Search results for 'holism and reductionism' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Barbara A. Strassberg, Gordon D. Kaufman, Norbert M. Samuelson, Llufs Oviedo, John F. Haught, Ursula Goodenough Reductionism, Chance Holism, James F. Moore & Mind Interreligious Dialogue as an Evolutionary (forthcoming). Science Looks at Spirituality. Zygon.score: 2400.0
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  2. Rethinking Holism (2010). Part 1 Rethinking Holism. In Ton Otto & Nils Bubandt (eds.), Experiments in Holism: Theory and Practice in Contemporary Anthropology. Wiley-Blackwell. 17.score: 210.0
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  3. Massimo Pigliucci (2013). Between Holism and Reductionism: A Philosophical Primer on Emergence. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society.score: 204.0
    Ever since Darwin a great deal of the conceptual history of biology may be read as a struggle between two philosophical positions: reductionism and holism. On the one hand, we have the reductionist claim that evolution has to be understood in terms of changes at the fundamental causal level of the gene. As Richard Dawkins famously put it, organisms are just ‘lumbering robots’ in the service of their genetic masters. On the other hand, there is a long holistic (...)
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  4. Bruce Edmonds (1999). Pragmatic Holism (or Pragmatic Reductionism). Foundations of Science 4 (1):57-82.score: 204.0
    The reductionist/holist debate is highly polarised. I propose an intermediate position of pragmatic holism. It derives from two claims: firstly, that irrespective of whether all natural systems are theoretically reducible, for many systems it is utterly impractical to attempt such a reduction, and secondly, that regardless of whether irreducible 'wholes exist, it is vain to try and prove this. This position illuminates the debate along new pragmatic lines by refocussing attention on the underlying heuristics of learning about the natural (...)
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  5. Charles T. Wolfe (2012). Chance Between Holism and Reductionism: Tensions in the Conceptualisation of Life. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology.score: 198.0
    In debates between holism and reductionism in biology, from the early 20th century to more recent re-enactments involving genetic reductionism, developmental systems theory, or systems biology, the role of chance – the presence of theories invoking chance as a strong explanatory principle – is hardly ever acknowledged. Conversely, Darwinian models of chance and selection (Dennett 1995, Kupiec 1996, Kupiec 2009) sit awkwardly with reductionist and holistic concepts, which they alternately challenge or approve of. I suggest that the (...)
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  6. Donato Bergandi & Patrick Blandin (1998). Holism Vs. Reductionism: Do Ecosystem Ecology and Landscape Ecology Clarify the Debate? Acta Biotheoretica 46 (3).score: 198.0
    The holism-reductionism debate, one of the classic subjects of study in the philosopy of science, is currently at the heart of epistemological concerns in ecology. Yet the division between holism and reductionism does not always stand out clearly in this field. In particular, almost all work in ecosystem ecology and landscape ecology presents itself as holistic and emergentist. Nonetheless, the operational approaches used rely on conventional reductionist methodology.From an emergentist epistemological perspective, a set of general 'transactional' (...)
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  7. Arthur Zucker (1981). Holism and Reductionism: A View From Genetics. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 6 (2):145-164.score: 144.0
    are often used loosely – especially in medical contexts. In an attempt to remedy this, these terms are explored from the standpoints of: philosophy of science, medicine, genetics, history of genetics and clinical genetics. A sense for ‘reductionism’ is developed in part by focusing on the related histories of classical genetics and clinical genetics. This done, the dichotomy between holism and reductionism, whether in basic genetics or the genetic counseling situation, loses much of its force. CiteULike Connotea (...)
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  8. Donato Bergandi (1995). “Reductionist Holism”: An Oxymoron or a Philosophical Chimaera of E.P. Odum’s Systems Ecology? Ludus Vitalis 3 ((5)):145-180..score: 120.0
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  9. Mark Sharlow, Rethinking Wholes and Parts: Reflections on Reductionism, Holism, and Mereology.score: 120.0
    In this set of excerpts from an earlier book, I examine some philosophical issues surrounding the whole-part relationship. I present a series of thought experiments and other arguments designed to undermine the view that wholes are "nothing but" their parts.
