Search results for 'incomplete predicates' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Christopher Gauker (2012). What Tipper is Ready For: A Semantics for Incomplete Predicates. Noûs 46 (1):61-85.score: 180.0
    This paper presents a precise semantics for incomplete predicates such as “ready”. Incomplete predicates have distinctive logical properties that a semantic theory needs to accommodate. For instance, “Tipper is ready” logically implies “Tipper is ready for something”, but “Tipper is ready for something” does not imply “Tipper is ready”. It is shown that several approaches to the semantics of incomplete predicates fail to accommodate these logical properties. The account offered here defines contexts as structures (...)
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  2. Delia Graff Fara (forthcoming). Names Are Predicates. Philosophical Review.score: 90.0
    Tyler Burge convinced us that names are predicates in at least some of their occurrences: -/- There are relatively few Alfreds in Princeton. -/- Names, when predicates, satisfy the being-called condition: schematically, a name "N" is true of a thing just in case that thing is called N. This paper defends the unified view that names are predicates in all of their occurrences. I follow Clarence Sloat, Paul Elbourne, and Ora Matushansky in saying that when a name (...)
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  3. John Brentlinger (1972). Incomplete Predicates and the Two- World Theory of the Phaedo. Phronesis 17 (1):61-79.score: 90.0
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  4. John Brentlinger (1972). Incomplete Predicates and the Two-World Theory of the "Phaedo". Phronesis 17 (1):61 - 79.score: 90.0
  5. Sungho Choi (2008). The Incompleteness of Dispositional Predicates. Synthese 163 (2):157 - 174.score: 74.0
    Elizabeth Prior claims that dispositional predicates are incomplete in the sense that they have more than one argument place. To back up this claim, she offers a number of arguments that involve such ordinary dispositional predicates as ‘fragile’, ‘soluble’, and so on. In this paper, I will first demonstrate that one of Prior’s arguments that ‘is fragile’ is an incomplete predicate is mistaken. This, however, does not immediately mean that Prior is wrong that ‘fragile’ is an (...)
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  6. Terence Parsons (1970). Criticism of "Are Predicates and Relational Expressions Incomplete?". Philosophical Review 79 (2):240-245.score: 72.0
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  7. Peter Long (1969). Are Predicates and Relational Expressions Incomplete? Philosophical Review 78 (1):90-98.score: 72.0
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  8. Ari Maunu (2006). Some Fregean Considerations on Predicates and Their Reference. Tabula Rasa 25.score: 54.0
    The aim of this paper is (i) to defend Frege's view that the referents of predicates are certain kinds of functions, or "concepts", i.e. incomplete entities, and not their extensions (i.e. sets of objects described by those predicates); and (ii) to justify, by a natural augmentation of Frege's semantic theory with modal ingredients, Frege's position that the sameness between concepts, or property-sharing, turns only on the sameness of extensions. Several problems with the doctrine that a predicate's extension (...)
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  9. Sandro Zucchi (1999). Incomplete Events, Intensionality and Imperfective Aspect. Natural Language Semantics 7 (2):179-215.score: 42.0
    I discuss two competing theories of the progressive: the theory proposed in Parsons (1980, 1985, 1989, 1990) and the theory proposed in Landman (1992). These theories differ in more than one way. Landman regards the progressive as an intentional operator, while Parsons doesn't. Moreover, Landman and Parsons disagree on what uninflected predicates denote. For Landman, cross the street has in its denotation complete events of crossing the street; the aspectual contribution of English simple past (perfective aspect) is the identity (...)
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  10. Dmitrij Skvortsov (1998). On Some Kripke Complete and Kripke Incomplete Intermediate Predicate Logics. Studia Logica 61 (2):281-292.score: 40.0
    The Kripke-completeness and incompleteness of some intermediate predicate logics is established. In particular, we obtain a Kripke-incomplete logic (H* +A+D+K) where H* is the intuitionistic predicate calculus, A is a disjunction-free propositional formula, D = x(P(x) V Q) xP(x) V Q, K = ¬¬x(P(x) V ¬P(x)) (the negative answer to a question of T. Shimura).
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  11. Tatsuya Shimura (2000). Kripke Incompleteness of Predicate Extensions of the Modal Logics Axiomatized by a Canonical Formula for a Frame with a Nontrivial Cluster. Studia Logica 65 (2):237-247.score: 32.0
    We generalize the incompleteness proof of the modal predicate logic Q-S4+ p p + BF described in Hughes-Cresswell [6]. As a corollary, we show that, for every subframe logic Lcontaining S4, Kripke completeness of Q-L+ BF implies the finite embedding property of L.
