Search results for 'group selection theory' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  18
    Brad Stone (2010). The Current Evidence for Hayek's Cultural Group Selection Theory. Libertarian Papers 2.
    In this article I summarize Friedrich Hayek’s cultural group selection theory and describe the evidence gathered by current cultural group selection theorists within the behavioral and social sciences supporting Hayek’s main assertions. I conclude with a few comments on Hayek and libertarianism.
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  2.  20
    Michael W. Barclay (1995). The Theory of Neuronal Group Selection and its Implications for Psychology: A Critique of the Biological Self. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 15 (1):41-57.
    Critiques G. Edelman's Theory of Neuronal Group Selection , from the perspectives of social constructionism, contemporary theory of metaphor, and existential-phenomenological psychology. This theory provides a contemporary biological view of consciousness and the self. Edelman's notion of consciousness as purely biological, and his attempt to ground intentionality in the body, are reductionistic. It is suggested that phenomenological descriptions must be taken into the center of the problem of consciousness. An understanding of the relation of the (...)
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  3. David Ramsay Steele (1987). Hayek's Theory of Cultural Group Selection. Journal of Libertarian Studies 8 (2):171-95.
     
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  4.  44
    Doyne Dawson (1999). Evolutionary Theory and Group Selection: The Question of Warfare. History and Theory 38 (4):79–100.
    Evolutionary anthropology has focused on the origins of war, or rather ethnocentricity, because it epitomizes the problem of group selection, and because war may itself have been the main agent of group selection. The neo-Darwinian synthesis in biology has explained how ethnocentricity might evolve by group selection, and the distinction between evoked culture and adopted culture, suggested by the emerging synthesis in evolutionary psychology, has explained how it might be transmitted. Ethnocentric mechanisms could have (...)
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  5.  6
    David Sloan Wilson & Elliott Sober (1994). Group Selection: The Theory Replaces the Bogey Man. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):639.
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  6.  4
    Eric Alden Smith (1994). Semantics, Theory, and Methodological Individualism in the Group-Selection Controversy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):636.
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  7.  2
    E. A. Salzen (1990). Neural Darwinism. The Theory of Neuronal Group Selection. By Gerald M. Edelman. Pp. 371. (Oxford University Press, 1990.) £9·95 (Paperback). [REVIEW] Journal of Biosocial Science 22 (4):521-522.
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  8. Jack Birner (2009). From Group Selection to Ecological Niches. Popper's Rethinking of Evolutionary Theory in the Light of Hayek's Theory of Culture. In R. S. Cohen & Z. Parusniková (eds.), Rethinking Popper, Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Springer 272.
     
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  9. H. C. Plotkin (1991). The Testing of Evolutionary Epistemology. A Review of Gerald M. Edelman, "Neural Darwinism: The Theory of Neuronal Group Selection". [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 6 (4):481.
     
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  10.  4
    Arianna Borrelli (2009). The Emergence of Selection Rules and Their Encounter with Group Theory, 1913–1927. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 40 (4):327-337.
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  11. Arianna Borrelli (2009). The Emergence of Selection Rules and Their Encounter with Group Theory, 1913–1927. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 40 (4):327-337.
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  12.  45
    James R. Griesemer & Michael J. Wade (1988). Laboratory Models, Causal Explanation and Group Selection. Biology and Philosophy 3 (1):67-96.
    We develop an account of laboratory models, which have been central to the group selection controversy. We compare arguments for group selection in nature with Darwin's arguments for natural selection to argue that laboratory models provide important grounds for causal claims about selection. Biologists get information about causes and cause-effect relationships in the laboratory because of the special role their own causal agency plays there. They can also get information about patterns of effects and (...)
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  13.  64
    Jeff Kirby (2003). A New Group-Selection Model for the Evolution of Homosexuality. Biology and Philosophy 18 (5):683-694.
    Abstract. Scientists have long puzzled over how homosexual orientation has evolved, given the assumed low relative fitness of homosexual individuals compared to heterosexual individuals. A number of theoretical models for the evolution of homosexuality have been postulated including balance polymorphism, "Fertile females", hypervariability of DNA sequences, kin selection, and "parental manipulation". In this paper, I propose a new group-selection model for the evolution of homosexuality which offers two advantages over existing models: (1) its non-assumption of genetic determinism, (...)
