLS 1. I also show that the problem cases Okasha raises for contextual analysis can be resolved. For some (...)
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  3. Mohan Matthen (2011). Art, Sexual Selection, Group Selection (Critical Notice of Denis Dutton, The Art Instinct). Canadian Journal of Philosophy 41 (2):337-356.
    The capacity to engage with art is a human universal present in all cultures and just about every individual human. This indicates that this capacity is evolved. In this Critical Notice of Denis Dutton's The Art Instinct, I discuss various evolutionary scenarios and their consequences. Dutton and I both reject the "spandrel" approach that originates from the work of Gould and Lewontin. Dutton proposes, following work of Geoffrey Miller, that art is sexually selected--that art-production is a sign of a fit (...)
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  4.  63
    Jeff Kirby (2003). A New Group-Selection Model for the Evolution of Homosexuality. Biology and Philosophy 18 (5):683-694.
    Abstract. Scientists have long puzzled over how homosexual orientation has evolved, given the assumed low relative fitness of homosexual individuals compared to heterosexual individuals. A number of theoretical models for the evolution of homosexuality have been postulated including balance polymorphism, "Fertile females", hypervariability of DNA sequences, kin selection, and "parental manipulation". In this paper, I propose a new group-selection model for the evolution of homosexuality which offers two advantages over existing models: (1) its non-assumption of genetic determinism, (...)
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  5.  35
    David Sloan Wilson (1999). A Critique of R.D. Alexander's Views on Group Selection. Biology and Philosophy 14 (3):431-449.
    Group selection is increasingly being viewed as an important force in human evolution. This paper examines the views of R.D. Alexander, one of the most influential thinkers about human behavior from an evolutionary perspective, on the subject of group selection. Alexander's general conception of evolution is based on the gene-centered approach of G.C. Williams, but he has also emphasized a potential role for group selection in the evolution of individual genomes and in human evolution. (...)
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  6.  56
    David Sloan Wilson & Elliott Sober (1994). Reintroducing Group Selection to the Human Behavioral Sciences. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):585.
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  7.  6
    C. Goodnight, E. Rauch, H. Sayama, M. A. M. De Aguiar, M. Baranger & Y. Bar-yam (2008). Evolution in Spatial Predator–Prey Models and the “Prudent Predator”: The Inadequacy of Steady-State Organism Fitness and the Concept of Individual and Group Selection. Complexity 13 (5):23-44.
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  8.  9
    Alejandro Rosas (2011). Disentangling Social Preferences From Group Selection. Biological Theory 6 (2):169-175.
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  9.  11
    Naomi Beck (2011). Be Fruitful and Multiply: Growth, Reason, and Cultural Group Selection in Hayek and Darwin. Biological Theory 6 (4):413-423.
  10.  5
    Elisabeth A. Lloyd (1994). Rx: Distinguish Group Selection From Group Adaptation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):628.
    I admire Wilson & Sober's (W & S's) aim, to alert social scientists that group selection has risen from the ashqs, and to explicate its relevance to the behavioral sciences. Group selection has beenwidely misunderstood; furthermore, both authors have been instrumental in illuminating conceptual problems surrounding higher-level selection. Still, I find that this target article muddies the waters, primarily through its shifting and confused definition of a "vehicle" of selection. The fundamental problem is an (...)
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  11.  77
    Joachim L. Dagg, The Paradox of Sex and the Group Selection Controversy.
    The fact that most animal and plant species reproduce sexually despite a twofold cost of sex has been called a paradox and taken to cause a crisis in evolutionary biology by some scholars, but this crisis has also been ignored or denied by others. The phase preceding the paradox is therefore analysed as a backdrop to better judge whether or not there was a crisis. That preceding phase shows more disunity and controversy among peers, however, than abridged accounts of the (...)
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  12.  31
    Deborah G. Mayo & Norman L. Gilinsky (1987). Models of Group Selection. Philosophy of Science 54 (4):515-538.
    The key problem in the controversy over group selection is that of defining a criterion of group selection that identifies a distinct causal process that is irreducible to the causal process of individual selection. We aim to clarify this problem and to formulate an adequate model of irreducible group selection. We distinguish two types of group selection models, labeling them type I and type II models. Type I models are invoked to (...)