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  12. Sebastian Löbner (2000). Polarity in Natural Language: Predication, Quantification and Negation in Particular and Characterizing Sentences. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 23 (3):213-308.score: 30.0
    The present paper is an attempt at the investigation of the nature of polarity contrast in natural languages. Truth conditions for natural language sentences are incomplete unless they include a proper definition of the conditions under which they are false. It is argued that the tertium non datur principle of classical bivalent logical systems is empirically invalid for natural languages: falsity cannot be equated with non-truth. Lacking a direct intuition about the conditions under which a sentence is false, we (...)
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  13. Kenton Machina & Harry Deutsch (2002). Vagueness, Ignorance, and Margins for Error. Acta Analytica 17 (1):19-45.score: 28.0
    We argue that the epistemic theory of vagueness cannot adequately justify its key tenet-that vague predicates have precisely bounded extensions, of which we are necessarily ignorant. Nor can the theory adequately account for our ignorance of the truth values of borderline cases. Furthermore, we argue that Williamson’s promising attempt to explicate our understanding of vague language on the model of a certain sort of “inexact knowledge” is at best incomplete, since certain forms of vagueness do not fit Williamson’s (...)
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  14. Gabriel Sandu (1998). Partially Interpreted Relations and Partially Interpreted Quantifiers. Journal of Philosophical Logic 27 (6):587-601.score: 28.0
    Logics in which a relation R is semantically incomplete in a particular universe E, i.e. the union of the extension of R with its anti-extension does not exhaust the whole universe E, have been studied quite extensively in the last years. (Cf. van Benthem (1985), Blamey (1986), and Langholm (1988), for partial predicate logic; Muskens (1996), for the applications of partial predicates to formal semantics, and Doherty (1996) for applications to modal logic.) This is not so with semantically (...)
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  15. Taishi Kurahashi (forthcoming). Rosser-Type Undecidable Sentences Based on Yablo's Paradox. Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-19.score: 28.0
    It is widely considered that Gödel’s and Rosser’s proofs of the incompleteness theorems are related to the Liar Paradox. Yablo’s paradox, a Liar-like paradox without self-reference, can also be used to prove Gödel’s first and second incompleteness theorems. We show that the situation with the formalization of Yablo’s paradox using Rosser’s provability predicate is different from that of Rosser’s proof. Namely, by using the technique of Guaspari and Solovay, we prove that the undecidability of each instance of Rosser-type formalizations of (...)
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  16. Patrick Greenough (2010). Deflationism and Truth-Value Gaps. In Nikolaj Pedersen & Cory D. Wright (eds.), New Waves inTruth. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 24.0
    Central to any form of Deflationism concerning truth (hereafter ‘DT’) is the claim that truth has no substantial theoretical role to play. For this reason, DT faces the following immediate challenge: if truth can play no substantial theoretical role then how can we model various prevalent kinds of indeterminacy—such as the indeterminacy exhibited by vague predicates, future contingents, liar sentences, truth-teller sentences, incomplete stipulations, cases of presupposition failure, and such-like? It is too hasty to assume that these phenomena (...)
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  17. Mark Textor (2010). Frege's Concept Paradox and the Mirroring Principle. Philosophical Quarterly 60 (238):126-148.score: 24.0
    Frege held that singular terms can refer only to objects, not to concepts. I argue that the counter-intuitive consequences of this claim ('the concept paradox') arise from Frege's mirroring principle that an incomplete expression can only express an incomplete sense and stand for an incomplete reference. This is not, as is sometimes thought, merely because predicates and singular terms cannot be intersubstituted salva veritate ( congruitate ). The concept paradox, properly understood, poses therefore a different, harder, (...)
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  18. John Collins (2000). Unsharpenable Vagueness. Philosophical Topics 28 (1):1-10.score: 24.0
    A plausible thought about vagueness is that it involves a form of semantic incompleteness. To say that a predicate is vague is to say (at the very least) that its extension is incompletely specified. And where there is incomplete specification of extension there is indeterminacy—an indeterminacy between various ways that the specification of the predicate might be completed or, as some like to say, sharpened (or precisified). We shall argue that this idea is defective insofar as there are vague (...)
