Search results for 'health as a value' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  13
    Kalle Grill & Angus Dawson (forthcoming). Ethical Frameworks in Public Health Decision-Making: Defending a Value-Based and Pluralist Approach. Health Care Analysis:1-17.
    A number of ethical frameworks have been proposed to support decision-making in public health and the evaluation of public health policy and practice. This is encouraging, since ethical considerations are of paramount importance in health policy. However, these frameworks have various deficiencies, in part because they incorporate substantial ethical positions. In this article, we discuss and criticise a framework developed by James Childress and Ruth Bernheim, which we consider to be the state of the art in the (...)
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  2. Christopher Boorse (1977). Health as a Theoretical Concept. Philosophy of Science 44 (4):542-573.
    This paper argues that the medical conception of health as absence of disease is a value-free theoretical notion. Its main elements are biological function and statistical normality, in contrast to various other ideas prominent in the literature on health. Apart from universal environmental injuries, diseases are internal states that depress a functional ability below species-typical levels. Health as freedom from disease is then statistical normality of function, i.e., the ability to perform all typical physiological functions with (...)
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  3.  3
    Helen Watt (2015). Life and Health: A Value in Itself for Human Beings? HEC Forum 27 (3):207-228.
    The presence of a human being/organism—a living human ‘whole’, with the defining tendency to promote its own welfare—has value in itself, as do the functions which compose it. Life is inseparable from health, since without some degree of healthy functionality the living whole would not exist. The value of life differs both within a single life and between lives. As with any other form of human flourishing, the value of life-and-health must be distinguished from the (...)
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  4.  12
    Paulina Taboada, Kateryna Fedoryka Cuddeback & Patricia Donohue-White (eds.) (2002). Person, Society, and Value: Towards a Personalist Concept of Health. Kluwer Academic Pub..
    A clear understanding of the concept of health plays a key role in defining what health care should comprise and in developing adequate strategies for overcoming the current "health care crisis". This volume is the result of an international and interdisciplinary cooperation between medicine and philosophy on the current debate on the concept of health.Besides offering a critical analysis of the WHO definition and a review of both ancient and contemporary conceptions of health, the cooperative (...)
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  5.  20
    Aasim I. Padela (2013). Islamic Verdicts in Health Policy Discourse: Porcine‐Based Vaccines as a Case Study. Zygon 48 (3):655-670.
    In this article, I apply a policy-oriented applied Islamic bioethics lens to two verdicts on the permissibility of using vaccines with porcine components. I begin by reviewing the decrees and then proceed to describe how they were used by health policy stakeholders. Subsequently, My analysis will highlight aspects of the verdict's ethico-legal arguments in order to illustrate salient legal concepts that must be accounted for when using Islamic verdicts as the basis for health policy. I will conclude with (...)
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  6.  13
    Thana Cristina de Campos (2012). Health as a Basic Human Need: Would This Be Enough? Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 40 (2):251-267.
    Although the value of health is universally agreed upon, its definition is not. Both the WHO and the UN define health in terms of well-being. They advocate a globally shared responsibility that all of us — states, international organizations, pharmaceutical corporations, civil society, and individuals — bear for the health (that is, the well-being) of the world's population. In this paper I argue that this current well-being conception of health is troublesome. Its problem resides precisely (...)
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  7.  5
    K. Fedoryka (1997). Health as a Normative Concept: Towards a New Conceptual Framework. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 22 (2):143-160.
    One of the main concerns in defining health is determining its status in relation to value. The main proposals in this direction generally assume a strict dichotomy between descriptive and evaluative dimensions. This essay argues that such a dichotomy leads to a theoretical inconsistency, which becomes evident once a definition of health is practically operative. A new conceptual framework uniting these two moments is proposed as an alternative, capable of preserving the fundamental insights of both descriptive and (...)
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  8.  21
    Michael McCubbin & David Cohen (1999). A Systemic and Value-Based Approach to Strategic Reform of the Mental Health System. Health Care Analysis 7 (1):57-77.