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  14.  36
    David Sloan Wilson (1999). A Critique of R.D. Alexander's Views on Group Selection. Biology and Philosophy 14 (3):431-449.
    Group selection is increasingly being viewed as an important force in human evolution. This paper examines the views of R.D. Alexander, one of the most influential thinkers about human behavior from an evolutionary perspective, on the subject of group selection. Alexander's general conception of evolution is based on the gene-centered approach of G.C. Williams, but he has also emphasized a potential role for group selection in the evolution of individual genomes and in human evolution. (...)
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  15. Elliott Sober (1984). The Nature of Selection: Evolutionary Theory in Philosophical Focus. University of Chicago Press.
    The Nature of Selection is a straightforward, self-contained introduction to philosophical and biological problems in evolutionary theory. It presents a powerful analysis of the evolutionary concepts of natural selection, fitness, and adaptation and clarifies controversial issues concerning altruism, group selection, and the idea that organisms are survival machines built for the good of the genes that inhabit them. "Sober's is the answering philosophical voice, the voice of a first-rate philosopher and a knowledgeable student of contemporary (...)
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  16.  11
    Alejandro Rosas (2011). Disentangling Social Preferences From Group Selection. Biological Theory 6 (2):169-175.
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  17.  13
    Naomi Beck (2011). Be Fruitful and Multiply: Growth, Reason, and Cultural Group Selection in Hayek and Darwin. Biological Theory 6 (4):413-423.
  18.  24
    John Cassidy (1978). Philosophical Aspects of the Group Selection Controversy. Philosophy of Science 45 (4):575-594.
    This article is primarily a study of the group selection controversy, with special emphasis on the period from 1962 to the present, and the rise of inclusive fitness theory. Interest is focused on the relations between individual fitness theory and other fitness theories and on the methodological imperatives used in the controversy over the status of these theories. An appendix formalizes the notion of "assertive part" which is used in the informal discussion of the methodological imperatives (...)
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  19.  14
    Nicholas S. Thompson (2000). Niche Construction and Group Selection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (1):161-162.
    The antipathy toward group selection expressed in the target article is puzzling because Laland et al.'s ideas dovetail neatly with modern group selection theory.
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  20.  3
    Barbara Smuts (1999). Multilevel Selection, Cooperation, and Altruism. Human Nature 10 (3):311-327.
    Unto Others (Sober and Wilson 1998) shows how the general principles of Multi-Level Selection (MLS) theory apply to selection at multiple levels of the biological hierarchy. It also argues for the existence of "genuine" evolutionary and psychological altruism. The authors’ views on altruism do not follow logically from principles of MLS, and their failure do disentangle these two themes undermines their otherwise excellent presentation of MLS theory. Rebuttal of the view that human nature is completely selfish (...)
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  21.  9
    Nicholas S. Thompson (1998). Reintroducing “Reintroducing Group Selection to the Human Behavioral Sciences”to BBS Readers. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (2):304-305.
    Wilson and Sober's (1994t) revival of group selection theory may have failed with some readers because its simple arithmetic foundation was obscured under the complexities of its presentation. When that uncontrovertible principle is uncovered, it broadens dramatically the fundamental motives that social scientists may impute to human nature and still be consistent with Darwinian evolutionary theory.
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  22.  27
    Simon Huttegger & Rory Smead (2011). Efficient Social Contracts and Group Selection. Biology and Philosophy 26 (4):517-531.
    We consider the Stag Hunt in terms of Maynard Smith’s famous Haystack model. In the Stag Hunt, contrary to the Prisoner’s Dilemma, there is a cooperative equilibrium besides the equilibrium where every player defects. This implies that in the Haystack model, where a population is partitioned into groups, groups playing the cooperative equilibrium tend to grow faster than those at the non-cooperative equilibrium. We determine under what conditions this leads to the takeover of the population by cooperators. Moreover, we compare (...)
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  23.  73
    Michael Byron, Morality and Evolution by Group Selection.
    Consider the paradox of altruism: the existence of truly altruistic behaviors is difficult to reconcile with an evolutionary theory which holds that natural selection operates only on individuals, since in that case individuals should be unwilling to sacrifice their own fitness for the sake of others. Evolutionists have frequently turned to the hypothesis of group selection to explain the existence of altruism; but, even setting aside difficulties about understanding the relationship between altruistic behaviors and morality, (...) selection cannot explain the evolution of morality, since morality is a one-group phenomenon and group selection is a many-group phenomenon. After spelling out just what the problem is, this paper discusses several ways out and concludes by offering suggestions why one seems best. (shrink)
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  24. Ronnie Hawkins (2008). Heresy-Hammering, Group Selection, And Epistemic Responsibility. Florida Philosophical Review 1 (1):189-212.
