Search results for 'health as a value' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Lubomira Radoilska (2009). Public Health Ethics and Liberalism. Public Health Ethics 2 (2):135-145.score: 648.0
    This paper defends a distinctly liberal approach to public health ethics and replies to possible objections. In particular, I look at a set of recent proposals aiming to revise and expand liberalism in light of public health's rationale and epidemiological findings. I argue that they fail to provide a sociologically informed version of liberalism. Instead, they rest on an implicit normative premise about the value of health, which I show to be invalid. I then make explicit (...)
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  2. Paulina Taboada, Kateryna Fedoryka Cuddeback & Patricia Donohue-White (eds.) (2002). Person, Society, and Value: Towards a Personalist Concept of Health. Kluwer Academic Pub..score: 618.0
    A clear understanding of the concept of health plays a key role in defining what health care should comprise and in developing adequate strategies for overcoming the current "health care crisis". This volume is the result of an international and interdisciplinary cooperation between medicine and philosophy on the current debate on the concept of health.Besides offering a critical analysis of the WHO definition and a review of both ancient and contemporary conceptions of health, the cooperative (...)
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  3. Aasim I. Padela (2013). Islamic Verdicts in Health Policy Discourse: Porcine‐Based Vaccines as a Case Study. Zygon 48 (3):655-670.score: 564.0
    In this article, I apply a policy-oriented applied Islamic bioethics lens to two verdicts on the permissibility of using vaccines with porcine components. I begin by reviewing the decrees and then proceed to describe how they were used by health policy stakeholders. Subsequently, My analysis will highlight aspects of the verdict's ethico-legal arguments in order to illustrate salient legal concepts that must be accounted for when using Islamic verdicts as the basis for health policy. I will conclude with (...)
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  4. Michael McCubbin & David Cohen (1999). A Systemic and Value-Based Approach to Strategic Reform of the Mental Health System. Health Care Analysis 7 (1):57-77.score: 558.0
    Most writers now recognize that mental health policy and the mental health system are extremely resistant to real changes that reflect genuine biopsychosocial paradigms of mental disorder. Writers bemoaning the intransigence of the mental health system tend to focus on a small analytical level, only to find themselves mired in the rationalities of the existing system. Problems are acknowledged to be system-wide, yet few writers have used a method of analysis appropriate for systemic problems. Drawing upon the (...)
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  5. Christopher Boorse (1977). Health as a Theoretical Concept. Philosophy of Science 44 (4):542-573.score: 549.0
    This paper argues that the medical conception of health as absence of disease is a value-free theoretical notion. Its main elements are biological function and statistical normality, in contrast to various other ideas prominent in the literature on health. Apart from universal environmental injuries, diseases are internal states that depress a functional ability below species-typical levels. Health as freedom from disease is then statistical normality of function, i.e., the ability to perform all typical physiological functions with (...)
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  6. Thana Cristina de Campos (2012). Health as a Basic Human Need: Would This Be Enough? Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (2):251-267.score: 549.0
    Although the value of health is universally agreed upon, its definition is not. Both the WHO and the UN define health in terms of well-being. They advocate a globally shared responsibility that all of us — states, international organizations, pharmaceutical corporations, civil society, and individuals — bear for the health (that is, the well-being) of the world's population. In this paper I argue that this current well-being conception of health is troublesome. Its problem resides precisely (...)
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  7. K. Fedoryka (1997). Health as a Normative Concept: Towards a New Conceptual Framework. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 22 (2):143-160.score: 543.0
    One of the main concerns in defining health is determining its status in relation to value. The main proposals in this direction generally assume a strict dichotomy between descriptive and evaluative dimensions. This essay argues that such a dichotomy leads to a theoretical inconsistency, which becomes evident once a definition of health is practically operative. A new conceptual framework uniting these two moments is proposed as an alternative, capable of preserving the fundamental insights of both descriptive and (...)
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  8. K. W. M. Fulford (1993). Praxis Makes Perfect: Illness as a Bridge Between Biological Concepts of Disease and Social Conceptions of Health. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 14 (4).score: 540.0
    Analyses of biological concepts of disease and social conceptions of health indicate that they are structurally interdependent. This in turn suggests the need for a bridge theory of illness. The main features of such a theory are an emphasis on the logical properties of value terms, close attention to the features of the experience of illness, and an analysis of this experience as action failure, drawing directly on the internal structure of action. The practical applications of this theory (...)