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  13.  23
    John Cassidy (1978). Philosophical Aspects of the Group Selection Controversy. Philosophy of Science 45 (4):575-594.
    This article is primarily a study of the group selection controversy, with special emphasis on the period from 1962 to the present, and the rise of inclusive fitness theory. Interest is focused on the relations between individual fitness theory and other fitness theories and on the methodological imperatives used in the controversy over the status of these theories. An appendix formalizes the notion of "assertive part" which is used in the informal discussion of the methodological imperatives elicited from (...)
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  14.  8
    Michael Ruse (2006). Charles Darwin and Group Selection. Annals of Science 37 (6):615-630.
    The question of the levels at which natural selection can be said to operate is much discussed by biologists today and is a key factor in the recent controversy about sociobiology. It is shown that this problem is one to which Charles Darwin addressed himself at some length. It is argued that apart from some slight equivocation over man, Darwin opted firmly for hypotheses supposing selection always to work at the level of the individual rather than the (...). However, natural selection's co-discoverer, Alfred Russel Wallace, endorsed group selection hypotheses. (shrink)
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  15.  73
    Samir Okasha (2001). Why Won't the Group Selection Controversy Go Away? British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 52 (1):25-50.
    The group selection controversy is about whether natural selection ever operates at the level of groups, rather than at the level of individual organisms. Traditionally, group selection has been invoked to explain the existence of altruistic behaviour in nature. However, most contemporary evolutionary biologists are highly sceptical of the hypothesis of group selection, which they regard as biologically implausible and not needed to explain the evolution of altruism anyway. But in their recent book, (...)
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  16.  25
    Robert Boyd & Peter J. Richerson, Transmission Coupling Mechanisms: Cultural Group Selection.
    The application of phylogenetic methods to cultural variation raises questions about how cultural adaption works and how it is coupled to cultural transmission. Cultural group selection is of particular interest in this context because it depends on the same kinds of mechanisms that lead to tree-like patterns of cultural variation. Here, we review ideas about cultural group selection relevant to cultural phylogenetics. We discuss why group selection among multiple equilibria is not subject to the (...)
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  17.  63
    Andrew Hamilton & Christopher Dimond (2012). Groups, Individuals, and Evolutionary Restraints: The Making of the Contemporary Debate Over Group Selection. Biology and Philosophy 27 (2):299-312.
    Groups, individuals, and evolutionary restraints : the making of the contemporary debate over group selection Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-14 DOI 10.1007/s10539-011-9255-5 Authors Andrew Hamilton, Center for Biology and Society, School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501 USA Christopher C. Dimond, Center for Biology and Society, School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501 USA Journal Biology and Philosophy Online ISSN 1572-8404 Print ISSN 0169-3867.
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  18.  68
    Samir Okasha (2005). Altruism, Group Selection and Correlated Interaction. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (4):703-725.
    Group selection is one acknowledged mechanism for the evolution of altruism. It is well known that for altruism to spread by natural selection, interactions must be correlated; that is, altruists must tend to associate with one another. But does group selection itself require correlated interactions? Two possible arguments for answering this question affirmatively are explored. The first is a bad argument, for it rests on a product/process confusion. The second is a more subtle argument, whose (...)
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  19.  77
    Ayelet Shavit (2004). Shifting Values Partly Explain the Debate Over Group Selection. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 35 (4):697-720.
    I argue that images of the notion of group, in correspondence with their social and political values, shape the debate over the evolution of altruism by group selection. Important aspects of this debate are empirical, and criteria can decide among a variety of selection processes. However, leading researchers undermine or reinterpret such tests, explaining the evolution of altruism on the basis of a single extreme metaphor of ‘group’ and a single inclusive selection process. I (...)
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  20.  59
    Grant Ramsey & Robert Brandon (2011). Why Reciprocal Altruism is Not a Kind of Group Selection. Biology and Philosophy 26 (3):385-400.
    Reciprocal altruism was originally formulated in terms of individual selection and most theorists continue to view it in this way. However, this interpretation of reciprocal altruism has been challenged by Sober and Wilson (1998). They argue that reciprocal altruism (as well as all other forms of altruism) evolves by the process of group selection. In this paper, we argue that the original interpretation of reciprocal altruism is the correct one. We accomplish this by arguing that if fitness (...)