    The way in which the theory of “group selection” was treated as a heresy in evolutionary biology during the latter part of the twentieth century is considered as itself being an emergent group phenomenon, and some possible reasons why this particular theory had to be repudiated by the dominant group are explored. Then the process of “heresy-hammering” in general is examined as a behavior that can block important feedback, allowing the group to engage (...)
     
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  25.  30
    David Sloan Wilson & Elliott Sober (1998). Multilevel Selection and the Return of Group-Level Functionalism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (2):305-306.
    We reinforce Thompson's points by providing a second example of the paradox that makes group selection appear counterintuitive and by discussing the wider implications of multilevel selection theory.
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  26.  69
    Samir Okasha (2009). Individuals, Groups, Fitness and Utility: Multi-Level Selection Meets Social Choice Theory. Biology and Philosophy 24 (5):561-584.
    In models of multi-level selection, the property of Darwinian fitness is attributed to entities at more than one level of the biological hierarchy, e.g. individuals and groups. However, the relation between individual and group fitness is a controversial matter. Theorists disagree about whether group fitness should always, or ever, be defined as total (or average) individual fitness. This paper tries to shed light on the issue by drawing on work in social choice theory, and pursuing an (...)
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  27. Elliott Sober & David Sloan Wilson (1998). Unto Others: The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior. Harvard University Press.
  28. Elisabeth A. Lloyd (1989). A Structural Approach to Defining Units of Selection. Philosophy of Science 56 (3):395-418.
    The conflation of two fundamentally distinct issues has generated serious confusion in the philosophical and biological literature concerning the units of selection. The question of how a unit of selection of defined, theoretically, is rarely distinguished from the question of how to determine the empirical accuracy of claims--either specific or general--concerning which unit(s) is undergoing selection processes. In this paper, I begin by refining a definition of the unit of selection, first presented in the philosophical literature (...)
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  29. Benjamin Kerr & Peter Godfrey-Smith (2002). Individualist and Multi-Level Perspectives on Selection in Structured Populations. Biology and Philosophy 17 (4):477-517.
    Recent years have seen a renewed debate over the importance of groupselection, especially as it relates to the evolution of altruism. Onefeature of this debate has been disagreement over which kinds ofprocesses should be described in terms of selection at multiple levels,within and between groups. Adapting some earlier discussions, we presenta mathematical framework that can be used to explore the exactrelationships between evolutionary models that do, and those that donot, explicitly recognize biological groups as fitness-bearing entities.We show a fundamental (...)
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  30. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2002). Individualist and Multi-Level Perspectives on Selection in Structured Populations. Biology and Philosophy 17 (4):477-517.
    Recent years have seen a renewed debate over the importance of groupselection, especially as it relates to the evolution of altruism. Onefeature of this debate has been disagreement over which kinds ofprocesses should be described in terms of selection at multiple levels,within and between groups. Adapting some earlier discussions, we presenta mathematical framework that can be used to explore the exactrelationships between evolutionary models that do, and those that donot, explicitly recognize biological groups as fitness-bearing entities.We show a fundamental (...)
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  31.  13
    Eugene Earnshaw (2015). Group Selection and Contextual Analysis. Synthese 192 (1):305-316.
    Multi-level selection can be understood via the Price equation or contextual analysis, which offer incompatible statistical decompositions of evolutionary change into components of group and individual selection. Okasha argued that each approach suffers from problem cases. I introduce further problem cases for the Price approach, arguing that it is appropriate for MLS 2 group selection but not MLS 1. I also show that the problem cases Okasha raises for contextual analysis can be resolved. For some (...)
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  32.  4
    Santiago Ginnobili (2016). Missing Concepts in Natural Selection Theory Reconstructions. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 38 (8):1-33.
    The concept of fitness has generated a lot of discussion in philosophy of biology. There is, however, relative agreement about the need to distinguish at least two uses of the term: ecological fitness on the one hand, and population genetics fitness on the other. The goal of this paper is to give an explication of the concept of ecological fitness by providing a reconstruction of the theory of natural selection in which this concept was framed, that is, based (...)