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  9. Norbert Paul (2010). A Closer Look at Health and Disease as Prerequisites for Diagnosis and Prognosis. Medicine Studies 2 (2):95-100.score: 540.0
    Health and illness are key concepts of medicine but they also have essential significance for each and every one of our lives. For this reason, social value systems are inevitably integrated into medicine through the concept of health and illness. In turn, medical knowledge and medico-scientific notions are perpetually incorporated into societal perceptions of health and illness. Generally, such integration usually occurs via an extended concept of health and illness, which is to be discussed in (...)
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  10. James G. Lennox (1995). Health as an Objective Value. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 20 (5):499-511.score: 534.0
    Variants on two approaches to the concept of health have dominated the philosophy of medicine, here referred to as ‘reductionist’ and ‘relativis’. These two approaches share the basic assumption that the concept of health cannot be both based on an empirical biological foundation and be evaluative, and thus adopt either the view that it is ‘objective’ or evaluative. It is here argued that there are a subset of value concepts that are formed in recognition of certain fundamental (...)
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  11. A. R. Singh & S. A. Singh (2003). Towards a Suicide Free Society: Identify Suicide Prevention as Public Health Policy. Mens Sana Monographs 1 (2):3.score: 528.0
    Suicide is amongst the top ten causes of death for all age groups in most countries of the world. It is the second most important cause of death in the younger age group (15-19 yrs.) , second only to vehicular accidents. Attempted suicides are ten times the successful suicide figures, and 1-2% attempted suicides become successful suicides every year. Male sex, widowhood, single or divorced marital status, addiction to alcohol ordrugs, concomitant chronic physical or mental illness, past suicidal attempt, adverse (...)
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  12. Ricca Edmondson & Jane Pearce (2007). The Practice of Health Care: Wisdom as a Model. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 10 (3):233-244.score: 510.0
    Reasoning and judgement in health care entail complex responses to problems whose demands typically derive from several areas of specialism at once. We argue that current evidence- or value-based models of health care reasoning, despite their virtues, are insufficient to account for responses to such problems exhaustively. At the same time, we offer reasons for contending that health professionals in fact engage in forms of reasoning of a kind described for millennia under the concept of wisdom. (...)
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  13. P. Lehoux, M. Hivon, B. Williams-Jones, F. A. Miller & D. R. Urbach (2012). How Do Medical Device Manufacturers' Websites Frame the Value of Health Innovation? An Empirical Ethics Analysis of Five Canadian Innovations. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (1):61-77.score: 456.0
    While every health care system stakeholder would seem to be concerned with obtaining the greatest value from a given technology, there is often a disconnect in the perception of value between a technology’s promoters and those responsible for the ultimate decision as to whether or not to pay for it. Adopting an empirical ethics approach, this paper examines how five Canadian medical device manufacturers, via their websites, frame the corporate “value proposition” of their innovation and seek (...)
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  14. Bjørn Hofmann (2005). On Value-Judgements and Ethics in Health Technology Assessment. Poiesis and Praxis 3 (4):277-295.score: 450.0
    The widespread application of technology in health care has imposed a broad range of challenges. The field of health technology assessment (HTA) is developed in order to face some of these challenges. However, this strategy has not been as successful as one could hope. One of the reasons for this is that social and ethical considerations have not been integrated in the HTA process. Nowadays however, such considerations have been included in many HTAs. Still, the conclusions and recommendations (...)
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  15. John B. Davis & Robert McMaster (2007). The Individual in Mainstream Health Economics: A Case of Persona Non-Grata. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 15 (3):195-210.score: 399.0
    This paper is motivated by Davis’ [14] theory of the individual in economics. Davis’ analysis is applied to health economics, where the individual is conceived as a utility maximiser, although capable of regarding others’ welfare through interdependent utility functions. Nonetheless, this provides a restrictive and flawed account, engendering a narrow and abstract conception of care grounded in Paretian value and Cartesian analytical frames. Instead, a richer account of the socially embedded individual is advocated, which employs collective intentionality analysis. (...)
