Search results for 'images' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  77
    Caleb Cohoe (2016). When and Why Understanding Needs Phantasmata: A Moderate Interpretation of Aristotle’s De Memoria and De Anima on the Role of Images in Intellectual Activities. Phronesis: A Journal for Ancient Philosophy 61 (3):337-372.
    I examine the passages where Aristotle maintains that intellectual activity employs φαντάσματα (images) and argue that he requires awareness of the relevant images. This, together with Aristotle’s claims about the universality of understanding, gives us reason to reject the interpretation of Michael Wedin and Victor Caston, on which φαντάσματα serve as the material basis for thinking. I develop a new interpretation by unpacking the comparison Aristotle makes to the role of diagrams in doing geometry. In theoretical understanding of (...)
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  2.  38
    Samantha Matherne (2015). Images and Kant’s Theory of Perception. Ergo, an Open Access Journal of Philosophy 2.
    My aim in this paper is to offer a systematic analysis of a feature of Kant’s theory of perception that tends to be overlooked, viz., his account of how the imagination forms images in perception. Although Kant emphasizes the centrality of this feature of perception, indeed, calling it a ‘necessary ingredient’ of perception, commentators have instead focused primarily on his account of sensibility and intuitions on the one hand, and understanding and concepts on the other. However, I show that (...)
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  3.  9
    Jan Baedke & Tobias Schöttler (2016). Visual Metaphors in the Sciences: The Case of Epigenetic Landscape Images. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie:1-22.
    Recent philosophical analyses of the epistemic dimension of images in the sciences show a certain trend in acknowledging potential roles of these images beyond their merely decorative or pedagogical functions. We argue, however, that this new debate has yet paid little attention to a special type of pictures, we call ‘visual metaphor’, and its versatile heuristic potential in organizing data, supporting communication, and guiding research, modeling, and theory formation. Based on a case study of Conrad Hal Waddington’s epigenetic (...)
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  4.  23
    Andreea Smaranda Aldea (2013). Husserl's Struggle with Mental Images: Imaging and Imagining Reconsidered. [REVIEW] Continental Philosophy Review 46 (3):371-394.
    Husserl’s extensive analyses of image consciousness (Bildbewusstsein) and of the imagination (Phantasie) offer insightful and detailed structural explications. However, despite this careful work, Husserl’s discussions fail to overcome the need to rely on a most problematic concept: mental images. The epistemological conundrums triggered by the conceptual framework of mental images are well known—we have only to remember the questions regarding knowledge acquisition that plagued British empiricism. Beyond these problems, however, a plethora of important questions arise from claiming that (...)
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  5.  41
    Earl W. Spurgin (2003). What's Wrong with Computer-Generated Images of Perfection in Advertising? Journal of Business Ethics 45 (3):257 - 268.
    Advertisers often use computers to create fantastic images. Generally, these are perfectly harmless images that are used for comic or dramatic effect. Sometimes, however, they are problematic human images that I call computer-generated images of perfection. Advertisers create these images by using computer technology to remove unwanted traits from models or to generate entire human bodies. They are images that portray ideal human beauty, bodies, or looks. In this paper, I argue that the use (...)
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  6.  43
    Axel Arturo Barceló Aspeitia (2012). Words and Images in Argumentation. Argumentation 26 (3):355-368.
    In this essay, I will argue that images can play a substantial role in argumentation: exploiting information from the context, they can contribute directly and substantially to the communication of the propositions that play the roles of premises and conclusion. Furthermore, they can achieve this directly, i.e. without the need of verbalization. I will ground this claim by presenting and analyzing some arguments where images are essential to the argumentation process.
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  7.  11
    Nicola Mößner (2016). Scientific Images as Circulating Ideas: An Application of Ludwik Fleck’s Theory of Thought Styles. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 47 (2):307-329.
    Without doubt, there is a great diversity of scientific images both with regard to their appearances and their functions. Diagrams, photographs, drawings, etc. serve as evidence in publications, as eye-catchers in presentations, as surrogates for the research object in scientific reasoning. This fact has been highlighted by Stephen M. Downes who takes this diversity as a reason to argue against a unifying representation-based account of how visualisations play their epistemic role in science. In the following paper, I will suggest (...)