    Most writers now recognize that mental health policy and the mental health system are extremely resistant to real changes that reflect genuine biopsychosocial paradigms of mental disorder. Writers bemoaning the intransigence of the mental health system tend to focus on a small analytical level, only to find themselves mired in the rationalities of the existing system. Problems are acknowledged to be system-wide, yet few writers have used a method of analysis appropriate for systemic problems. Drawing upon the (...)
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  9. Michael D. Rozier (2016). Structures of Virtue as a Framework for Public Health Ethics. Public Health Ethics 9 (1):37-45.
    Virtue ethics has a rich history; yet, its application in health ethics has been minimal compared to other major ethical frameworks. Even more, its application to health policy and population-level questions has been almost nonexistent. A new concept in moral theology, structures of virtue, provides impetus for ethicists to consider how virtue ethics can be a valuable addition to existing frameworks in public health ethics. This article offers a basic overview of virtue ethics and its value (...)
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  10.  27
    K. W. M. Fulford (1993). Praxis Makes Perfect: Illness as a Bridge Between Biological Concepts of Disease and Social Conceptions of Health. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 14 (4).
    Analyses of biological concepts of disease and social conceptions of health indicate that they are structurally interdependent. This in turn suggests the need for a bridge theory of illness. The main features of such a theory are an emphasis on the logical properties of value terms, close attention to the features of the experience of illness, and an analysis of this experience as action failure, drawing directly on the internal structure of action. The practical applications of this theory (...)
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  11.  39
    James G. Lennox (1995). Health as an Objective Value. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 20 (5):499-511.
    Variants on two approaches to the concept of health have dominated the philosophy of medicine, here referred to as ‘reductionist’ and ‘relativis’. These two approaches share the basic assumption that the concept of health cannot be both based on an empirical biological foundation and be evaluative, and thus adopt either the view that it is ‘objective’ or evaluative. It is here argued that there are a subset of value concepts that are formed in recognition of certain fundamental (...)
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  12.  17
    Norbert Paul (2010). A Closer Look at Health and Disease as Prerequisites for Diagnosis and Prognosis. Medicine Studies 2 (2):95-100.
    Health and illness are key concepts of medicine but they also have essential significance for each and every one of our lives. For this reason, social value systems are inevitably integrated into medicine through the concept of health and illness. In turn, medical knowledge and medico-scientific notions are perpetually incorporated into societal perceptions of health and illness. Generally, such integration usually occurs via an extended concept of health and illness, which is to be discussed in (...)
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  13.  17
    A. R. Singh & S. A. Singh (2003). Towards a Suicide Free Society: Identify Suicide Prevention as Public Health Policy. Mens Sana Monographs 1 (2):3.
    Suicide is amongst the top ten causes of death for all age groups in most countries of the world. It is the second most important cause of death in the younger age group (15-19 yrs.) , second only to vehicular accidents. Attempted suicides are ten times the successful suicide figures, and 1-2% attempted suicides become successful suicides every year. Male sex, widowhood, single or divorced marital status, addiction to alcohol ordrugs, concomitant chronic physical or mental illness, past suicidal attempt, adverse (...)
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  14.  9
    Martin Lipscomb (2011). Challenging the Coherence of Social Justice as a Shared Nursing Value. Nursing Philosophy 12 (1):4-11.
    Normative and prescriptive claims regarding social justice are often inadequately developed in the nursing literature and, in consequence, they must be rejected in their current form. Thus, claims regarding social justice are frequently presented as mere assertion or, alternatively, when assertions are supported that support may be weak . This paper challenges the coherence of social justice as a shared nursing value and it is suggested that claims regarding the concept should be tempered.
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  15.  74
    Lubomira Radoilska (2009). Public Health Ethics and Liberalism. Public Health Ethics 2 (2):135-145.
    This paper defends a distinctly liberal approach to public health ethics and replies to possible objections. In particular, I look at a set of recent proposals aiming to revise and expand liberalism in light of public health's rationale and epidemiological findings. I argue that they fail to provide a sociologically informed version of liberalism. Instead, they rest on an implicit normative premise about the value of health, which I show to be invalid. I then make explicit (...)