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  33. Mohan Matthen (2011). Art, Sexual Selection, Group Selection (Critical Notice of Denis Dutton, The Art Instinct). Canadian Journal of Philosophy 41 (2):337-356.
    The capacity to engage with art is a human universal present in all cultures and just about every individual human. This indicates that this capacity is evolved. In this Critical Notice of Denis Dutton's The Art Instinct, I discuss various evolutionary scenarios and their consequences. Dutton and I both reject the "spandrel" approach that originates from the work of Gould and Lewontin. Dutton proposes, following work of Geoffrey Miller, that art is sexually selected--that art-production is a sign of a fit (...)
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  34.  8
    Kim Loyens (2013). Towards a Custom-Made Whistleblowing Policy. Using Grid-Group Cultural Theory to Match Policy Measures to Different Styles of Peer Reporting. Journal of Business Ethics 114 (2):239-249.
    To be effective, whistleblowing policies should be adapted to the organisational culture. They need to be custom-made and not follow a one-size-fits-all logic, specifically when they are installed to stimulate responsible peer reporting, a highly sensitive and value-laden type of whistleblowing. This paper attempts to illustrate that grid-group cultural theory could help to construct a whistleblowing policy by linking reporting styles to the organisational culture. First, we will identify four types of policy measures that are hypothesized to be (...)
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  35.  55
    John Damuth & I. Lorraine Heisler (1988). Alternative Formulations of Multilevel Selection. Biology and Philosophy 3 (4):407-430.
    Hierarchical expansions of the theory of natural selection exist in two distinct bodies of thought in evolutionary biology, the group selection and the species selection traditions. Both traditions share the point of view that the principles of natural selection apply at levels of biological organization above the level of the individual organism. This leads them both to considermultilevel selection situations, where selection is occurring simultaneously at more than one level. Impeding unification of (...)
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  36. Elliott Sober (1992). The Evolution of Altruism: Correlation, Cost, and Benefit. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 7 (2):177-187.
    A simple and general criterion is derived for the evolution of altruism when individuals interact in pairs. It is argued that the treatment of this problem in kin selection theory and in game theory are special cases of this general criterion.
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  37.  10
    Deborah E. Shelton & Richard E. Michod (2014). Group Selection and Group Adaptation During a Major Evolutionary Transition: Insights From the Evolution of Multicellularity in the Volvocine Algae. Biological Theory 9 (4):452-469.
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  38.  3
    Ciprian Jeler (forthcoming). Do We Need a New Account of Group Selection? A Reply to McLoone. Biological Theory.
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  39.  21
    Samir Okasha (2003). The Concept of Group Heritability. Biology and Philosophy 18 (3):445-461.
    This paper investigates the role of the concept of group heritability in group selection theory, in relation to the well-known distinction between type 1 and type 2 group selection (GS1 and GS2). I argue that group heritability is required for the operation of GS1 but not GS2, despite what a number of authors have claimed. I offer a numerical example of the evolution of altruism in a multi-group population which demonstrates that a (...)
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  40. Alejandro Rosas (2012). Disentangling Social Preferences From Group Selection: Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis: A Cooperative Species: Human Reciprocity and its Evolution, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2011, 288 Pp, $35.00 Hbk, ISBN 978-0691151250 (Essay Review). [REVIEW] Biological Theory 6 (2):169-175.
     
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  41.  6
    Kennon M. Sheldon, Melanie Skaggs Sheldon & Richard Osbaldiston (2000). Prosocial Values and Group Assortation. Human Nature 11 (4):387-404.
    Ninety-five freshmen each recruited three peers to play a "group bidding game," an N-person prisoner’s dilemma in which anyone could win movie tickets depending on their scores in the game. Prior to playing, all participants completed a measure of prosocial value orientation. Replicating and extending earlier findings (Sheldon and McGregor 2000), our results show that prosocial participants were at a disadvantage within groups. Despite this vulnerability, prosocial participants did no worse overall than asocial participants because a counteracting group-level (...)
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  42.  37
    Michael J. Murray (2010). The Evolution of Religion: Adaptationist Accounts. In Science and Religion in Dialogue. Wiley-Blackwell 437--457.