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  10. Ursula Goodenough (2005). Reductionism and Holism, Chance and Selection, Mechanism and Mind. Zygon 40 (2):369-380.score: 120.0
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  11. Garrett Hardin (1982). Holism or Reductionism? Environmental Ethics 4 (2):191-192.score: 120.0
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  12. Peter Schuster (2007). A Beginning of the End of the Holism Versus Reductionism Debate?: Molecular Biology Goes Cellular and Organismic. Complexity 13 (1):10-13.score: 120.0
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  13. G. Becht (1974). Systems Theory, The Key to Holism and Reductionism. BioScience 24 (10):569-579.score: 120.0
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  14. Daniel J. Graham (2013). Integrating Holism and Reductionism in the Science of Art Perception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (2):145-146.score: 120.0
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  15. Ilana Löwy (2008). Immunology in the Clinics: Reductionism, Holism or Both? In Kenton Kroker, Jennifer Keelan & Pauline Mazumdar (eds.), Crafting Immunity: Working Histories of Clinical Immunology. Ashgate. 165--76.score: 120.0
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  16. Bruce Edmonds (1996). Pragmatic Holism. Foundations of Science 4 (1):57-82.score: 114.0
    The reductionist/holist debate seems an impoverished one, with many participants appearing to adopt a position first and constructing rationalisations second. Here I propose an intermediate position of pragmatic holism, that irrespective of whether all natural systems are theoretically reducible, for many systems it is completely impractical to attempt such a reduction, also that regardless if whether irreducible `wholes' exist, it is vain to try and prove this in absolute terms. This position thus illuminates the debate along new pragmatic lines, (...)
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  17. Simon Woods (1998). A Theory of Holism for Nursing. Medicine, Healthcare and Philosophy 1 (3):255-261.score: 96.0
    In this paper it is argued that nurses should be holists whilst at the same time accepting that ‘holism’ is a contentious concept. One of the problems for a supporter of holism is that of which holism -- an attempt to outline the version of holism advocated is made by identifying only two versions of holism: The Strong theory and the Pragmatic theory of holism. By introducing this device it is hoped to avoid, if only (...)
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  18. Christian List & Kai Spiekermann (2013). Methodological Individualism and Holism in Political Science: A Reconciliation. American Political Science Review 107 (4):629-643.score: 92.0
    Political science is divided between methodological individualists, who seek to explain political phenomena by reference to individuals and their interactions, and holists (or nonreductionists), who consider some higher-level social entities or properties such as states, institutions, or cultures ontologically or causally significant. We propose a reconciliation between these two perspectives, building on related work in philosophy. After laying out a taxonomy of different variants of each view, we observe that (i) although political phenomena result from underlying individual attitudes and behavior, (...)
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  19. Bruce Wilson (2013). Metaphysics and Medical Education: Taking Holism Seriously. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (3):478-484.score: 78.0
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  20. Andrew Miles (2009). Towards a Medicine of the Whole Person – Knowledge, Practice and Holism in the Care of the Sick. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (6):887-890.score: 78.0
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  21. Karsten R. Stueber (1997). Holism and Radical Interpretation: The Limitations of a Formal Theory of Meaning. In Analyomen 2, Volume II: Philosophy of Language, Metaphysics. Hawthorne: De Gruyter.score: 78.0
     
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  22. Silvio Seno Chibeni (2010). Locke on the Epistemological Status of Scientific Laws. Principia 9 (1-2):19-41.score: 72.0
    This article aims to defend Locke against Quine’s charge, made in his famous “two dogmas” paper, that Locke’s theory of knowledge is badly flawed, not only for assuming the dogmas, but also for adopting an “intolerably restrictive” version of the dogma of reductionism. It is shown here that, in his analysis of the epistemological status of scientific laws, Locke has effectively transcended the narrow idea-empiricism which underlies this version of reductionism. First, in order to escape idealism, he introduced (...)
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  23. Jeroen van Bouwel (2010). Explanatory Pluralism in the Medical Sciences: Theory and Practice. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (5):371-390.score: 66.0
    Explanatory pluralism is the view that the best form and level of explanation depends on the kind of question one seeks to answer by the explanation, and that in order to answer all questions in the best way possible, we need more than one form and level of explanation. In the first part of this article, we argue that explanatory pluralism holds for the medical sciences, at least in theory. However, in the second part of the article we show that (...)
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  24. Herbert Hrachovec, Holistic Reductionism. The Case Against the Case Against Carnap.score: 60.0
    Consider statements like ``Machines will never be able to think'' or ``You cannot turn a cat into a dog''. Many people will find such propositions evident, but we have learned to be cautious. 100 years from now things might look very different; it seems unduly dogmatic to insist on todays opinions as unrevisable points of reference, disallowing future breakthroughs in computer science or biology. The scientific outlook presupposes and enhances a high degree of curiosity and it seems a good idea (...)