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  16. Nikola Biller-Andorno, Reidar K. Lie & Ruud Ter Meulen (2002). Evidence-Based Medicine as an Instrument for Rational Health Policy. Health Care Analysis 10 (3):261-275.score: 372.0
    This article tries to present a broad view on the values and ethicalissues that are at stake in efforts to rationalize health policy on thebasis of economic evaluations (like cost-effectiveness analysis) andrandomly controlled clinical trials. Though such a rationalization isgenerally seen as an objective and `value free' process, moral valuesoften play a hidden role, not only in the production of `evidence', butalso in the way this evidence is used in policy making. For example, thedefinition of effectiveness of medical (...)
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  17. Shawn H. E. Harmon (2006). Solidarity: A (New) Ethic for Global Health Policy. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 14 (4):215-236.score: 372.0
    This article explores solidarity as an ethical concept underpinning rules in the global health context. First, it considers the theoretical conceptualisation of the value and some specific duties it supports (ie: its expression in the broadest sense and its derivative action-guiding duties). Second, it considers the manifestation of solidarity in two international regulatory instruments. It concludes that, although solidarity is represented in these instruments, it is often incidental. This fact, their emphasis on other values and their internal weaknesses (...)
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  18. Gerard Zwetsloot & Frank Pot (2004). The Business Value of Health Management. Journal of Business Ethics 55 (2):115 - 124.score: 369.0
    For organizational development that is future-oriented, enterprises increasingly need qualified, motivated and efficient workers who are able and willing to contribute actively to technical and organizational innovations. Furthermore, customers and consumers are increasingly interested in healthy products and services. Therefore, health has become a (potential) business value of strategic importance. In interaction with all relevant stakeholders, an approach was developed for companies that want to manage their health impact in a proactive and preventive manner. The approach was (...)
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  19. Raphael Woolf (2009). Truth as a Value in Plato's Republic. Phronesis 54 (1):9-39.score: 366.8
    To what extent is possession of truth considered a good thing in the Republic ? Certain passages of the dialogue appear to regard truth as a universal good, but others are more circumspect about its value, recommending that truth be withheld on occasion and falsehood disseminated. I seek to resolve this tension by distinguishing two kinds of truths, which I label 'philosophical' and 'non-philosophical'. Philosophical truths, I argue, are considered unqualifiedly good to possess, whereas non-philosophical truths are regarded (...)
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  20. Jason T. Eberl, Eleanor K. Kinney & Matthew J. Williams (2011). Foundation for a Natural Right to Health Care. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 36 (6):537-557.score: 366.0
    Discussions concerning whether there is a natural right to health care may occur in various forms, resulting in policy recommendations for how to implement any such right in a given society. But health care policies may be judged by international standards including the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The rights enumerated in the UDHR are grounded in traditions of moral theory, a philosophical analysis of which is necessary in order to adjudicate the value of specific policies (...)
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  21. Martin Lipscomb (2011). Challenging the Coherence of Social Justice as a Shared Nursing Value. Nursing Philosophy 12 (1):4-11.score: 366.0
  22. Lasse Nielsen (forthcoming). Why Health Matters to Justice: A Capability Theory Perspective. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-13.score: 366.0
    The capability approach, originated by Amartya Sen is among the most comprehensive and influential accounts of justice that applies to issues of health and health care. However, although health is always presumed as an important capability in Sen’s works, he never manages to fully explain why health is distinctively valuable. This paper provides an explanation. It does this by firstly laying out the general capability-based argument for health justice. It then discusses two recent attempts to (...)
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  23. Roberto Mordacci (1995). Health as an Analogical Concept. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 20 (5):475-497.score: 360.0
    This article examines the normative structure of the concept of health and tries to suggest an account of it in a phenomenological-hermeneutic framework. It is argued that the concept of health has a logical priority to illness, though the latter has an experiential priority. The fundamental feature of the concept of health as discussed in the literature is initially recognized in the notion of ‘norm’, in both the bio-statistical and normative-ideal sense. An analysis of this body of (...)
