Search results for 'hypothetical syllogistic' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Susanne Bobzien (2002). Pre-Stoic Hypothetical Syllogistic in Galen. The Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies:57-72.score: 90.0
    ABSTRACT: This paper traces the evidence in Galen's Introduction to Logic (Institutio Logica) for a hypothetical syllogistic which predates Stoic propositional logic. It emerges that Galen is one of our main witnesses for such a theory, whose authors are most likely Theophrastus and Eudemus. A reconstruction of this theory is offered which - among other things - allows to solve some apparent textual difficulties in the Institutio Logica.
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  2. Anthony Speca (2001). Hypothetical Syllogistic and Stoic Logic. Brill.score: 62.0
    This book uncovers and examines the confusion in antiquity between Aristotle's hypothetical syllogistic and Stoic logic, and offers a fresh perspective on the ...
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  3. Susanne Bobzien (2014). Alexander of Aphrodisias on Aristotle's Theory of the Stoic Indemonstrables. In M. Lee (ed.), Strategies of Argument: Essays in Ancient Ethics, Epistemology, and Logic. OUP. 199-227.score: 45.0
    ABSTRACT: Alexander of Aphrodisias’ commentaries on Aristotle’s Organon are valuable sources for both Stoic and early Peripatetic logic, and have often been used as such – in particular for early Peripatetic hypothetical syllogistic and Stoic propositional logic. By contrast, this paper explores the role Alexander himself played in the development and transmission of those theories. There are three areas in particular where he seems to have made a difference: First, he drew a connection between certain passages from Aristotle’s (...)
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  4. Ivan Boh (1963). Walter Burleigh's Hypothetical Syllogistic. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 4 (4):241-269.score: 45.0
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  5. Susanne Bobzien (2004). Peripatetic Hypothetical Syllogistic in Galen. Rhizai. A Journal for Ancient Philosophy and Science 2:57-102.score: 45.0
     
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  6. Moti Mizrahi (2013). Why Hypothetical Syllogism is Invalid for Indicative Conditionals. Thought 1 (4):40-43.score: 42.0
    In this article, I present a schema for generating counterexamples to the argument form known as Hypothetical Syllogism (HS) with indicative conditionals. If my schema for generating counterexamples to HS works as I think it does, then HS is invalid for indicative conditionals.
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  7. Christopher J. Martin (2007). Denying Conditionals: Abaelard and the Failure of Boethius' Account of the Hypothetical Syllogism. Vivarium 45 (s 2-3):153-168.score: 42.0
    Boethius' treatise De Hypotheticis Syllogismis provided twelfth-century philosophers with an introduction to the logic of conditional and disjunctive sentences but this work is the only part of the logica vetus which is no longer studied in the twelfth century. In this paper I investigate why interest in Boethius acount of hypothetical syllogisms fell off so quickly. I argue that Boethius' account of compound sentences is not an account of propositions and once a proper notion of propositionality is available the (...)
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  8. Susanne Bobzien (1997). The Stoics on Hypotheses and Hypothetical Arguments. Phronesis 42 (3):299-312.score: 42.0
    ABSTRACT: In this paper I argue (i) that the hypothetical arguments about which the Stoic Chrysippus wrote numerous books (DL 7.196) are not to be confused with the so-called "hypothetical syllogisms", but are the same hypothetical arguments as those mentioned five times in Epictetus (e.g. Diss. 1.25.11-12); and (ii) that these hypothetical arguments are formed by replacing in a non-hypothetical argument one (or more) of the premisses by a Stoic "hypothesis" or supposition. Such "hypotheses" or (...)
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  9. Lee Walters (2014). Conditionals, Modals, and Hypothetical Syllogism. Thought 3 (1):90-97.score: 42.0
    Moti Mizrahi (2013) presents some novel counterexamples to Hypothetical Syllogism (HS) for indicative conditionals. I show that they are not compelling as they neglect the complicated ways in which conditionals and modals interact. I then briefly outline why HS should nevertheless be rejected.
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  10. Susanne Bobzien (2006). Logic, History Of: Ancient Logic. In Donald M. Borchert (ed.), Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Thomson Gale.score: 41.0
    ABSTRACT: A comprehensive introduction to ancient (western) logic from earliest times to the 6th century CE, with a focus on issues that may be of interest to contemporary logicians and covering important topics in Post-Aristotelian logic that are frequently neglected (such as Peripatetic hypothetical syllogistic, the Stoic axiomatic system of propositional logic and various later ancient developments).