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  25. Teodoro Brescia (2011). Olos o Logos: Il Tempo Della Scelta: Scienza, Bioetica E Biopolitica Per Il Terzo Millennio. Nexus.score: 60.0
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  26. David Ludwig (2012). Language and Human Nature. Kurt Goldstein's Neurolinguistic Foundation of a Holistic Philosophy. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 48 (1):40-54.score: 58.0
  27. Gregory M. Mikkelson (2001). Complexity and Verisimilitude: Realism for Ecology. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 16 (4):533-546.score: 56.0
    When data are limited, simple models of complex ecological systems tend to wind up closer to the truth than more complex models of the same systems. This greater proximity to the truth, or verisimilitude, leads to greater predictive success. When more data are available, the advantage of simplicity decreases, and more complex models may gain the upper hand. In ecology, holistic models are usually simpler than reductionistic models. Thus, when data are limited, holistic models have an advantage over reductionistic models, (...)
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  28. Vassilios Karakostas (2008). Humean Supervenience in the Light of Contemporary Science. Metaphysica 10 (1):1-26.score: 54.0
    It is shown that Lewis’ ontological doctrine of Humean supervenience incorporates at its foundation the so-called separability principle of classical physics. In view of the systematic violation of the latter within quantum mechanics, the claim that contemporary physical science may posit non-supervenient relations beyond the spatiotemporal ones is reinforced on a foundational basis concerning constraints on the state representation of physical systems. Depending on the mode of assignment of states to quantum systems — unit state vectors versus statistical density operators (...)
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  29. Julie Zahle (2003). The Individualism-Holism Debate on Intertheoretic Reduction and the Argument From Multiple Realization. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 33 (1):77-99.score: 54.0
    The argument from multiple realization is currently considered the argument against intertheoretic reduction. Both Little and Kincaid have applied the argument to the individualism-holism debate in support of the antireductionist holist position. The author shows that the tenability of the argument, as applied to the individualism-holism debate, hinges on the descriptive constraints imposed on the individualist position. On a plausible formulation of the individualist position, the argument does not establish that the intertheoretic reduction of social theories is highly (...)
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  30. Michel Morange (2006). Post-Genomics, Between Reduction and Emergence. Synthese 151 (3):355 - 360.score: 54.0
    It is frequently said that biology is emerging from a long phase of reductionism. It would be certainly more correct to say that biologists are abandoning a certain form of reductionism. We describe this past form, and the experiments which challenged the previous vision. To face the difficulties which were met, biologists use a series of concepts and metaphors - pleiotropy, tinkering, epigenetics - the ambiguity of which masks the difficulties, instead of solving them. In a similar way, (...)
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  31. Michael P. Nelson (2010). Teaching Holism in Environmental Ethics. Environmental Ethics 32 (1):33-49.score: 54.0
    Students who enroll in my environmental ethics courses often come with a background in ecology and natural resources. Moreover, they often point to this background when they express their frustration with, or outright rejection of, individualistic or atomistic moral theories that simply strive to include individual living things within the purview of a moral community. They ultimately evoke the concept of holism as the source of their frustration. Addressing this concern requires trying to make sense of both the concept (...)
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  32. Leen Vreese, Erik Weber & Jeroen Bouwel (2010). Explanatory Pluralism in the Medical Sciences: Theory and Practice. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (5):371-390.score: 54.0
    Explanatory pluralism is the view that the best form and level of explanation depends on the kind of question one seeks to answer by the explanation, and that in order to answer all questions in the best way possible, we need more than one form and level of explanation. In the first part of this article, we argue that explanatory pluralism holds for the medical sciences, at least in theory. However, in the second part of the article we show that (...)
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  33. C. Newell (2000). Biomedicine, Genetics and Disability: Reflections on Nursing and a Philosophy of Holism. Nursing Ethics 7 (3):227-231.score: 54.0
    This article critically explores the notion of those sociopolitical spaces that are 'disability', 'holism' and 'genetics', arguing from the perspectives of someone who identifies as having a disability. Medical genetics is seen to reflect the ideology and dominant biomedical reductionist thought. In contrast with this, it is proposed that disability and health are inherently social. A nursing approach is seen to recognize the social and holistic nature of the human person and to present a critical reflection on the reductionistic (...)
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  34. Y. S. Lo (2001). Non-Humean Holism, Un-Humean Holism. Environmental Values 10 (1):113 - 123.score: 54.0
    In this article I argue that textual evidence from David Hume's A Treatise of Human Nature does not support J. Baird Callicott's professedly Humean yet holistic environmental ethic, which understands the community (e.g., the biotic community) as a 'metaorganismic' entity 'over and above' its individual members. Based on Hume's reductionist account of the mind and his assimilation of the metaphysical nature of the mind to that of the community, I also argue that a Humean account of the community should be (...)