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  21.  48
    Bence Nanay (2010). Group Selection and Our Obsession with the Grand Questions of Life. The Monist.
    The aim of this paper is to make an unlikely connection between the old question about the meaning of life and some important concepts in philosophy of biology. More precisely, I argue that while biology is unlikely to help us to figure out the meaning of life, the fact that this question has been considered to be such a crucial one could be explained with the help of some consideration of our evolutionary past. I argue that if there is evidence (...)
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  22.  26
    Simon Huttegger & Rory Smead (2011). Efficient Social Contracts and Group Selection. Biology and Philosophy 26 (4):517-531.
    We consider the Stag Hunt in terms of Maynard Smith’s famous Haystack model. In the Stag Hunt, contrary to the Prisoner’s Dilemma, there is a cooperative equilibrium besides the equilibrium where every player defects. This implies that in the Haystack model, where a population is partitioned into groups, groups playing the cooperative equilibrium tend to grow faster than those at the non-cooperative equilibrium. We determine under what conditions this leads to the takeover of the population by cooperators. Moreover, we compare (...)
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  23.  16
    Brad Stone (2010). The Current Evidence for Hayek's Cultural Group Selection Theory. Libertarian Papers 2.
    In this article I summarize Friedrich Hayek’s cultural group selection theory and describe the evidence gathered by current cultural group selection theorists within the behavioral and social sciences supporting Hayek’s main assertions. I conclude with a few comments on Hayek and libertarianism.
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  24.  34
    J. Jeffrey Tillman (2008). Sacrificial Agape and Group Selection in Contemporary American Christianity. Zygon 43 (3):541-556.
    Human altruistic behavior has received a great deal of scientific attention over the past forty years. Altruistic-like behaviors found among insects and animals have illumined certain human behaviors, and the revival of interest in group selection has focused attention on how sacrificial altruism, although not adaptive for individuals, can be adaptive for groups. Curiously, at the same time that sociobiology has placed greater emphasis on the value of sacrificial altruism, Protestant ethics in America has moved away from it. (...)
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  25.  21
    Bruce Glymour (2008). Correlated Interaction and Group Selection. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59 (4):835-855.
    argues that correlated interactions are necessary for group selection. His argument turns on a particular procedure for measuring the strength of selection, and employs a restricted conception of correlated interaction. It is here shown that the procedure in question is unreliable, and that while related procedures are reliable in special contexts, they do not require correlated interactions for group selection to occur. It is also shown that none of these procedures, all of which employ partial (...)
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  26.  43
    Doyne Dawson (1999). Evolutionary Theory and Group Selection: The Question of Warfare. History and Theory 38 (4):79–100.
    Evolutionary anthropology has focused on the origins of war, or rather ethnocentricity, because it epitomizes the problem of group selection, and because war may itself have been the main agent of group selection. The neo-Darwinian synthesis in biology has explained how ethnocentricity might evolve by group selection, and the distinction between evoked culture and adopted culture, suggested by the emerging synthesis in evolutionary psychology, has explained how it might be transmitted. Ethnocentric mechanisms could have (...)
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  27.  73
    Michael Byron, Morality and Evolution by Group Selection.
    Consider the paradox of altruism: the existence of truly altruistic behaviors is difficult to reconcile with an evolutionary theory which holds that natural selection operates only on individuals, since in that case individuals should be unwilling to sacrifice their own fitness for the sake of others. Evolutionists have frequently turned to the hypothesis of group selection to explain the existence of altruism; but, even setting aside difficulties about understanding the relationship between altruistic behaviors and morality, group (...)
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  28.  14
    J. Philippe Rushton (1989). Genetic Similarity, Human Altruism, and Group Selection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (3):503.
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  29.  29
    Bence Nanay (2010). Group Selection and Our Obsession with the Meaning of Life. The Monist 93 (1):76-95.
    The aim of this paper is to make an unlikely connection between the old question about the meaning of life and some important concepts in philosophy of biology. More precisely, I argue that while biology is unlikely to help us to figure out the meaning of life, the fact that this question has been considered to be such a crucial one could be explained with the help of some consideration of our evolutionary past. I argue that if there is evidence (...)
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  30.  36
    Robert A. Wilson (2004). Test Cases, Resolvability, and Group Selection: A Critical Examination of the Myxoma Case. Philosophy of Science 71 (3):380-401.