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  24. S. Pomfret, Q. A. Karim & S. R. Benatar (2010). Inclusion of Adolescent Women in Microbicide Trials: A Public Health Imperative! Public Health Ethics 3 (1):39-50.score: 360.0
    Conventional and well-established guidelines for the ethical conduct of clinical research are necessary but not sufficient for addressing research dilemmas related to public health research. There is a particular need for a public health ethics framework when, in the face of an epidemic, research is urgently needed to promote the common good. While there is limited experience in the use of a public health ethics framework, the value and potential of such an approach is increasingly being (...)
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  25. Christy A. Rentmeester (2001). Value Neutrality in Genetic Counseling: An Unattained Ideal. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 4 (1):47-51.score: 360.0
    Beginning with a discussion of why value neutrality on the part of the genetics counselor does not necessarily preserve autonomy of the counselee, the idea that social values unavoidably underlie the articulation of risks and benefits of genetic testing is made explicit. Despite the best efforts of a counselor to convey value neutral facts, risk assessment by the counselee and family is done according to normative analysis, experience with illness, and definitions of health. Each of these factors (...)
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  26. James R. Alleman (2001). Personal, Practical, and Professional Issues in Providing Managed Mental Health Care: A Discussion for New Psychotherapists. Ethics and Behavior 11 (4):413 – 429.score: 360.0
    Written by a former corporate manager pursuing counseling as a 2nd career, this article offers pointed views on managed mental health care. Values of practitioners that are a mismatch for managed care are noted, and more specific disadvantages and advantages are examined. Loss of client confidentiality is addressed and procedures and technologies for its reclamation are noted. Negative effects on therapy are acknowledged and potential for better accountability and research are pointed out. Economic disadvantages of a small provider's practice (...)
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  27. Hannele Kerosuo (2004). Examining Boundaries In Health Care - Outline Of A Method For Studying Organizational Boundaries In Interaction. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 6 (1):35-60.score: 360.0
    The care of patients with many illnesses often appears fragmented by many boundaries in the health care system when the care is provided in several locations of primary and secondary care. In the article, boundaries are examined in an interaction between patients and multiple providers in an effort to develop collaboration in inter-organizational provision in a Change Laboratory intervention. Firstly, it will be traced how the boundaries are expressed in the interaction. Secondly, it will be studied how the boundaries (...)
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  28. Libby Hattersley (2013). Agri-Food System Transformations and Diet-Related Chronic Disease in Australia: A Nutrition-Oriented Value Chain Approach. Agriculture and Human Values 30 (2):299-309.score: 358.0
    Attention has become increasingly focused in recent years on the role agri-food system transformations have played in driving the global diet-related chronic disease burden. Identifying the role played by the food-consuming industries (predominantly large manufacturers, processors, distributors, and retailers) in particular, and identifying possibilities to facilitate healthier diets through intervening in these industries, have been identified as a research priority. This paper explores the potential for one promising analytic framework—the nutrition-oriented value chain approach—to contribute to this area, drawing on (...)
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  29. Judith Andre (1986). Privacy as a Value and as a Right. Journal of Value Inquiry 20 (4):309-317.score: 357.8
    Knowledge of others, then, has value; so does immunity from being known. The ability to extend one's knowledge has value; so does the ability to limit other's knowledge of oneself. I have claimed that no interest can count as a right unless it clearly outweighs opposing interests whose presence is logically entailed. I see no way to establish that my interest in not being known, simply as such, outweighs your desire to know about me. I acknowledge the intuitive (...)
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  30. M. Carmen Ruiz Jiménez, Manuel Carlos Vallejo Martos & Rocío Martínez Jiménez (2013). Organisational Harmony as a Value in Family Businesses and Its Influence on Performance. Journal of Business Ethics:1-14.score: 357.0
    The aims of this research were twofold: first, to compare the levels of organisational harmony between family and non-family firms and, second, to study the influence of organisational harmony on family firms’ performance (profitability, longevity and group cohesion). Starting from a definition of organisational harmony as a value and considering the importance of the management of organisational values, we use the main topics indicated by the general literature (organisational climate, trust and participation) to analyse organisational harmony, as well as (...)