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  11. Susanne Bobzien (2006). Ancient Logic. In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 38.0
    ABSTRACT: A comprehensive introduction to ancient (western) logic from earliest times to the 6th century CE, with an emphasis on topics which may be of interest to contemporary logicians. Content: 1. Pre-Aristotelian Logic 1.1 Syntax and Semantics 1.2 Argument Patterns and Valid Inference 2. Aristotle 2.1 Dialectics 2.2 Sub-sentential Classifications 2.3 Syntax and Semantics of Sentences 2.4 Non-modal Syllogistic 2.5 Modal Logic 3. The early Peripatetics: Theophrastus and Eudemus 3.1 Improvements and Modifications of Aristotle's Logic 3.2 Prosleptic Syllogisms 3.3 (...)
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  12. Tal Glezer (2007). Aristotle on Hypothetical Arguments and the Completeness of the Syllogistic. Ancient Philosophy 27 (2):323-334.score: 36.0
  13. Susanne Bobzien (2002). The Development of Modus Ponens in Antiquity: From Aristotle to the 2nd Century AD. Phronesis 47 (4):359 - 394.score: 33.0
    'Aristotelian logic', as it was taught from late antiquity until the 20th century, commonly included a short presentation of the argument forms modus (ponendo) ponens, modus (tollendo) tollens, modus ponendo tollens, and modus tollendo ponens. In late antiquity, arguments of these forms were generally classified as 'hypothetical syllogisms'. However, Aristotle did not discuss such arguments, nor did he call any arguments 'hypothetical syllogisms'. The Stoic indemonstrables resemble the modus ponens/tollens arguments. But the Stoics never called them 'hypothetical (...)
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  14. Susanne Bobzien (2002). A Greek Parallel to Boethius' de Hypotheticis Syllogismis. Mnemosyne 55 (3):285-300.score: 29.0
    In this paper I present the text, a translation, and a commentary of a long anonymous scholium to Aristotle’s Analytics which is a Greek parallel to Boethius’ De Hypotheticis Syllogismis, but has so far not been recognized as such. The scholium discusses hypothetical syllogisms of the types modus ponens and modus tollens and hypothetical syllogisms constructed from three conditionals (‘wholly hypothetical syllogisms’). It is Peripatetic, and not Stoic, in its theoretical approach as well as its terminology. There (...)
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  15. Michael Morreau (2009). The Hypothetical Syllogism. Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (4):447 - 464.score: 28.0
    The hypothetical syllogism is invalid in standard interpretations of conditional sentences. Many arguments of this sort are quite compelling, though, and you can wonder what makes them so. I shall argue that it is our parsimony in regard to connections among events and states of affairs. All manner of things just might, for all we know, be bound up with one another in all sorts of ways. But ordinarily it is better, being simpler, to assume they are unconnected. In (...)
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  16. Lee Walters (2013). Against Hypothetical Syllogism. Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-19.score: 28.0
    The debate over Hypothetical Syllogism is locked in stalemate. Although putative natural language counterexamples to Hypothetical Syllogism abound, many philosophers defend Hypothetical Syllogism, arguing that the alleged counterexamples involve an illicit shift in context. The proper lesson to draw from the putative counterexamples, they argue, is that natural language conditionals are context-sensitive conditionals which obey Hypothetical Syllogism. In order to make progress on the issue, I consider and improve upon Morreau’s proof of the invalidity of (...) Syllogism. The improved proof relies upon the semantic claim that conditionals with antecedents irrelevant to the obtaining of an already true consequent are themselves true. Moreover, this semantic insight allows us to provide compelling counterexamples to Hypothetical Syllogism that are resistant to the usual contextualist response. (shrink)
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  17. Stanley Wilcox (1939). The Destructive Hypothetical Syllogism in Greek Logic and in Attic Oratory. [New Haven.score: 23.0
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  18. Daniel Dohrn, Counterfactuals, Accessibility, and Comparative Similarity.score: 21.0
    Berit Brogaard and Joe Salerno (2008) have defended the validity of counterfactual hypothetical syllogism (CHS) within the Stalnaker-Lewis account. Whenever the premisses of an instance of CHS are non-vacuosly true, a shift in context has occurred. Hence the standard counterexamples to CHS suffer from context failure. Charles Cross (2011) rejects this argument as irreconcilable with the Stalnaker-Lewis account. I argue against Cross that the basic Stalnaker-Lewis truth condition may be supplemented in a way that makes (CHS) valid. Yet pace (...)