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  19. Goldwin Smith Hall, Adjectives in Context.score: 24.0
    0. Abstract In this paper, I argue that although the behavior of adjectives in context poses a serious challenge to the principle of compositionality of content, in the end such considerations do not defeat the principle. The first two sections are devoted to the precise statement of the challenge; the rest of the paper presents a semantic analysis of a large class of adjectives that provides a satisfactory answer to it. In section 1, I formulate the context thesis, according to (...)
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  20. Achille Varzi (2000). Unsharpenable Vagueness. Philosophical Topics 28 (1):1-10.score: 24.0
    A plausible thought about vagueness is that it involves semantic incompleteness. To say that a predicate is vague is to say (at the very least) that its extension is incompletely specified. Where there is incomplete specification of extension there is indeterminacy, an indeterminacy between various ways in which the specification of the predicate might be completed or sharpened. In this paper we show that this idea is bound to founder by presenting an argument to the effect that there are (...)
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  21. J. C. Beall (2010). Logic: The Basics. Routledge.score: 24.0
    Background ideas -- Consequences -- Relations of support -- Logical consequence : the basic recipe -- Valid arguments and truth -- Language, form, and logical theories -- Language -- Atoms, connectives, and molecules -- Connectives and form -- Validity and form -- Language and formal languages -- Logical theories : rivalry -- Set-theoretic tools -- Sets -- Ordered sets : pairs and n-tuples -- Relations -- Functions -- Sets as tools -- Basic connectives -- Classical theory -- Cases : complete (...)
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  22. Alexander Reutlinger & Marius Backmann (forthcoming). Better Best Systems - Too Good To Be True. Dialectica.score: 24.0
    Craig Callender, Jonathan Cohen and Markus Schrenk have recently argued for an amended version of the best system account of laws – the better best system account (BBSA). This account of lawhood is supposed to account for laws in the special sciences, among other desiderata. Unlike David Lewis’s original best system account of laws, the BBSA does not rely on a privileged class of natural predicates, in terms of which the best system is formulated. According to the BBSA, a (...)
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  23. Gregory Landini (1990). How to Russell Another Meinongian. Grazer Philosophische Studien 37:93-122.score: 24.0
    This article compares the theory of Meinongian objects proposed by Edward Zalta with a theory of fiction formulated within an early Russellian framework. The Russellian framework is the second-order intensional logic proposed by Nino B. Cocchiarelly as a reconstruction of the form of Logicism Russell was examining shortly after writing The Principles of Mathematics. A Russellian theory of denoting concepts is developed in this intensional logic and applied as a theory of the "objects' of fiction. The framework retains the Orthodox (...)
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  24. Nicholas Measor (1978). Frege, Dummett and the Philistines. Analysis 38 (1):10 - 16.score: 24.0
    The article raises an objection against michael dummett's defence of frege's thesis that incomplete expressions refer to concepts. Even if dummett has shown that predicates refer to concepts, He has not shown that the concepts referred to exist. Although dummett tries to justify the claim that concepts exist, The sense of 'exist' in this claim is not the customary one but is introduced by mere stipulation. Furthermore, Even if 'concepts exist' is true, It can be argued on fregean (...)
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  25. Peter M. Simons (1981). Unsaturatedness. Grazer Philosophische Studien 14:73-95.score: 24.0
    Frege's obscure key concept of the unsaturatedness of functions is clarified with the help of the concepts of dependent and independent parts and foundation relations used by Husserl in describing the ontology of complex wholes. Sentential unity in Frege, Husserl and Wittgenstein: all have a similar explanation. As applied to linguistic expressions, the terms 'unsaturated' and 'incomplete' are ambiguous: they may mean the ontological property of Unselbständigkeit, inability to exist alone, or the property of being what categorial grammar calls (...)
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  26. M. J. Cresswell (1997). Some Incompletable Modal Predicate Logics. Logique Et Analyse 160 (1997):321-334.score: 24.0
     
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  27. Tatsuya Shimura (2002). Kripke Incompleteness of Predicate Extentions of Gabbay-de Jongh's Logic of the Finite Binary Trees. Bulletin of the Section of Logic 31 (2):111-118.score: 24.0
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  28. D. Skvortsov (1991). An Incompleteness Result for Intermediate Predicate Logics. Journal of Symbolic Logic 56:1145-1146.score: 24.0
     
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  29. Volker Halbach, Hannes Leitgeb & Philip Welch (2003). Possible-Worlds Semantics for Modal Notions Conceived as Predicates. Journal of Philosophical Logic 32 (2):179-223.score: 22.0
    If □ is conceived as an operator, i.e., an expression that gives applied to a formula another formula, the expressive power of the language is severely restricted when compared to a language where □ is conceived as a predicate, i.e., an expression that yields a formula if it is applied to a term. This consideration favours the predicate approach. The predicate view, however, is threatened mainly by two problems: Some obvious predicate systems are inconsistent, and possible-worlds semantics for predicates (...)