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  31. María José Alcaraz León (2011). Morally Wrong Beauty as a Source of Value. Nordic Journal of Aesthetics 22 (40-41).score: 355.5
    In this paper I would like to address the problem of the aesthetic value of damaged nature. A variety of arguments have been offered in order to ground the view that we cannot perceive damaged nature as beautiful, at least as soon as we are aware of its damaged condition. These arguments are usually offered in tandem with a view about what the correct appreciation of nature involves and, hence, are often supported by this view. I will try to (...)
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  32. M. Walton & E. Mengwasser (2012). An Ethical Evaluation of Evidence: A Stewardship Approach to Public Health Policy. Public Health Ethics 5 (1):16-21.score: 354.0
    This article aims to contribute to the application of ethical frameworks to public health policy. In particular, the article considers the use of the Nuffield Council on Bioethics stewardship model, as an applied framework for the evaluation of evidence within public health policymaking. The ‘Stewardship framework’ was applied to a policy proposal to restrict marketing of food and beverages to children. Reflections on applying the stewardship model as a framework are provided. The article concludes that the questions used (...)
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  33. Eileen A. Joy (2013). Disturbing the Wednesday-Ish Business-as-Usual of the University Studium: A Wayzgoose Manifest. Continent 2 (4):260-268.score: 354.0
    In this issue we include contributions from the individuals presiding at the panel All in a Jurnal's Work: A BABEL Wayzgoose, convened at the second Biennial Meeting of the BABEL Working Group. Sadly, the contributions of Daniel Remein, chief rogue at the Organism for Poetic Research as well as editor at Whiskey & Fox , were not able to appear in this version of the proceedings. From the program : 2ND BIENNUAL MEETING OF THE BABEL WORKING GROUP CONFERENCE “CRUISING IN (...)
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  34. Jitka Cirklová (2012). Buddhism as a Value Source in the Course of New Identity and Lifestyle Formation in the Czech Republic. Contemporary Buddhism 13 (2):263-279.score: 348.8
    This study is focused on cultural phenomena of contemporary Europe: the creation of a new religious identity without cultural precedent in European cultural history. It will concentrate on non-Asian Buddhist converts, who have adopted religious world views different from those of their ethnic heritage and the mainstream culture they live in and who use Buddhism as the value-source for their children's upbringing. The parents who, to a certain degree, master Buddhist practice and are attached to this particular religious culture, (...)
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  35. James Oliver (2009). Creativity as Openness: Improvising Health and Care 'Situations'. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 17 (4):318-330.score: 348.0
    Creativity has become an oft-used word in UK public policy, but perhaps it is also under-imagined. This paper contends that there is an instrumental tendency to narrowly frame creativity as innovation, implying a reproducible product, instead of more openly as improvisation, a situational, embodied and temporal process. This is not a simple dichotomy (innovation and improvisation, product and process, can be mutually informing concepts), nor is it specifically a question of definition; rather, it relates to an ontological orientation, and related (...)
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  36. Vikki A. Entwistle & Ian S. Watt (2013). Treating Patients as Persons: A Capabilities Approach to Support Delivery of Person-Centered Care. American Journal of Bioethics 13 (8):29-39.score: 348.0
    Health services internationally struggle to ensure health care is ?person-centered? (or similar). In part, this is because there are many interpretations of ?person-centered care? (and near synonyms), some of which seem unrealistic for some patients or situations and obscure the intrinsic value of patients? experiences of health care delivery. The general concern behind calls for person-centered care is an ethical one: Patients should be ?treated as persons.? We made novel use of insights from the capabilities approach (...)
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  37. Bryan Norton (1995). Objectivity, Intrinsicality and Sustainability: Comment on Nelson's 'Health and Disease as "Thick" Concepts in Ecosystemic Contexts'. Environmental Values 4 (4):323 - 332.score: 346.0
    Ecosystem health, as James Nelson argues, must be understood as having both descriptive and normative content; it is in this sense a 'morally thick' concept. The health analogy refers (a) at the similarities between conservation ecology and medicine or plant pathology as normative sciences, and (b) to the ability of ecosystems to 'heal' themselves in the face of disturbances. Nelson, however, goes beyond these two aspects and argues that judgements of illness in ecosystems only support moral obligations to (...)