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  19. D. L. C. Maclachlan (1970). The Pure Hypothetical Syllogism and Entailment. Philosophical Quarterly 20 (78):26-40.score: 21.0
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  20. J. Tate (1940). Stanley Wilcox: The Destructive Hypothetical Syllogism in Greek Logic and in Attic Oratory. Pp. 143. (Yale Dissertation, Photo-Copy of Typescript) 1938. Paper. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 54 (02):113-114.score: 21.0
  21. Piotr Kulicki (2002). Remarks on Axiomatic Rejection in Aristotle’s Syllogistic. Studies in Logic and Theory of Knowledge 5:231-236.score: 18.0
    In the paper we examine the method of axiomatic rejection used to describe the set of nonvalid formulae of Aristotle's syllogistic. First we show that the condition which the system of syllogistic has to fulfil to be ompletely axiomatised, is identical to the condition for any first order theory to be used as a logic program. Than we study the connection between models used or refutation in a first order theory and rejected axioms for that theory. We show (...)
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  22. Susanne Bobzien (1996). Stoic Syllogistic. Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 14:133-92.score: 18.0
    ABSTRACT: For the Stoics, a syllogism is a formally valid argument; the primary function of their syllogistic is to establish such formal validity. Stoic syllogistic is a system of formal logic that relies on two types of argumental rules: (i) 5 rules (the accounts of the indemonstrables) which determine whether any given argument is an indemonstrable argument, i.e. an elementary syllogism the validity of which is not in need of further demonstration; (ii) one unary and three binary argumental (...)
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  23. Phil Corkum (forthcoming). Is Aristotle's Syllogistic a Logic? History and Philosophy of Logic.score: 18.0
    Much of the last fifty years of scholarship on Aristotle’s syllogistic suggests a conceptual framework under which the syllogistic is a logic, a system of inferential reasoning, only if it is not a theory or formal ontology, a system concerned with general features of the world. In this paper, I will argue that this a misleading interpretative framework. The syllogistic is something sui generis: by our lights, it is neither clearly a logic, nor clearly a theory, but (...)
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  24. Edgar Andrade-Lotero & Catarina Dutilh Novaes (2012). Validity, the Squeezing Argument and Alternative Semantic Systems: The Case of Aristotelian Syllogistic. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (2):387-418.score: 18.0
    We investigate the philosophical significance of the existence of different semantic systems with respect to which a given deductive system is sound and complete. Our case study will be Corcoran’s deductive system D for Aristotelian syllogistic and some of the different semantic systems for syllogistic that have been proposed in the literature. We shall prove that they are not equivalent, in spite of D being sound and complete with respect to each of them. Beyond the specific case of (...)
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  25. Chase Wrenn (2004). Hypothetical and Categorical Epistemic Normativity. Southern Journal of Philosophy 42 (2):273-290.score: 18.0
    In this paper, I consider an argument of Harvey Siegel's according to which there can be no hypothetical normativity anywhere unless there is categorical normativity in epistemology. The argument fails because it falsely assumes people must be bound by epistemic norms in order to have justified beliefs.
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  26. Susanne Bobzien (2000). Wholly Hypothetical Syllogisms. Phronesis 45 (2):87-137.score: 18.0
    ABSTRACT: In antiquity we encounter a distinction of two types of hypothetical syllogisms. One type are the ‘mixed hypothetical syllogisms’. The other type is the one to which the present paper is devoted. These arguments went by the name of ‘wholly hypothetical syllogisms’. They were thought to make up a self-contained system of valid arguments. Their paradigm case consists of two conditionals as premisses, and a third as conclusion. Their presentation, either schematically or by example, varies in (...)
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  27. John N. Martin (2001). Proclus and the Neoplatonic Syllogistic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 30 (3):187-240.score: 18.0
    An investigation of Proclus' logic of the syllogistic and of negations in the Elements of Theology, On the Parmenides, and Platonic Theology. It is shown that Proclus employs interpretations over a linear semantic structure with operators for scalar negations (hypemegationlalpha-intensivum and privative negation). A natural deduction system for scalar negations and the classical syllogistic (as reconstructed by Corcoran and Smiley) is shown to be sound and complete for the non-Boolean linear structures. It is explained how Proclus' syllogistic (...)
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  28. Simon Rippon (forthcoming). Were Kant's Hypothetical Imperatives Wide-Scope Oughts? Australasian Journal of Philosophy.score: 18.0
    I defend the claim that Kant held a wide-scope view of hypothetical imperatives against objections raised by Mark Shroeder [2005]. There is an important objection, now commonly known as the ‘bootstrapping’ problem, to the alternative, narrow-scope, view which Schroeder attributes to Kant. Schroeder argues that Kant has sufficient resources to reply to the bootstrapping problem, and claims this leaves us with no good reason to attribute to Kant the wide-scope view. I show that Schroeder’s Kantian reply to the bootstrapping (...)