    The evolution of the myxoma virus in Australia has been presented for many years as a test case for the hypothesis that group selection can function effectively `in the wild.' This paper critically examines the myxoma case, and argues that its failure as a test case for this hypothesis has broader implications for debates over the levels of selection.
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  31.  19
    Michael W. Barclay (1995). The Theory of Neuronal Group Selection and its Implications for Psychology: A Critique of the Biological Self. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 15 (1):41-57.
    Critiques G. Edelman's Theory of Neuronal Group Selection , from the perspectives of social constructionism, contemporary theory of metaphor, and existential-phenomenological psychology. This theory provides a contemporary biological view of consciousness and the self. Edelman's notion of consciousness as purely biological, and his attempt to ground intentionality in the body, are reductionistic. It is suggested that phenomenological descriptions must be taken into the center of the problem of consciousness. An understanding of the relation of the experiential basis of (...)
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  32.  15
    Samir Okasha (2012). Wynne-Edwards and the History of Group Selection. Metascience 21 (2):355-357.
    Wynne-Edwards and the history of group selection Content Type Journal Article Category Book Review Pages 1-3 DOI 10.1007/s11016-011-9613-6 Authors Samir Okasha, Department of Philosophy, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TB UK Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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  33.  6
    Michael S. Alvard (2013). Partner Selection, Coordination Games, and Group Selection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (1):80-81.
    The process of partner selection reflects ethnographic realities where cooperative rewards obtain that would otherwise be lost to loners. Baumard et al. neglect frequency-dependent processes exemplified by games of coordination. Such games can produce multiple equilibria that may or may not include fair outcomes. Additional, group-selection processes are required to produce the outcomes predicted by the models.
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  34.  14
    Nicholas S. Thompson (2000). Niche Construction and Group Selection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (1):161-162.
    The antipathy toward group selection expressed in the target article is puzzling because Laland et al.'s ideas dovetail neatly with modern group selection theory.
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  35.  9
    Nicholas S. Thompson (1998). Reintroducing “Reintroducing Group Selection to the Human Behavioral Sciences”to BBS Readers. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (2):304-305.
    Wilson and Sober's (1994t) revival of group selection theory may have failed with some readers because its simple arithmetic foundation was obscured under the complexities of its presentation. When that uncontrovertible principle is uncovered, it broadens dramatically the fundamental motives that social scientists may impute to human nature and still be consistent with Darwinian evolutionary theory.
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  36.  2
    Lori Stevens (2000). Experimental Studies of Group Selection: A Genetical Perspective. Journal of Consciousness Studies 7 (1-2):1-2.
    Studies of group selection have been done with both natural and manipulated populations using plants, insects and birds. Group selection occurred in all studies and often the strength of group selection was equal to that of individual selection. Laboratory selection experiments resulted in the opposite response to individual selection than that predicted. Selection with plants for high leaf area resulted in plants with smaller leaf area and selection for high (...)
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  37.  2
    Kevin N. Laland, F. John Odling-Smee & Marcus W. Feldman (2000). Group Selection: A Niche Construction Perspective. Journal of Consciousness Studies 7 (1-2):1-2.
    Group selection, as advocated by Sober and Wilson, is theoretically plausible, although it remains an open question as to what extent it occurs in nature. If group selection has operated in hominids, it is likely to have selected cultural not genetic variation. A focus on niche construction helps delineate the conditions under which cooperation is favoured. Group selection may favour between-group conflict as well as within-group cooperation.
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  38.  1
    Christopher Boehm (2000). Group Selection in the Upper Palaeolithic. Journal of Consciousness Studies 7 (1-2):1-2.
    Using criteria of relative plausibility, it is possible to make a case for significant group selection over the 100,000 years that Anatomically Modern Humans have been both moral and egalitarian. Our nomadic forebears surely lived in egalitarian communities that levelled social differences and moralistically curbed free-riding behaviour, and this egalitarian syndrome would have had profound effects on levels of selection. First, it reduced phenotypic variation at the within-group level. Second, it increased phenotypic variation at the between- (...) level. Third, and crucially, moral sanctioning also permitted groups to sharply curtail free-riding tendencies at the level of phenotype. The result was group selection strong enough to support altruistic genes, and a human nature that was set up for social ambivalence: that nature was mainly selfish and strongly nepotistic, but it was at least modestly and socially significantly altruistic. The effects on human social and moral life were pervasive, both in hunting bands and in more recent manifestations of human society. (shrink)
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  39. Ronnie Hawkins (2008). Heresy-Hammering, Group Selection, And Epistemic Responsibility. Florida Philosophical Review 1 (1):189-212.