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  16.  21
    Gabriele Badano (2016). Still Special, Despite Everything: A Liberal Defence of the Value of Healthcare in the Face of the Social Determinants of Health. Social Theory and Practice 42 (1):183-204.
    Recent epidemiological research on the social determinants of health has been used to attack an important framework, associated with Norman Daniels, that depicts healthcare as special. My aim is to rescue the idea that healthcare has special importance in society, although specialness will turn out to be mainly limited to clinical care. I build upon the link between Daniels's theory and the work of John Rawls to develop a conception of public justification liberalism that is suitable to the field (...)
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  17.  1
    Eva Peguero, Anna Berenguera, Enriqueta Pujol-Ribera, Begoña Roman, Carmen M. Prieto & Núria Terribas (2015). The Workers Opinions Have a Value in the Code of Ethics: Analysis of the Contributions of Workers in Virtual Forum Catalan Institute of Health. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):1-18.
    BackgroundThe Catalan Institute of Health is the largest health services public provider in Catalonia. “CIH Code of Ethics Virtual Forum”, was created within the Intranet of the CIH to facilitate participation among their employees. The current study aims to: a) Analyse the CIH workers’ assessment of their own, their colleagues’ and the organization’s observance of ethical values; b) Identify the opinions, attitudes, experiences and practices related to the ethical values from the discourse of the workers that contributed voluntarily (...)
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  18.  3
    Marco Antonio Azevedo (2015). Health as a Clinic-Epidemiological Concept. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21 (3):365-373.
    I propose a clinic-epidemiological concept of health as the best description of what physicians actually think about health within medical practice. Its aim is to be an alternative to the best approach in the philosophy of medicine about health, Christopher Boorse’s biostatistical theory. Contrary to Boorse’s ‘theoretical’ approach, I propose to take health as a practical clinical concept. In the first two parts of the paper, I will present my complaints against Boorse’s view that health (...)
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  19.  16
    P. Lehoux, M. Hivon, B. Williams-Jones, F. A. Miller & D. R. Urbach (2012). How Do Medical Device Manufacturers' Websites Frame the Value of Health Innovation? An Empirical Ethics Analysis of Five Canadian Innovations. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (1):61-77.
    While every health care system stakeholder would seem to be concerned with obtaining the greatest value from a given technology, there is often a disconnect in the perception of value between a technology’s promoters and those responsible for the ultimate decision as to whether or not to pay for it. Adopting an empirical ethics approach, this paper examines how five Canadian medical device manufacturers, via their websites, frame the corporate “value proposition” of their innovation and seek (...)
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  20.  15
    Bjørn Hofmann (2005). On Value-Judgements and Ethics in Health Technology Assessment. Poiesis and Praxis 3 (4):277-295.
    The widespread application of technology in health care has imposed a broad range of challenges. The field of health technology assessment (HTA) is developed in order to face some of these challenges. However, this strategy has not been as successful as one could hope. One of the reasons for this is that social and ethical considerations have not been integrated in the HTA process. Nowadays however, such considerations have been included in many HTAs. Still, the conclusions and recommendations (...)
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  21.  42
    A. M. Buyx (2008). Personal Responsibility for Health as a Rationing Criterion: Why We Don't Like It and Why Maybe We Should. Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (12):871-874.
    Whether it is fair to use personal responsibility of patients for their own health as a rationing criterion in healthcare is a controversial matter. A host of difficulties are associated with the concept of personal responsibility in the field of medicine. These include, in particular, theoretical considerations of justice and such practical issues as multiple causal factors in medicine and freedom of health behaviour. In the article, personal responsibility is evaluated from the perspective of several theories of justice. (...)
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  22.  3
    J. E. Sitvast & T. A. Abma (2012). The Photo-Instrument as a Health Care Intervention. Health Care Analysis 20 (2):177-195.