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  8.  87
    P. Kyle Stanford (2012). The Eyes Don’T Have It: Fracturing the Scientific and Manifest Images. Humana.Mente 21:19-44.
    Wilfrid Sellars famously argued that we find ourselves simultaneously presented with the scientific and manifest images and that the primary aim of philosophy is to reconcile the competing conceptions of ourselves and our place in the world they offer. I first argue that Sellars’ own attempts at such a reconciliation must be judged a failure. I then go on to point out that Sellars has invited us to join him in idealizing and constructing the manifest and scientific images (...)
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  9.  41
    Megan Delehanty (2010). Why Images? Medicine Studies 2 (3):161-173.
    Given that many imaging technologies in biology and medicine are non-optical and generate data that is essentially numerical, it is a striking feature of these technologies that the data generated using them are most frequently displayed in the form of semi-naturalistic, photograph-like images. In this paper, I claim that three factors underlie this: (1) historical preferences, (2) the rhetorical power of images, and (3) the cognitive accessibility of data presented in the form of images. The third of (...)
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  10.  21
    Christoph Lüthy & Alexis Smets (2009). Words, Lines, Diagrams, Images: Towards a History of Scientific Imagery. Early Science and Medicine 14 (1):398-439.
    This essay examines the problems encountered in contemporary attempts to establish a typology of medieval and early modern scientific images, and to associate apparent types with certain standard meanings. Five particular issues are addressed here: the unclear boundary between words and images; the problem of morphologically similar images possessing incompatible meanings; the converse problem of comparable objects or processes being expressed by extremely dissimilar visual means; the impossibility of matching modern with historical iconographical terminologies; and the fact (...)
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  11.  50
    Steven F. Savitt (2012). Of Time and the Two Images. Humana.Mente - Journal of Philosophical Studies 21.
    In this paper I argue that the clash of the Sellars’ two images is particularly acute in the case of time. In Time and the World Order Sellars seems embarked on a quest to locate manifest time in Minkowski spacetime. I suggest that he should have argued for the replacement of manifest time with the local, path-dependent time of the “scientific image”, just as he suggests that manifest objects must be replaced by their scientific counterparts.
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  12. Jay L. Garfield (2012). Sellarsian Synopsis: Integrating the Images. Humana.Mente - Journal of Philosophical Studies 21.
    Most discussion of Sellars’ deployment of the distinct images of “man-in-the-world” in "Philosophy and the Scientific Image of Man" focus entirely on the manifest and the scientific images. But the original image is important as well. In this essay I explore the importance of the original image to the Sellarsian project of naturalizing epistemology, connecting Sellars’ insights regarding this image to recent work in cognitive development.
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  13.  44
    David Hodgson (2012). Identifying and Reconciling Two Images of “Man”. Humana.Mente - Journal of Philosophical Studies 21.
    Fifty years ago the philosopher Wilfred Sellars identified two images of “man”, which he called respectively the “manifest image” and the “scientific image”; and he considered whether and how these two images could be reconciled. In this paper, I will very briefly look at the distinction drawn by Sellars and at his suggestions for reconciliation of these images. I will suggest that a broad distinction as suggested by Sellars can indeed usefully be drawn, but that the distinction (...)
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  14.  16
    Judith Keilbach (2009). Photographs, Symbolic Images, and the Holocaust: On the (Im)Possibility of Depicting Historical Truth. History and Theory 48 (2):54-76.
    Photography has often been scrutinized regarding its relationship to reality or historical truth. This includes not only the indexicality of photography, but also the question of how structures and processes that comprise history and historical events can be depicted. In this context, the Holocaust provides a particular challenge to photography. As has been discussed in numerous publications, this historic event marks the “limits of representation.” Nevertheless there are many photographs “showing” the Holocaust that have been produced in different contexts that (...)
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  15.  20
    Zhaohui Bao (2010). The Advantages, Shortcomings, and Existential Issues of Zhuangzi's Use of Images. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (2):196-211.
    Zhuangzi is considered a creative poet-philosopher because of his use of imaginative images. He used the imaginative images of his system to construct the world of the Dao. He left the essence of material things as they are to speak for the mystery of existence itself, and let them express both the state of and the dream for human freedom. Zhuangzi’s way of using images shows his own lack of the understanding about images, and his lack (...)
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  16.  18
    Rudolf Arnheim (1994). Consciousness: An Island of Images. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 14 (2):121-27.