    The way in which the theory of “group selection” was treated as a heresy in evolutionary biology during the latter part of the twentieth century is considered as itself being an emergent group phenomenon, and some possible reasons why this particular theory had to be repudiated by the dominant group are explored. Then the process of “heresy-hammering” in general is examined as a behavior that can block important feedback, allowing the group to engage in a (...)
     
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  40.  12
    Gabriele K. Ruchala, Performance Pay, Group Selection and Group Performance.
    Within a laboratory experiment we investigate a principal-agent game in which agents may, first, self-select into a group task (GT) or an individual task (IT) and, second, choose work effort. In their choices of task and effort the agents have to consider pay contracts for both tasks as offered by the principal. The rational solution of the game implies that contract design may not induce agents to select GT and provide positive effort in GT. Furthermore it predicts equal behavior (...)
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  41. David Ramsay Steele (1987). Hayek's Theory of Cultural Group Selection. Journal of Libertarian Studies 8 (2):171-95.
     
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  42.  2
    Iver Mysterud (2000). Group Selection, Morality, and Environmental Problems. Journal of Consciousness Studies 7 (1-2):1-2.
    As various kinds of resources become scarce within the context of today's population, consumption, and environmental problems, conflicts of interest will become more evident, competition become more intense, and certain kinds of ‘unwanted’ behavioural strategies might have a tendency to emerge and be used by a growing number of individuals. In such situations, humans may activate group adaptations. If we have group adaptations, like a tendency to classify humans into in-groups and out-groups and to develop moralities favouring one's (...)
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  43.  5
    Elisabeth A. Lloyd (1986). Evaluation of Evidence in Group Selection Debates. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:483 - 493.
    I address the controversy in evolutionary biology concerning which levels of biological entity (units) can and do undergo natural selection. I refine a definition of the unit of selection, first presented by William Wimsatt, that is grounded in the structure of natural selection models. I examine Elliott Sober's objection to this structural definition, the "homogeneous populations" problem; I find that neither the proposed definition nor Sober's own causal account can solve the problem. Sober, in his solution using (...)
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  44. Edward Reed (1978). Group Selection and Methodological Individualism: A Criticism of Watkins. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 29 (3):256-262.
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  45.  37
    Samir Okasha (2015). Darwin’s Views on Group and Kin Selection: Comments on Elliott Sober’s Did Darwin Write the Origin Backwards? Philosophical Studies 172 (3):823-828.
    My comments will focus on the second and third chapters of Sober’s book , which explore Darwin’s ideas about altruism, group selection and kin selection , and sex-ratio evolution . Sober makes a persuasive argument for his main claim: that Darwin was a subtler thinker on these topics than he is often taken to be. While there is much that I admire in Sober’s lucid discussion, I will focus on points of disagreement. Readers should note that this (...)
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  46.  9
    Deborah E. Shelton & Richard E. Michod (2014). Group Selection and Group Adaptation During a Major Evolutionary Transition: Insights From the Evolution of Multicellularity in the Volvocine Algae. Biological Theory 9 (4):452-469.
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  47.  2
    Ciprian Jeler (2013). Do Elliott Sober's Arguments for Group Selection Really Account for the Causal Effect of Natural Selection? Filozofia 68 (4).
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  48.  1
    Randolph M. Nesse (1994). Why is Group Selection Such a Problem? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):633.
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  49.  10
    Charles Goodnight, E. Rauch, Hiroki Sayama, Marcus A. M. De Aguiar, M. Baranger & Yaneer Bar‐yam (2008). Evolution in Spatial Predator–Prey Models and the “Prudent Predator”: The Inadequacy of Steady‐State Organism Fitness and the Concept of Individual and Group Selection. Complexity 13 (5):23-44.
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  50.  1
    Jack Birner (2009). From Group Selection to Ecological Niches. In Zuzana Parusniková & R. S. Cohen (eds.), Rethinking Popper. Springer 185--202.
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