    The aim of this study is to describe how hermeneutic photography and one application of hermeneutic photography in particular, namely the photo-instrument, can be used as a health care intervention that fosters meaning (re-)construction of mental illness experiences. Studies into the ways how patients construct meaning in illness narratives indicate that aesthetic expressions of experiences may play an important role in meaning making and sharing. The study is part of a larger research project devoted to understanding the photostories that (...)
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  23.  67
    Raphael Woolf (2009). Truth as a Value in Plato's Republic. Phronesis 54 (1):9-39.
    To what extent is possession of truth considered a good thing in the Republic? Certain passages of the dialogue appear to regard truth as a universal good, but others are more circumspect about its value, recommending that truth be withheld on occasion and falsehood disseminated. I seek to resolve this tension by distinguishing two kinds of truths, which I label 'philosophical' and 'non-philosophical'. Philosophical truths, I argue, are considered unqualifiedly good to possess, whereas non-philosophical truths are regarded as worth (...)
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  24.  3
    Sandra J. Tanenbaum (2011). Mental Health Consumer-Operated Services Organizations in the US: Citizenship as a Core Function and Strategy for Growth. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 19 (2):192-205.
    Consumer-operated services organizations (COSOs) are independent, non-profit organizations that provide peer support and other non-clinical services to seriously mentally ill people. Mental health consumers provide many of these services and make up at least a majority of the organization’s leadership. Although the dominant conception of the COSO is as an adjunct to clinical care in the public mental health system, this paper reconceives the organization as a civic association and thereby a locus of citizenship. Drawing on empirical research (...)
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  25.  54
    Efrat Ram-Tiktin (2012). The Right to Health Care as a Right to Basic Human Functional Capabilities. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (3):337 - 351.
    A just social arrangement must guarantee a right to health care for all. This right should be understood as a positive right to basic human functional capabilities. The present article aims to delineate the right to health care as part of an account of distributive justice in health care in terms of the sufficiency of basic human functional capabilities. According to the proposed account, every individual currently living beneath the sufficiency threshold or in jeopardy of falling beneath (...)
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  26.  3
    Sune Holm (2013). Health as a Property of Engineered Living Systems. Bioethics 27 (8):419-425.
    This article considers naturalistic analyses of the concepts of health and disease in light of the possibility of constructing novel living systems. The article begins by introducing the vision of synthetic biology as the application of engineering principles to the construction of biological systems, the main analyses of the concepts of health and disease, and the standard theories of function in artefacts and organisms. The article then suggests that reflection on the possibility of artefactual organisms amounts to a (...)
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  27.  23
    Erik Krag (2013). Health as Normal Function: A Weak Link in Daniels's Theory of Just Health Distribution. Bioethics 27 (3):427-435.
    Drawing on Christopher Boorse's Biostatistical Theory (BST), Norman Daniels contends that a genuine health need is one which is necessary to restore normal functioning – a supposedly objective notion which he believes can be read from the natural world without reference to potentially controversial normative categories. But despite his claims to the contrary, this conception of health harbors arbitrary evaluative judgments which make room for intractable disagreement as to which conditions should count as genuine health needs and (...)
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  28.  79
    J. -F. Menard (2010). A 'Nudge' for Public Health Ethics: Libertarian Paternalism as a Framework for Ethical Analysis of Public Health Interventions? Public Health Ethics 3 (3):229-238.
    Is it possible to interfere with individual decision-making while preserving freedom of choice? The purpose of this article is to assess whether ‘libertarian paternalism’, a set of political and ethical principles derived from the observations of behavioural sciences, can form the basis of a viable framework for the ethical analysis of public health interventions. First, the article situates libertarian libertarianism within the broader context of the law and economics movement. The main tenets of the approach are then presented and (...)
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  29.  17
    Judith Andre (1986). Privacy as a Value and as a Right. Journal of Value Inquiry 20 (4):309-317.
    Knowledge of others, then, has value; so does immunity from being known. The ability to extend one's knowledge has value; so does the ability to limit other's knowledge of oneself. I have claimed that no interest can count as a right unless it clearly outweighs opposing interests whose presence is logically entailed. I see no way to establish that my interest in not being known, simply as such, outweighs your desire to know about me. I acknowledge the intuitive (...)