    Discusses consciousness as an island of images, which informs us incompletely and indirectly about the mental and the physical worlds. A dualistic worldview separates the perceptual world from the transcendental physical world. Both universes of discourse are empowered by dynamic forces and are related to each other by reflection, the one reflecting the other. The physical world is understood and operated through the intermediary of perception. 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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  17.  17
    Sonia Meyers (2010). Invisible Waves of Technology: Ultrasound and the Making of Fetal Images. [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 2 (3):197-209.
    Since the introduction of ultrasound technology in the 1960s as a tool to visibly articulate the interiors of the pregnant body, feminist scholars across disciplines have provided extensive critique regarding the visual culture of fetal imagery. Central to this discourse is the position that fetal images occupy- as products of a visualizing technology that at once penetrates and severs pregnant and fetal bodies. This visual excision, feminist scholars describe, has led not only to an erasure of the female body (...)
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  18.  8
    David H. Fleming (2013). Charcoal Matter with Memory: Images of Movement, Time and Duration in the Animated Films of William Kentridge. Film-Philosophy 17 (1):402-423.
    In his temporal philosophy based on the writing of Henri Bergson, Gilles Deleuze describes duration ( durée ) as a becoming that endures in time. Reifications of this complex philosophical concept become artistically expressed, I argue, in the form and content of South African artist William Kentridge's series of 'charcoal drawings for projection.' These exhibited art works provide intriguing and illuminating 'philosophical' examples of animated audio-visual media, which expressively plicate distinct images of movement and time. The composition of Kentridge's (...)
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  19.  3
    Anita Strezova (2013). Overview on Iconophile and Iconoclastic Attitudes Toward Images in Early Christianity and Late Antiquity. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 12 (36):228-258.
    This study offers an overview of the opposing attitudes towards the image worship in the Early Christianity and the Late Antiquity. It shows that a dichotomy between creation and veneration of images on one side and iconoclastic tendencies on the other side persisted in the Christian tradition throughout the first seven centuries. While the representations of holy figures and holy events increased in number throughout theByzantine Empire, they led to a puritanical reaction by those who saw the practice of (...)
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  20.  2
    Kristine F. Hoover, Deborah A. O.’Neil & Michael Poutiatine (2014). Gender and Leadership: A Frame Analysis of University Home Web Page Images. Journal of Academic Ethics 12 (1):15-27.
    With calls for (business) leaders to contribute to greater global fairness and social justice (BAWB 2006; Maak and Pless Journal of Business Ethics, 88, 537–550, 2009), this paper considers gender equality on University home web page images as one means of communicating equal access to leadership roles for both men and women. Although there are many paths for leadership development, one important purpose of Universities is to create people who will potentially become leaders in our society (Shapiro 2005). We (...)
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  21. Patrick Maynard (2015). Images: Five Questions. In Aud Sissel Hoel (ed.), Images: Five Questions. Vince Inc Press
     
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  22. Letitia Meynell (2013). Parsing Pictures: On Analyzing the Content of Images in Science. The Knowledge Engineering Review 28 (3): 327-345.
    In this paper I tackle the question of what basic form an analytical method for articulating and ultimately assessing visual representations should take. I start from the assumption that scientific images, being less prone to interpretive complication than artworks, are ideal objects from which to engage this question. I then assess a recent application of Nelson Goodman's aesthetics to the project of parsing scientific images, Laura Perini's ‘The truth in pictures’. I argue that, although her project is an (...)
     
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  23.  1
    Gary W. Nappe & Keith A. Wollen (1973). Effects of Instructions to Form Common and Bizarre Mental Images on Retention. Journal of Experimental Psychology 100 (1):6.
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  24.  5
    B. R. Bugelski (1968). Images as Mediators in One-Trial Paired-Associate Learning: II. Self-Timing in Successive Lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (2):328.
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  25.  2
    Dominic W. Massaro (1970). Preperceptual Auditory Images. Journal of Experimental Psychology 85 (3):411.
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  26.  4
    Henryk Misiak & Carl C. Lozito (1951). Latency and Duration of Monocular and Binocular After-Images. Journal of Experimental Psychology 42 (4):247.
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  27.  2
    C. Leuba (1940). Images as Conditioned Sensations. Journal of Experimental Psychology 26 (3):345.
  28.  5
    S. M. Newhall & R. Dodge (1927). Colored After-Images From Unperceived Weak Chromatic Stimulation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 10 (1):1.