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  38. Ryan J. Fante (2009). An Ontology of Health: A Characterization of Human Health and Existence. Zygon 44 (1):65-84.score: 342.0
    The pursuit of health is one of the most basic and prevalent concerns of humanity. In order to better attain and preserve health, a fundamental and unified description of the concept is required. Using Paul Tillich's ontological framework, I introduce a complete characterization of health and disease is that is useful to the philosophy of medicine and for health-care workers. Health cannot be understood merely as proper functioning of the physical body or of the separated (...)
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  39. J. T. Eberl, E. D. Kinney & M. J. Williams (2012). Foundation For A Natural Right To Health Care. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 36 (6):537-557.score: 342.0
    Discussions concerning whether there is a natural right to health care may occur in various forms, resulting in policy recommendations for how to implement any such right in a given society. But health care policies may be judged by international standards including the United Nations’ Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). The rights enumerated in the UDHR are grounded in traditions of moral theory, a philosophical analysis of which is necessary in order to adjudicate the value of (...)
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  40. Robert Elliot (2005). Instrumental Value in Nature as a Basis for the Intrinsic Value of Nature as a Whole. Environmental Ethics 27 (1):43-56.score: 342.0
    Some environmental ethicists believe that nature as whole has intrinsic value. One reason they do is because they are struck by the extent to which nature and natural processes give rise to so much that has intrinsic value. The underlying thought is that the value-producing work that nature performs, its instrumentality, imbues nature with a value that is more than merely instrumental. This inference, from instrumental value to a noninstrumental value (such as intrinsic (...) or systemic value), has been criticized. After all, it seems to rely on the bizarre idea that a thing’s instrumental value could be a basis for it’s intrinsic value. This idea, however, is not as easy to dismiss as many might think. Review of the obvious arguments that might be deployed to defeat it shows that they have to be rejected, suggesting that a thing’s instrumental value could be, and arguably is, a basis for it’s intrinsic value. Defending this apparently bizarre idea provides a way of justifying the claim that nature as a whole has intrinsic value. (shrink)
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  41. Robert M. Sade (1995). A Theory of Health and Disease: The Objectivist-Subjectivist Dichotomy. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 20 (5):513-525.score: 342.0
    Competing contemporary theories of health, the reductionist (purportedly value-free) and the relativist (purportedly value-based) theories, both rest upon an understanding of value as grounded in desiring, a subjective state. Both can be classified as subjectivist theories. An alternative set of theories, those resting on an understanding of value as grounded in desirability (or goodness) of an objective goal, can be classified as objectivist theories. The ultimate goal of all living things is life, the standard by (...)
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  42. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1999). Coming Home to Hume: A Sociobiological Foundation for a Concept of 'Health' and Morality. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 24 (4):365 – 375.score: 342.0
    Assessing the normative status of concepts of health and disease involves one in questions regarding the relationship between fact and value. Some have argued that Christopher Boorse's conception of health and disease lacks such a valuational element because it cannot account for types of harms which, while disvalued, do not have evolutionarily dysfunctional consequences. I take Boorse's account and incorporate some Humean-like sociobiological assumptions in order to respond to this challenge. The possession of moral sentiments, I argue, (...)
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  43. Pauline Kleingeld & Joel Anderson (2014). Justice as a Family Value: How a Commitment to Fairness is Compatible with Love. Hypatia 29 (2):320-336.score: 342.0
    Many discussions of love and the family treat issues of justice as something alien. On this view, concerns about whether one's family is internally just are in tension with the modes of interaction that are characteristic of loving families. In this essay, we challenge this widespread view. We argue that once justice becomes a shared family concern, its pursuit is compatible with loving familial relations. We examine four arguments for the thesis that a concern with justice is not at home (...)
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  44. Dean M. Harris (2011). Ethics in Health Services and Policy: A Global Approach. Jossey-Bass.score: 342.0
    Machine generated contents note: Introduction. -- Acknowledgments. -- The Author. -- 1 Ethical Theories and Bioethics in a Global Perspective. -- Theories of Ethics. -- Are Theories of Ethics Global? -- Can Theories of Ethics Encourage People to Do the Right Thing? -- 2 Autonomy and Informed Consent in Global Perspective. -- Ethical Principles and Practical Issues of Informed Consent. -- Does Informed Consent Really Matter to Patients? -- Is Informed Consent a Universal Principle or a Cultural Value? -- (...)