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  30.  8
    Vladislav A. Lektorsky (2013). Rationality as a Value of Culture. Russian Studies in Philosophy 52 (1):40-52.
    The author presents two complementary understandings of rationality. He criticizes those who deny the continuing relevance of rationality as a cultural value as well as those who attach exaggerated importance to it.
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  31.  3
    Kristina Gupta (2011). “Screw Health”: Representations of Sex as a Health-Promoting Activity in Medical and Popular Literature. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Humanities 32 (2):127-140.
    Recently, scientific and popular press articles have begun to represent sex as a health-promoting activity. A number of scientific studies have identified possible health benefits of sexual activity, including increased lifespan and decreased risk of certain types of cancers. These scientific findings have been widely reported on in the popular press. This "sex for health" discourse claims that sexual activity leads to quantifiable physical and mental health benefits in areas not directly related to sexuality. Analyzing this (...)
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  32.  6
    Alena M. Buyx (2008). Personal Responsibility for Health as a Rationing Criterion: Why We Don't Like It and Why Maybe We Should. Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (12):871-874.
    Whether it is fair to use personal responsibility of patients for their own health as a rationing criterion in healthcare is a controversial matter. A host of difficulties are associated with the concept of personal responsibility in the field of medicine. These include, in particular, theoretical considerations of justice and such practical issues as multiple causal factors in medicine and freedom of health behaviour. In the article, personal responsibility is evaluated from the perspective of several theories of justice. (...)
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  33.  19
    David Detmer (1986/1988). Freedom as a Value: A Critique of the Ethical Theory of Jean-Paul Sartre. Open Court.
    The purpose of the present work is twofold. On the one hand, it attempts to provide a critical exposition of the ethical theory of Jean-Paul Sartre. On the other hand, it strives to explain, and in a limited way to defend, the central thesis of that theory, namely, that freedom is the "highest," or most important, value. ;The study begins with an extensive discussion of Sartre's theory of freedom. Sartre's arguments for the freedom of consciousness are identified and presented, (...)
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  34.  28
    M. E. J. Nielsen (2011). Republicanism as a Paradigm for Public Health--Some Comments. Public Health Ethics 4 (1):40-52.
    Some theorists, worried about liberalism’s potential as a foundation for public health ethics, suggest that republicanism provides a better background of justification for public health policies, interventions, etc. In this article, this suggestion is put to the test, and it is argued that (i) contemporary (civic) republicanism and liberalism are not nearly as opposed as it is sometimes suggested, and that (ii) the kind of republicanism which one leading scholar in the field, Bruce Jennings, as an alternative to (...)
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  35.  32
    María José Alcaraz León (2011). Morally Wrong Beauty as a Source of Value. Nordic Journal of Aesthetics 22 (40-41).
    In this paper I would like to address the problem of the aesthetic value of damaged nature. A variety of arguments have been offered in order to ground the view that we cannot perceive damaged nature as beautiful, at least as soon as we are aware of its damaged condition. These arguments are usually offered in tandem with a view about what the correct appreciation of nature involves and, hence, are often supported by this view. I will try to (...)
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  36.  9
    M. Carmen Ruiz Jiménez, Manuel Carlos Vallejo Martos & Rocío Martínez Jiménez (2013). Organisational Harmony as a Value in Family Businesses and Its Influence on Performance. Journal of Business Ethics 126 (2):1-14.
    The aims of this research were twofold: first, to compare the levels of organisational harmony between family and non-family firms and, second, to study the influence of organisational harmony on family firms’ performance (profitability, longevity and group cohesion). Starting from a definition of organisational harmony as a value and considering the importance of the management of organisational values, we use the main topics indicated by the general literature (organisational climate, trust and participation) to analyse organisational harmony, as well as (...)
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  37.  2
    Louis Quéré (2015). Value as a Social Fact: An Adverbial Approach. Human Studies 38 (1):157-177.