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  29.  4
    C. Taylor (1944). Studies in Color Blindness: I. Negative After-Images. Journal of Experimental Psychology 34 (4):317.
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  30.  4
    D. A. Laird (1921). Apparatus for the Study of Visual After-Images. Journal of Experimental Psychology 4 (3):218.
  31.  2
    F. W. Hibler (1940). An Experimental Investigation of Negative After-Images of Hallucinated Colors in Hypnosis. Journal of Experimental Psychology 27 (1):45.
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  32.  2
    Russell B. Johnson (1970). Images as Mediators in Free Recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology 84 (3):523.
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  33.  1
    Dominic W. Massaro (1971). Effect of Masking Tone Duration on Preperceptual Auditory Images. Journal of Experimental Psychology 87 (1):146.
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  34.  1
    Bao Zhaohui (2010). The Advantages, Shortcomings, and Existential Issues of Zhuangzi's Use of Images. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (2):196-211.
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  35. Cristina Gavriluta (2010). Expresii şi reprezentări sociale ale femininului în practicile divinatorii/ Social Images and Representations of the Feminine in Divination Practices. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 5 (14):74-82.
    The purpose of this text is to analyze the social representations of feminism in divinatory practices. Our research in a few Moldavian counties has identified two main types of social representations of the relationship between magic/divination and feminism. Therefore, there are some dual representations of the feminine divinatory agents versus the masculine ones. Even though women are well represented among clairvoyants, clients, and spectators, these valorizations function as negative stereotypes and do not serve the women. Another representation of feminism in (...)
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  36. E. L. Mascall (1963). Theology and Images. --. A.R. Mowbray.
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  37.  20
    John Kulvicki (2013). Images. Routledge.

    The nature of representation is a central topic in philosophy. This is the first book to connect problems with understanding representational artifacts, like pictures, diagrams, and inscriptions, to the philosophies of science, mind, and art.

    Can images be a source of knowledge? Are images merely conventional signs, like words? What is the relationship between the observer and the observed? In this clear and stimulating introduction to the problem John V. Kulvicki explores these questions and more. He discusses:

    (...)
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  38.  86
    John Kulvicki (2010). Knowing with Images: Medium and Message. Philosophy of Science 77 (2):295-313.
    Problems concerning scientists’ uses of representations have received quite a bit of attention recently. The focus has been on how such representations get their contents and on just what those contents are. Less attention has been paid to what makes certain kinds of scientific representations different from one another and thus well suited to this or that epistemic end. This article considers the latter question with particular focus on the distinction between images and graphs on the one hand and (...)
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  39.  7
    J. Smallwood, R. OconnoR, M. Sudberry, C. Haskell & C. Ballantyne (2004). The Consequences of Encoding Information on the Maintenance of Internally Generated Images and Thoughts: The Role of Meaning Complexes. Consciousness and Cognition 13 (4):789-820.
    Three experiments investigated the hypothesis that internally generated images and thoughts were driven by meaning complexes, a construct which reflects a synthesis of semantic meaning and personal salience . Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the mutual inhibition between encoding words and non-words on: the frequency that thoughts and images unrelated to the task were experienced and on the intensity of images generated from long-term memory and maintained under dual task conditions, which whilst familiar were not of particular (...)
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  40. Stephen M. Downes (2012). How Much Work Do Scientific Images Do? Spontaneous Generations 6 (1):115-130.
    In this paper, I defend the view that there are many scientific images that have a serious epistemic role in science but this role is not adequately accounted for by the going view of representation and its attendant theoretical commitments. The relevant view of representation is Laura Perini’s account of representation for scientific images. I draw on Adina Roskies’ work on scientific images as well as work on models in science to support my conclusion.
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  41. Susan Bordo (1999). Twilight Zones: The Hidden Life of Cultural Images From Plato to O.J. University of California Press.
    Considering everything from Nike ads, emaciated models, and surgically altered breasts to the culture wars and the O.J. Simpson trial, Susan Bordo deciphers the hidden life of cultural images and the impact they have on our lives. She builds on the provocative themes introduced in her acclaimed work _Unbearable Weight_—which explores the social and political underpinnings of women's obsession with bodily image—to offer a singularly readable and perceptive interpretation of our image-saturated culture. As it becomes increasingly difficult to distinguish (...)
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  42.  90
    Roger N. Shepard & Lynn N. Cooper (1982). Mental Images and Their Transformations. MIT Press.
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  43.  53
    Axel Barceló Aspeitia (2012). Words and Images in Argumentation. Argumentation 26 (3):355-368.