    This chapter contains sections titled: * I Introduction * II One Preliminary * III Adaptationist Theories * IV Punishment Theories * V Commitment Signaling * VI Group Selection * V Conclusion * Notes * References.
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  43.  9
    Richard Machalek & Lawrence E. Cohen (1991). The Nature of Crime. Human Nature 2 (3):215-233.
    The classical social theorist Emile Durkheim proposed the counterintuitive thesis that crime is beneficial for society because it provokes punishment, which enhances social solidarity. His logic, however, is blemished by a reified view of society that leads to group-selectionist thinking and a teleological account of the causes of crime. Reconceptualization of the relationship between crime and punishment in terms of evolutionary game theory, however, suggests that crime (cheating) may confer benefits on cooperating individuals by promoting stability in their (...)
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  44. Santiago Ginnobili (2010). La teoría de la selección natural darwiniana (The Darwinian Theory of Natural Selection). Theoria 25 (1):37-58.
    This paper is about the reconstruction of the Darwinian Theory of Natural Selection. My aim here is to outline the fundamental law of this theory in an informal way from its applications in The Origin of Species and to make explicit its fundamental concepts. I will introduce the theory-nets of special laws that arise from the specialization of the fundamental law. I will assume the metatheoretical structuralist frame. I will also point out many consequences that my (...)
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  45.  59
    David Sloan Wilson & Elliott Sober (1994). Reintroducing Group Selection to the Human Behavioral Sciences. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):585.
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  46.  15
    David R. Oldroyd (1986). Charles Darwin's Theory of Evolution: A Review of Our Present Understanding. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 1 (2):133-168.
    The paper characterizes Darwin's theory, providing a synthesis of recent historical investigations in this area. Darwin's reading of Malthus led him to appreciate the importance of population pressures, and subsequently of natural selection, with the help of the wedge metaphor. But, in itself, natural selection did not furnish an adequate account of the origin of species, for which a principle of divergence was needed. Initially, Darwin attributed this to geographical isolation, but later, following his work on barnacles (...)
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  47.  6
    C. Goodnight, E. Rauch, H. Sayama, M. A. M. De Aguiar, M. Baranger & Y. Bar-yam (2008). Evolution in Spatial Predator–Prey Models and the “Prudent Predator”: The Inadequacy of Steady-State Organism Fitness and the Concept of Individual and Group Selection. Complexity 13 (5):23-44.
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  48.  22
    Machiel Keestra (2012). Bounded Mirroring. Joint Action and Group Membership in Political Theory and Cognitive Neuroscience. In Frank Vandervalk (ed.), Thinking About the Body Politic: Essays on Neuroscience and Political Theory. Routledge 222--249.
    A crucial socio-political challenge for our age is how to rede!ne or extend group membership in such a way that it adequately responds to phenomena related to globalization like the prevalence of migration, the transformation of family and social networks, and changes in the position of the nation state. Two centuries ago Immanuel Kant assumed that international connectedness between humans would inevitably lead to the realization of world citizen rights. Nonetheless, globalization does not just foster cosmopolitanism but simultaneously yields (...)
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  49.  49
    Marc Dymetman (1998). Group Theory and Computational Linguistics. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 7 (4):461-497.
    There is currently much interest in bringing together the tradition of categorial grammar, and especially the Lambek calculus, with the recent paradigm of linear logic to which it has strong ties. One active research area is designing non-commutative versions of linear logic (Abrusci, 1995; Retoré, 1993) which can be sensitive to word order while retaining the hypothetical reasoning capabilities of standard (commutative) linear logic (Dalrymple et al., 1995). Some connections between the Lambek calculus and computations in groups have long been (...)
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  50.  12
    Mark H. Bickhard (2003). Variations in Variation and Selection: The Ubiquity of the Variation-and-Selective-Retention Ratchet in Emergent Organizational Complexity, Part II: Quantum Field Theory. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 8 (3):283-293.
    If the general arguments concerning theinvolvement of variation and selection inexplanations of ``fit'' are valid, then variationand selection explanations should beappropriate, or at least potentiallyappropriate, outside the paradigm historisticdomains of biology and knowledge. In thisdiscussion, I wish to indicate some potentialroles for variation and selection infoundational physics – specifically inquantum field theory. I will not be attemptingany full coherent ontology for quantum fieldtheory – none currently exists, and none islikely for at least the short term future. (...)
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