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  35. Andrew Hull (2012). Glasgow's 'Sick Society'? James Halliday, Psychosocial Medicine and Medical Holism in Britain C.1920–48. History of the Human Sciences 25 (5):73-90.score: 54.0
    James Lorimer Halliday (1897–1983) pioneered the development of the concept of psychosocial medicine in Britain in the 1930s and 1940s. He worked in Glasgow, first as a public health doctor, and then as part of the corporatist National Health Insurance scheme. Here he learned about links between poverty, the social environment, emotional stress and psychological and physical ill-health, and about statistical tools for making such problems scientifically visible. The intellectual development of his methodologically and epistemologically integrated medicine – a hybrid (...)
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  36. Walter M. Elsasser (1987/1998). Reflections on a Theory of Organisms: Holism in Biology. Published for the Johns Hopkins Dept. Of Earth and Planetary Sciences by the Johns Hopkins University Press.score: 48.0
    Are living organisms--as Descartes argued--just machines? Or is the nature of life such that it can never be fully explained by mechanistic models? In this thought-provoking and controversial book, eminent geophysicist Walter M. Elsasser argues that the behavior of living organisms cannot be reduced to physico-chemical causality. Suggesting that molecular biology today is at the same point as Newtonian physics on the eve of the quantum revolution, Elsasser lays the foundation for a theoretical biology that points the way toward a (...)
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  37. John Woods (2011). W. V. Quine's “Two Dogmas of Empiricism”. Topoi 30 (1):87-97.score: 48.0
    True to the spirit of Topoi’s Untimely Reviews section, the present essay is a work of the counterfactual imagination. Suppose that Quine’s “Two Dogmas” had been written and published in the late 1990s rather than the early 1950s. What, in those circumstances, would philosophical commentary look like, especially against the marked developments in Quine’s philosophy in that same period? In short, how would Quine’s “Two Dogmas” stand up as a late 1990s paper rather than an early 1950s paper? Answering that (...)
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  38. Andrew Miles (2009). On the Interface Between Science, Medicine, Faith and Values in the Individualization of Clinical Practice: A Review and Analysis of 'Medicine of the Person' Cox, J., Campbell, A. V. & Fulford, K. W. M., Eds (2007). [REVIEW] Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (6):1000-1024.score: 48.0
  39. Nancey Murphy (2010). Theology and Science in a Postmodern Context. In Science and Religion in Dialogue. Wiley-Blackwell. 721--731.score: 48.0
    This chapter contains sections titled: * 1 Introduction * 2 Defining Modern and Postmodern Philosophy * 3 Relevance of Postmodern Philosophy for Relating Theology and Science * 4 Conclusion * Bibliography.
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  40. Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Drozdstoj S. Stoyanov, Stephen Buetow, Ross E. G. Upshur, Kirstin Borgerson, Maya J. Goldenberg & Elselijn Kingma (2013). Explanation, Understanding, Objectivity and Experience. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (3):415-421.score: 48.0
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  41. Hermann Haken & Helena Knyazeva (2000). Synergetik: zwischen Reduktionismus und Holismus. Philosophia Naturalis 37 (1):21-44.score: 48.0
    Die philosophischen Folgerungen der Synergetik, einer interdisziplinären Theorie der Evolution und Selbstorganisation komplexer nichtlinearer Systeme, werden in diesem Artikel zur Diskussion gestellt. Das sind der weltanschauliche Sinn des Begriffs von der „Nichtlinearität“, die konstruktive Rolle des Chaos in der Evolution, eine neue Vorstellung von diskreten Spektren evolutionärer Wege in komplexen Systemen, die Prinzipien des Aufbaus von komplexem evolutionärem Ganzen, der Integration von komplexen Strukturen, die sich mit verschiedenen Geschwindigkeiten entwickeln, die Methoden des nichtlinearen Managements komplexer Systeme. Die Synergetik entdeckt allgemeingültige (...)
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  42. William C. Wimsatt (2006). Aggregate, Composed, and Evolved Systems: Reductionistic Heuristics as Means to More Holistic Theories. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 21 (5):667-702.score: 46.0
    Richard Levins’ distinction between aggregate, composed and evolved systems acquires new significance as we recognize the importance of mechanistic explanation. Criteria for aggregativity provide limiting cases for absence of organization, so through their failure, can provide rich detectors for organizational properties. I explore the use of failures of aggregativity for the analysis of mechanistic systems in diverse contexts. Aggregativity appears theoretically desireable, but we are easily fooled. It may be exaggerated through approximation, conditions of derivation, and extrapolating from some conditions (...)