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  30. L. Sacchetti (2002). Incompleteness and Fixed Points. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 48 (1):15-28.score: 22.0
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  31. Olivier Gasquet (1998). Predicate Modal Logics Do Not Mix Very Well. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 44 (1):45-49.score: 22.0
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  32. Francesco Berto (2009). There's Something About Gödel: The Complete Guide to the Incompleteness Theorem. Wiley-Blackwell.score: 18.0
    The Gödelian symphony -- Foundations and paradoxes -- This sentence is false -- The liar and Gödel -- Language and metalanguage -- The axiomatic method or how to get the non-obvious out of the obvious -- Peano's axioms -- And the unsatisfied logicists, Frege and Russell -- Bits of set theory -- The abstraction principle -- Bytes of set theory -- Properties, relations, functions, that is, sets again -- Calculating, computing, enumerating, that is, the notion of algorithm -- Taking numbers (...)
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  33. Daniel Rothschild & Gabriel Segal (2009). Indexical Predicates. Mind and Language 24 (4):467--493.score: 18.0
    We discuss the challenge to truth-conditional semantics presented by apparent shifts in extension of predicates such as 'red'. We propose an explicit indexical semantics for 'red' and argue that our account is preferable to the alternatives on conceptual and empirical grounds.
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  34. Asa Maria Wikforss (2004). Externalism and Incomplete Understanding. Philosophical Quarterly 54 (215):287-294.score: 18.0
    Sarah Sawyer has challenged my claim that social externalism depends on the assumption that individuals have an incomplete grasp of their own concepts. Sawyer denies that Burge's later sofa thought-experiment relies on this assumption: the unifying principle behind the thought-experiments supporting social externalism, she argues, is just that referents play a role in the individuation of concepts. I argue that Sawyer fails to show that social externalism need not rely on the assumption of incomplete understanding. To establish the (...)
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  35. Décio Krause & Steven French (2007). Quantum Sortal Predicates. Synthese 154 (3):417 - 430.score: 18.0
    Sortal predicates have been associated with a counting process, which acts as a criterion of identity for the individuals they correctly apply to. We discuss in what sense certain types of predicates suggested by quantum physics deserve the title of ‘sortal’ as well, although they do not characterize either a process of counting or a criterion of identity for the entities that fall under them. We call such predicates ‘quantum-sortal predicates’ and, instead of a process of (...)
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  36. Charles Sayward (1981). Must Synonymous Predicates Be Coextensive? Logique Et Analyse 95:430-435.score: 18.0
    Two cases are distinguished. In one case two predicates belong to distinct languages. A straight-forward argument is presented that the predicates might be synonymous without being coextensive. In the second case the predicates belong to the same language. Here the issue is more involved, but the same conclusion is reached.
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  37. Dan López de Sa (2008). The Over-Generalization Problem: Predicates Rigidly Signifying the "Unnatural&Quot;. Synthese 163 (2):263 - 272.score: 18.0
    According to the simple proposal, a predicate is rigid iff it signifies the same property across the different possible worlds. The simple proposal has been claimed to suffer from an over-generalization problem. Assume that one can make sense of predicates signifying properties, and assume that trivialization concerns, to the effect that the notion would cover any predicate whatsoever, can be overcome. Still, the proposal would over-generalize, the worry has it, by covering predicates for artifactual, social, or evaluative properties, (...)
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  38. Miklós Ferenczi (2009). On Conservative Extensions in Logics with Infinitary Predicates. Studia Logica 92 (1):121 - 135.score: 18.0
    If the language is extended by new individual variables, in classical first order logic, then the deduction system obtained is a conservative extension of the original one. This fails to be true for the logics with infinitary predicates. But it is shown that restricting the commutativity of quantifiers and the equality axioms in the extended system and supposing the merry-go-round property in the original system, the foregoing extension is already conservative. It is shown that these restrictions are crucial for (...)