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  29. Lawrence S. Moss (2011). Syllogistic Logic with Comparative Adjectives. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 20 (3):397-417.score: 18.0
    This paper adds comparative adjectives to two systems of syllogistic logic. The comparatives are interpreted by transitive and irreflexive relations on the underlying domain. The main point is to obtain sound and complete axiomatizations of the valid formulas in the logics.
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  30. Sven Ove Hansson (2007). Hypothetical Retrospection. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10 (2):145 - 157.score: 18.0
    Moral theory has mostly focused on idealized situations in which the morally relevant properties of human actions can be known beforehand. Here, a framework is proposed that is intended to sharpen moral intuitions and improve moral argumentation in problems involving risk and uncertainty. Guidelines are proposed for a systematic search of suitable future viewpoints for hypothetical retrospection. In hypothetical retrospection, a decision is evaluated under the assumption that one of the branches of possible future developments has materialized. This (...)
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  31. Jamsheed Siyar (2013). The Conditionality of Hypothetical Imperatives. Kantian Review 18 (3):439-460.score: 18.0
    Kant famously distinguishes between the categorical imperative (CI) and hypothetical imperatives (HIs), which are instrumental norms. On the standard reading, Kant subscribes to the of HIs, which takes HIs to be consistency requirements that bind agents in exactly the same way whether or not agents are subject to CI and whether or not they conform their choices to CI. I argue that this reading cannot be squared with Kant's account of an agent's disposition, in particular his claim that cognition (...)
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  32. Georg Theiner (2007). Where Syllogistic Reasoning Happens: An Argument for the Extended Mind Hypothesis. In McNamara D. S. & Trafton J. G. (eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Annual Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society.score: 18.0
    Does cognition sometimes literally extend into the extra-organismic environment (Clark, 2003), or is it always “merely” environmentally embedded (Rupert, 2004)? Underlying this current border dispute is the question about how to individuate cognitive processes on principled grounds. Based on recent evidence about the active role of representation selection and construction in learning how to reason (Stenning, 2002), I raise the question: what makes two distinct, modality-specific pen-and-paper manipulations of external representations – diagrams versus sentences – cognitive processes of the same (...)
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  33. Dan Egonsson (2007). Hypothetical Approval in Prudence and Medicine. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 10 (3):245-252.score: 18.0
    We often assume that hypothetical approval – either in the form of preferences or consent – under ideal conditions adds to the legitimacy of an arrangement or act. I want to show that this assumption, reasonable as it may seem, will also give rise to ethical problems. I focus on three problem areas: prudence, euthanasia and coercive psychiatric treatment. If we are to count as prudentially or morally␣relevant those preferences you would have if you were informed and rational, we (...)
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  34. Edgar Andrade-Lotero & Catarina Dutilh Novaes (2012). Validity, the Squeezing Argument and Alternative Semantic Systems: The Case of Aristotelian Syllogistic. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (2):387 - 418.score: 18.0
    We investigate the philosophical significance of the existence of different semantic systems with respect to which a given deductive system is sound and complete. Our case study will be Corcoran's deductive system D for Aristotelian syllogistic and some of the different semantic systems for syllogistic that have been proposed in the literature. We shall prove that they are not equivalent, in spite of D being sound and complete with respect to each of them. Beyond the specific case of (...)
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  35. Andrew Schumann (2006). A Lattice for the Language of Aristotle's Syllogistic and a Lattice for the Language of Vasiľév's Syllogistic. Logic and Logical Philosophy 15 (1):17-37.score: 18.0
    In this paper an algebraic system of the new type is proposed (namely, a vectorial lattice). This algebraic system is a lattice for the language of Aristotle’s syllogistic and as well as a lattice for the language of Vasiľév’s syllogistic. A lattice for the language of Aristotle’s syllogistic is called a vectorial lattice on cap-semilattice and a lattice for the language of Vasiľév’s syllogistic is called a vectorial lattice on closure cap-semilattice. These constructions are introduced for (...)
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  36. Felipe De Brigard (2013). Is Memory for Remembering? Recollection as a Form of Episodic Hypothetical Thinking. Synthese 191 (2):1-31.score: 15.0
    Misremembering is a systematic and ordinary occurrence in our daily lives. Since it is commonly assumed that the function of memory is to remember the past, misremembering is typically thought to happen because our memory system malfunctions. In this paper I argue that not all cases of misremembering are due to failures in our memory system. In particular, I argue that many ordinary cases of misremembering should not be seen as instances of memory’s malfunction, but rather as the normal result (...)