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  45. D. R. Buchanan & F. G. Miller (2006). A Public Health Perspective on Research Ethics. Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (12):729-733.score: 342.0
    Ethical guidelines for conducting clinical trials have historically been based on a perceived therapeutic obligation to treat and benefit the patient-participants. The origins of this ethical framework can be traced to the Hippocratic oath originally written to guide doctors in caring for their patients, where the overriding moral obligation of doctors is strictly to do what is best for the individual patient, irrespective of other social considerations. In contrast, although medicine focuses on the health of the person, public (...) is concerned with the health of the entire population, and thus, public health ethics is founded on the societal responsibility to protect and promote the health of the population as a whole. From a public health perspective, research ethics should be guided by giving due consideration to the risks and benefits to society in addition to the individual research participants. On the basis of a duty to protect the population as a whole, a fiduciary obligation to realise the social value of the research and the moral responsibility to distribute the benefits and burdens of research fairly across society, how a public health perspective on research ethics results in fundamental re-assessments of the proper course of action for two salient topical issues in research ethics is shown: stopping trials early for reasons of efficacy and the conduct of research on less expensive yet less effective interventions. (shrink)
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  46. Thaddeus Metz (2014). Meaning as a Distinct and Fundamental Value: Reply to Kershnar. Science, Religion and Culture 1 (2):101-106.score: 342.0
    In this article, I reply to a critical notice of my book, Meaning in Life: An Analytic Study, that Stephen Kershnar has published elsewhere in this issue of Science, Religion & Culture. Beyond expounding the central conclusions of the book, Kershnar advances two major criticisms of it, namely, first, that I did not provide enough evidence that meaning in life is a genuine value-theoretic category as something distinct from and competing with, say, objective well-being, and, second, that, even if (...)
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  47. B. Sivberg (1998). Self-Perception and Value System as Possible Predictors of Stress. Nursing Ethics 5 (2):103-121.score: 342.0
    This study was directed towards personality-related, value system and sociodemographic variables of nursing students in a situation of change, using a longitudinal perspective to measure their improvement in principle-based moral judgement (Kohlberg; Rest) as possible predictors of stress. Three subgroups of students were included from the commencement of the first three-year academic nursing programme in 1993. The students came from the colleges of health at Jönköping, Växjö and Kristianstad in the south of Sweden. A principal component factor analysis (...)
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  48. Jim McCambridge, Kypros Kypri, Preben Bendtsen & John Porter (2013). The Use of Deception in Public Health Behavioral Intervention Trials: A Case Study of Three Online Alcohol Trials. American Journal of Bioethics 13 (11):39-47.score: 342.0
    Some public health behavioral intervention research studies involve deception. A methodological imperative to minimize bias can be in conflict with the ethical principle of informed consent. As a case study, we examine the specific forms of deception used in three online randomized controlled trials evaluating brief alcohol interventions. We elaborate our own decision making about the use of deception in these trials, and present our ongoing findings and uncertainties. We discuss the value of the approach of pragmatism for (...)
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  49. Carmen Cozma (2010). Reviving a Cardinal Value. Cultura 7 (1):139-149.score: 342.0
    In the context of today.s moral and ecological crisis, and the accelerated advance of information and communication technologies, when human beings intensively experience their own fragility, a major question is that of well-being. That raises the issue of moral health, which represents, in an axiological and normative sense, a basis for the human being to find proper opportunities for remaking and protecting the beingness' equilibrium in face of a variety of risks in a society of excesses. We consider that (...)
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  50. Albert W. Musschenga (1998). Intrinsic Value as a Reason for the Preservation of Minority Cultures. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 1 (2):201-225.score: 337.5
    In the Netherlands, the policy of supporting the efforts of ethnic-cultural minorities to express and preserve their cultural distinctiveness, is nowadays considered as problematic because it might interfere with their integration into the wider society. The primary aim is now to reduce these groups' unemployment rate and to stimulate their participation in the wider society. In this article I consider how the notion of the intrinsic value of cultures, if sensible, might affect the policy regarding ethnic-cultural minorities. I develop (...)
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