    This paper outlines an adverbial approach of value, which it proposes as an alternative to a “nominalistic” one. It starts from a review of a recent book of a French economist, André Orléan, who develops, from the instance of money, a theory of value which he thinks valid for all social values. The paper criticizes the main presuppositions of Orléan’s model of value and tries to elaborate a more praxeological and a more social one.
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  38.  1
    Jitka Cirklová (2012). Buddhism as a Value Source in the Course of New Identity and Lifestyle Formation in the Czech Republic. Contemporary Buddhism 13 (2):263-279.
    This study is focused on cultural phenomena of contemporary Europe: the creation of a new religious identity without cultural precedent in European cultural history. It will concentrate on non-Asian Buddhist converts, who have adopted religious world views different from those of their ethnic heritage and the mainstream culture they live in and who use Buddhism as the value-source for their children's upbringing. The parents who, to a certain degree, master Buddhist practice and are attached to this particular religious culture, (...)
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  39.  2
    Zohar Lederman (2016). One Health and Culling as a Public Health Measure. Public Health Ethics 9 (1):5-23.
    One of most pertinent and acute risks that the world is now facing is emerging or re-emerging zoonotic diseases. This article focuses on culling as a measure for zoonotic disease control, specifically the culling of 11,000 badgers as part of the Randomized Badger Culling Trial in the UK and the culling exercises in Singapore. The independent expert panel that devised the UK study concluded that reactive culling was ineffective in reducing the cases of bovine tuberculosis in cattle. The panel also (...)
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  40.  67
    Thaddeus Metz (2014). Meaning as a Distinct and Fundamental Value: Reply to Kershnar. Science, Religion and Culture 1 (2):101-106.
    In this article, I reply to a critical notice of my book, Meaning in Life: An Analytic Study, that Stephen Kershnar has published elsewhere in this issue of Science, Religion & Culture. Beyond expounding the central conclusions of the book, Kershnar advances two major criticisms of it, namely, first, that I did not provide enough evidence that meaning in life is a genuine value-theoretic category as something distinct from and competing with, say, objective well-being, and, second, that, even if (...)
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  41. Albert W. Musschenga (1998). Intrinsic Value as a Reason for the Preservation of Minority Cultures. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 1 (2):201-225.
    In the Netherlands, the policy of supporting the efforts of ethnic-cultural minorities to express and preserve their cultural distinctiveness, is nowadays considered as problematic because it might interfere with their integration into the wider society. The primary aim is now to reduce these groups' unemployment rate and to stimulate their participation in the wider society. In this article I consider how the notion of the intrinsic value of cultures, if sensible, might affect the policy regarding ethnic-cultural minorities. I develop (...)
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  42.  6
    Shawn H. E. Harmon (2015). In Search of Global Health Justice: A Need to Reinvigorate Institutions and Make International Law. Health Care Analysis 23 (4):352-375.
    The recent outbreak of Ebola in West Africa has killed thousands of people, including healthcare workers. African responses have been varied and largely ineffective. The WHO and the international community’s belated responses have yet to quell the epidemic. The crisis is characteristic of a failure to properly comply with the International Health Regulations 2005. More generally, it stems from a failure of international health justice as articulated by a range of legal institutions and instruments, and it should prompt (...)
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  43. Robert M. O'Neil (2009). "Academic Freedom as a" Canonical Value". Social Research: An International Quarterly 76 (2):437-450.
    The central thesis of this article is that academic freedom has indeed become a "canonical value" of American higher education, though not for the reasons that conventional wisdom might posit. As recently as a half century ago, few university administrators or governing boards felt constrained in dismissing or refusing to hire outspoken professors. The quite remote risk of potential legal liability for such adverse action posed a minor deterrent. The Supreme Court's first recognition of academic freedom came only in (...)
     
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  44.  38
    Matthew K. Wynia (2007). Mandating Vaccination: What Counts as a "Mandate" in Public Health and When Should They Be Used? American Journal of Bioethics 7 (12):2 – 6.