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  43. William E. Stempsey (2001). Plato and Holistic Medicine. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 4 (2):201-209.score: 46.0
    Popular visions of holistic health and holistic medicine are not so much reactions to perceived excesses of technological medicine as they are visions of the good life itself and how to attain it. This paper attempts to clarify some of the concepts associated with holistic health and medicine. The particular vision of holistic health presented here is well exemplified in the writings of Plato. First, I examine the scientific concept of holism and argue that, while medicine is inadequately characterized (...)
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  44. Anne Ruth Mackor (1998). Rules Are Laws: An Argument Against Holism. Philosophical Explorations 1 (3):215 – 232.score: 42.0
    In this paper I argue against the holistic claim that the description and explanation of human behaviour is irreducibly social in nature. I focus on the more specific thesis that human behaviour is rule-guided and that 'rule' is an irreducibly social notion. Against this claim I defend a teleofunctional and reductionist view. Following Millikan (1990), who argues that 'rule' can be explicated in functional terms, I extend her argument to cover social rules as well, and argue that rules are laws. (...)
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  45. Vuk Uskoković (2012). On Holism and The Contextual Character of Natural Qualities. World Futures 68 (6):406 - 429.score: 42.0
    Presented is a discourse on the contextual nature of physical qualities. The realistic and observational contexts in which a system exists are demonstrated as equally involved in defining its qualities. Each quality could be consequently considered as natural and experiential at the same time. The subsequently proposed thesis of the contextual co-definition of natural/experiential qualities in the relationship between the human mind and Nature is shown to possess numerous favorable ethical and aesthetical implications. The contextual nature of experiential qualities is (...)
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  46. Edward O. Wilson & Charles J. Lumsden (1991). Holism and Reduction in Sociobiology: Lessons From the Ants and Human Culture. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 6 (4):401-412.score: 36.0
    Most research in the natural sciences passes through repeated cycles of a analytic reduction to the next lower level of organization, then resynthesis to the original level, then new analyticareduction, and so on. A residue of unexplained phenomena at the original level appears at first to require a holistic description independent of the lower level, but the residue shrinks as knowledge increases.This principle is well illustrated by recent studies from the social organization of insects, several examples of which are cited (...)
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  47. Elizabeth Miller (2013). Quantum Entanglement, Bohmian Mechanics, and Humean Supervenience. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 92 (3):1-17.score: 36.0
    David Lewis is a natural target for those who believe that findings in quantum physics threaten the tenability of traditional metaphysical reductionism. Such philosophers point to allegedly holistic entities they take both to be the subjects of some claims of quantum mechanics and to be incompatible with Lewisian metaphysics. According to one popular argument, the non-separability argument from quantum entanglement, any realist interpretation of quantum theory is straightforwardly inconsistent with the reductive conviction that the complete physical state of the (...)
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  48. Carlos Gershenson (2013). The Implications of Interactions for Science and Philosophy. Foundations of Science 18 (4):781-790.score: 36.0
    Reductionism has dominated science and philosophy for centuries. Complexity has recently shown that interactions—which reductionism neglects—are relevant for understanding phenomena. When interactions are considered, reductionism becomes limited in several aspects. In this paper, I argue that interactions imply nonreductionism, non-materialism, non-predictability, non-Platonism, and non-Nihilism. As alternatives to each of these, holism, informism, adaptation, contextuality, and meaningfulness are put forward, respectively. A worldview that includes interactions not only describes better our world, but can help to solve many (...)
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  49. Juergen Lange-Von Kulessa (1997). Searching for a Methodological Synthesis -Hayek's Individualism in the Light of Recent Holistic Criticism. Journal of Economic Methodology 4 (2):267-287.score: 34.0
    This paper compares different strategies of analysing economic phe-nomena, namely individualism and holism. As it turns out, a main point for which methodological individualism is criticized is its supposed reductionism and the related arbitrariness of choosing individuals as a unit of explanation. The paper shows that there exists at least with F. A. Hayek an author who presents an evolutionary theory of economic and social change that avoids the reductionism of orthodox individualistic theory. According to Hayek, the (...)
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  50. Trace Jordan (1989). Themes and Schemes: A Philosophical Approach to Interdisciplinary Science Teaching. Synthese 80 (1):63--79.score: 30.0
    An interdisciplinary fusion between the philosophy of science and the teaching of science can help to eradicate the disciplinary rigidity entrenched in both. In this paper I approach the history of sciencethematically, identifying general themes which transcend the boundaries of individual disciplines. Such conceptual themes can be used as a basis for an interdisciplinary introduction to university science, encouraging certain important cognitive skills not exercised during the disciplinary training emphasised in traditional approaches. Courses which teach themes such as conservation, randomness, (...)
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