    Abstract In this essay, I will argue that images can play a substantial role in argumentation: exploiting information from the context, they can contribute directly and substantially to the communication of the propositions that play the roles of premises and conclusion. Furthermore, they can achieve this directly, i.e. without the need of verbalization. I will ground this claim by presenting and analyzing some arguments where images are essential to the argumentation process. Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-14 DOI (...)
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  44. Willem deVries (2012). Ontology and the Completeness of Sellars’s Two Images. Humana.Mente - Journal of Philosophical Studies 21:1-18.
    Sellars claims completeness for both the “manifest” and the “scientific images” in a way that tempts one to assume that they are independent of each other, while, in fact, they must share at least one common element: the language of individual and community intentions. I argue that this significantly muddies the waters concerning his claim of ontological primacy for the scientific image, though not in favor of the ontological primacy of the manifest image. The lesson I draw is that (...)
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  45.  12
    David Godden (2015). Images as Arguments: Progress and Problems, a Brief Commentary. Argumentation 29 (2):235-238.
    This brief editorial considers a special issue of Argumentation edited by Jens Kjeldsen on visual, multimodal argumentation. It provides a commentary on important advances on interpretative problems such as the propositionality of argument, the reducibility of images to words, whether argument products are primarily cognitive artifacts, and the nature of a modality of argument. Concerning the project of argument appraisal, it considers whether visual arguments call for a revision of our normative, evaluative apparatus.
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  46. Sang Ah Lee & Elizabeth S. Spelke, Young Children Reorient by Computing Layout Geometry, Not by Matching Images of the Environment.
    Disoriented animals from ants to humans reorient in accord with the shape of the surrounding surface layout: a behavioral pattern long taken as evidence for sensitivity to layout geometry. Recent computational models suggest, however, that the reorientation process may not depend on geometrical analyses but instead on the matching of brightness contours in 2D images of the environment. Here we test this suggestion by investigating young children's reorientation in enclosed environments. Children reoriented by extremely subtle geometric properties of the (...)
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  47.  9
    Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Adina Roskies, Teneille Brown & Emily Murphy (2008). Brain Images as Legal Evidence. Episteme 5 (3):359-373.
    This paper explores whether brain images may be admitted as evidence in criminal trials under Federal Rule of Evidence 403, which weighs probative value against the danger of being prejudicial, confusing, or misleading to fact finders. The paper summarizes and evaluates recent empirical research relevant to these issues. We argue that currently the probative value of neuroimages for criminal responsibility is minimal, and there is some evidence of their potential to be prejudicial or misleading. We also propose experiments that (...)
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  48.  10
    Barbara Maria Stafford (2007). Echo Objects: The Cognitive Work of Images. University of Chicago Press.
    Barbara Stafford is at the forefront of a growing movement that calls for the humanities to confront the brain’s material realities. In Echo Objects she argues that humanists should seize upon the exciting neuroscientific discoveries that are illuminating the underpinnings of cultural objects. In turn, she contends, brain scientists could enrich their investigations of mental activity by incorporating phenomenological considerations—particularly the intricate ways that images focus intentional behavior and allow us to feel thought. This, then, is a book for (...)
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  49.  20
    Antti Revonsuo & K. Tarkko (2002). Binding in Dreams: The Bizarreness of Dream Images and the Unity of Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (7):3-24.
    Binding can be described at three different levels: In neuroscience it refers to the integration of single-cell activities to form functional neural assemblies, especially in response to global stimulus properties; in cognitive science it refers to the integration of distributed modular input processing to form unified representations for memory and action, and in consciousness studies it refers to the unity of phenomenal consciousness . To describe and explain the unity of consciousness, detailed phenomenological descriptions of binding at the phenomenal level (...)
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  50.  27
    Talis Bachmann (1997). Visibility of Brief Images: The Dual-Process Approach. Consciousness and Cognition 6 (4):491-518.
    If successive, brief visual images are exposed for recognition or for psychophysical ratings, various effects and phenomena of fast dynamics of conscious perception such as mutual masking, metacontrast, proactive enhancement of contrast, proactive speed-up of the latency of subjective visual experience, the Fröhlich Effect, the Tandem Effect, attentional facilitation by visuospatial precuing, and some others have been found. The theory proposed to deal with these phenomena proceeds from the assumption that two types of brain processes are necessary in order (...)
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