    Recent arguments over whether certain public health interventions should be mandatory raise questions about what counts as a "mandate." A mandate is not the same as a mere recommendation or the standard of practice. At minimum, a mandate should require an active opt-out and there should be some penalty for refusing to abide by it. Over-loose use of the term "mandate" and the easing of opt-out provisions could eventually pose a risk to the gains that truly mandatory public (...) interventions, such as childhood vaccines, have provided over the last 50 years. Already, confusion about what counts as a mandate, and about what criteria should be used to determine when a public health intervention should be implemented as a mandate, has led to some inappropriate public policy decisions. For instance, by any reasonable criteria, the yearly influenza vaccine should be mandatory for health care workers. To enforce this mandate, those who refuse vaccination should be required to sign a waiver, and patients - especially those at high risk from flu - should be informed when they receive care from unvaccinated practitioners. (shrink)
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  45.  37
    Pauline Kleingeld & Joel Anderson (2014). Justice as a Family Value: How a Commitment to Fairness is Compatible with Love. Hypatia 29 (2):320-336.
    Many discussions of love and the family treat issues of justice as something alien. On this view, concerns about whether one's family is internally just are in tension with the modes of interaction that are characteristic of loving families. In this essay, we challenge this widespread view. We argue that once justice becomes a shared family concern, its pursuit is compatible with loving familial relations. We examine four arguments for the thesis that a concern with justice is not at home (...)
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  46.  85
    Joseph Heath, Health Care as a Commodity.
    One of the arguments that is often advanced in defence of the public health care system in Canada appeals to the idea that medical care should not be treated as a “commodity.” The recent Romanow Report on the Future of Health Care in Canada, for instance, says that, “Canadians view medicare as a moral enterprise, not a business venture.”1 Public provision is then urged on the grounds that this is the only mode of delivery compatible with this constraint. (...)
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  47.  43
    Robert Elliot (2005). Instrumental Value in Nature as a Basis for the Intrinsic Value of Nature as a Whole. Environmental Ethics 27 (1):43-56.
    Some environmental ethicists believe that nature as whole has intrinsic value. One reason they do is because they are struck by the extent to which nature and natural processes give rise to so much that has intrinsic value. The underlying thought is that the value -producing work that nature performs, its instrumentality, imbues nature with a value that is more than merely instrumental. This inference, from instrumental value to a noninstrumental value, has been criticized. (...)
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  48.  13
    Moses B. F. Massaquoi & Stephen B. Kennedy (2003). Evaluation of Chloroquine as a Potent Anti‐Malarial Drug: Issues of Public Health Policy and Healthcare Delivery in Post‐War Liberia. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 9 (1):83-87.
    Chloroquine-resistant plasmodium falciparum malaria is a serious public health threat that is spreading rapidly across Sub-Saharan Africa. It affects over three quarters (80%) of malarial endemic countries. Of the estimated 300-500 million cases of malaria reported annually, the vast majority of malarial-related morbidities occur among young children in Africa, especially those concentrated in the remote rural areas with inadequate access to appropriate health care services. In Liberia, in vivo studies conducted between 1993 and 2000 observed varying degrees of (...)
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  49.  10
    Tassilo Pellegrini (2007). Co-Production on the Web: Social Software as a Means of Collaborative Value Creation in Web-Based Infrastructures. International Review of Information Ethics 7 (9):1-6.
    The concept of co-production was originally introduced by political science to explain citizen participation in the provision of public goods. The concept was quickly adopted in business research targeting the question how users could be voluntarily integrated into industrial production settings to improve the development of goods and services on an honorary basis. With the emergence of the Social Software and web-based colla-borative infrastructures the concept of co-production gains importance as a theoretical framework for the collaborative production of web content (...)
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  50.  15
    H. Schmidt (2008). Bonuses as Incentives and Rewards for Health Responsibility: A Good Thing? Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 33 (3):198-220.
    Bonuses, as incentives or rewards for health -related behavior, feature prominently in German social health insurance. Their goal is centered around promoting personal responsibility, but reducing overall health -care expenditure and enabling competition between sickness funds also play a role. The central position of personal responsibility in German health -care policy is described, and a framework is offered for an analysis of the ethical issues raised by policies seeking to promote responsibility. The framework entails seven tests (...)
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