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  37. R. S. Woodworth & S. B. Sells (1935). An Atmosphere Effect in Formal Syllogistic Reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 18 (4):451.score: 15.0
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  38. Jean A. Pezzoli & Lawrence T. Frase (1968). Mediated Facilitation of Syllogistic Reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (2p1):228.score: 15.0
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  39. T. G. Andrews (1940). The Effect of Benzedrine Sulfate on Syllogistic Reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 26 (4):423.score: 15.0
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  40. Ian Begg & J. Peter Denny (1969). Empirical Reconciliation of Atmosphere and Conversion Interpretations of Syllogistic Reasoning Errors. Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (2):351.score: 15.0
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  41. Lawrence T. Frase (1968). Associative Factors in Syllogistic Reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (3p1):407.score: 15.0
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  42. Marek Nasieniewski (2004). A Relational Syllogistic. Logic and Logical Philosophy 13:139-145.score: 15.0
    In [1] J. Perzanowski formulated, among others, an ontology expressed in the relational language. He presented some interesting connections which hold between these relations. In the present paper we focus on further analysis of these relations.
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  43. Miles E. Simpson & Donald M. Johnson (1966). Atmosphere and Conversion Errors in Syllogistic Reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (2):197.score: 15.0
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  44. Paul Slovic (1969). Differential Effects of Real Versus Hypothetical Payoffs on Choices Among Gambles. Journal of Experimental Psychology 80 (3p1):434.score: 15.0
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  45. Nikolay Ivanov & Dimiter Vakarelov (2012). A System of Relational Syllogistic Incorporating Full Boolean Reasoning. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 21 (4):433-459.score: 14.0
    We present a system of relational syllogistic, based on classical propositional logic, having primitives of the following form: $$\begin{array}{ll}\mathbf{Some}\, a \,{\rm are} \,R-{\rm related}\, {\rm to}\, \mathbf{some} \,b;\\ \mathbf{Some}\, a \,{\rm are}\,R-{\rm related}\, {\rm to}\, \mathbf{all}\, b;\\ \mathbf{All}\, a\, {\rm are}\,R-{\rm related}\, {\rm to}\, \mathbf{some}\, b;\\ \mathbf{All}\, a\, {\rm are}\,R-{\rm related}\, {\rm to}\, \mathbf{all} \,b.\end{array}$$ Such primitives formalize sentences from natural language like ‘ All students read some textbooks’. Here a, b denote arbitrary sets (of objects), and R denotes (...)
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  46. Andreas Hüttemann (2009). Pluralism and the Hypothetical in Heinrich Hertz’s Philosophy of Science. In Michael Heidelberger & Gregor Schiemann (eds.), The Significance of the Hypothetical in the Natural Sciences. de Gruyter.score: 13.0
    In this paper I argue against readings of Hertz that overly assimilate him into the thought of late 20th century anti-realists and pluralists. Firstly, as is well-known, various images of the same objects are possible according to Hertz. However, I will argue that this envisaged pluralism concerns the situation before all the evidence is considered i. e. before we can decide whether the images are correct and appropriate. Hertz believes in final and decisive battles of the kind he participated in (...)
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  47. Mark Schroeder (2005). The Hypothetical Imperative? Australasian Journal of Philosophy 83 (3):357 – 372.score: 12.0
    According to the standard view, Kant held that hypothetical imperatives are universally binding edicts with disjunctive objects: take-the-means-or-don't-have-the-end. But Kant thought otherwise. He held that they are edicts binding only on some - those who have an end.
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  48. Jerrold Levinson (2010). Defending Hypothetical Intentionalism. British Journal of Aesthetics 50 (2):139-150.score: 12.0
    I here defend hypothetical intentionalism, the view of literary and cinematic interpretation that I endorse, from some recent criticisms, and then illustrate the appeal of the view in connection with a recent film of enigmatic cast.
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  49. Jeremy Schwartz (2010). Do Hypothetical Imperatives Require Categorical Imperatives? European Journal of Philosophy 18 (1):84-107.score: 12.0
    Abstract: Recently, the idea that every hypothetical imperative must somehow be 'backed up' by a prior categorical imperative has gained a certain influence among Kant interpreters and ethicists influenced by Kant. Since instrumentalism is the position that holds that hypothetical imperatives can by themselves and without the aid of categorical imperatives explain all valid forms of practical reasoning, the influential idea amounts to a rejection of instrumentalism as internally incoherent. This paper argues against this prevailing view both as (...)
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