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  39. Yakir Levin (2004). Cartesians, Strawsonians and the Univocal Meaning of Mental Predicates. Acta Analytica 19 (32):91-106.score: 18.0
    The paper examines the Cartesian and the Strawsonian answers to the question of why self-applied and other-applied mental predicates mean the same. While these answers relate to different, complementary aspects of this question, they seem and are usually considered as incompatible. Indeed, their apparent incompatibility constitutes a major objection to the Cartesian answer. A primary aim of the paper is to show that the Strawsonian answer does not pose a real problem to the Cartesian answer. Unlike other attempts to (...)
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  40. Andrea Iacona (2004). Modal Predicates. Australasian Journal of Logic (2):56-69.score: 18.0
    Despite the wide acceptance of standard modal logic, there has always been a temptation to think that ordinary modal discourse may be correctly analyzed and adequately represented in terms of predicates rather than in terms of operators. The aim of the formal model outlined in this paper is to capture what I take to be the only plausible sense in which ‘possible’ and ‘necessary’ can be treated as predicates. The model is built by enriching the language of standard (...)
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  41. Luca Anderlini & Leonardo Felli (1999). Incomplete Contracts and Complexity Costs. Theory and Decision 46 (1):23-50.score: 18.0
    This paper investigates, in a simple risk-sharing framework, the extent to which the incompleteness of contracts could be attributed to the complexity costs associated with the writing and the implementation of contracts. We show that, given any measure of complexity in a very general class, it is possible to find simple contracting problems such that, when complexity costs are explicitly taken into account, the contracting parties optimally choose an incomplete contract which coincides with the ‘default’ division of surplus. Optimal (...)
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  42. Dan López de Sa (2008). The Over-Generalization Problem: Predicates Rigidly Signifying the “Unnatural”. [REVIEW] Synthese 163 (2):263-272.score: 18.0
    According to the simple proposal, a predicate is rigid iff it signifies the same property across the different possible worlds. The simple proposal has been claimed to suffer from an over-generalization problem. Assume that one can make sense of predicates signifying properties, and assume that trivialization concerns, to the effect that the notion would cover any predicate whatsoever, can be overcome. Still, the proposal would over-generalize, the worry has it, by covering predicates for artifactual, social, or evaluative properties, (...)
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  43. Giorgio Magri (2009). A Theory of Individual-Level Predicates Based on Blind Mandatory Scalar Implicatures. Natural Language Semantics 17 (3):245-297.score: 18.0
    Predicates such as tall or to know Latin, which intuitively denote permanent properties, are called individual-level predicates. Many peculiar properties of this class of predicates have been noted in the literature. One such property is that we cannot say #John is sometimes tall. Here is a way to account for this property: this sentence sounds odd because it triggers the scalar implicature that the alternative John is always tall is false, which cannot be, given that, if John (...)
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  44. Dmitrij Skvortsov (2012). Kripke Sheaf Completeness of Some Superintuitionistic Predicate Logics with a Weakened Constant Domains Principle. Studia Logica 100 (1-2):361-383.score: 18.0
    The completeness w.r.t. Kripke frames with equality (or, equivalently, w.r.t. Kripke sheaves, [ 8 ] or [4, Sect. 3.6]) is established for three superintuitionistic predicate logics: ( Q - H + D *), ( Q - H + D *&K), ( Q - H + D *& K & J ). Here Q - H is intuitionistic predicate logic, J is the principle of the weak excluded middle, K is Kuroda’s axiom, and D * (cf. [ 12 ]) is a (...)
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  45. Serdar Güner & Daniel Druckman (2000). Identification of a Princess Under Incomplete Information: An Amarna Story. Theory and Decision 48 (4):383-407.score: 18.0
    This article presents four analyses of an interaction between the middle-Bronze Age Pharaoh Nibmuarea and the Babylonian king Kadashman-Enlil as described in the Amarna letters (Moran [1992] The Amarna Letters, The Johns Hopkins Universiy Press, Baltimore, Maryland). Intent on denying the Pharaoh his daughter in marriage, the Babylonian king was faced with the choice of sending messengers who could (''dignitaries'') or could not identify (''non-dignitaries'') his missing sister in the Pharaoh's court. Intent on marrying the king's daughter, the Pharaoh was (...)
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  46. Leandro Nascimento (2011). Remarks on the Consumer Problem Under Incomplete Preferences. Theory and Decision 70 (1):95-110.score: 18.0
    This article revisits the standard results of demand theory when the preference relation is a continuous preorder that admits an equicontinuous multi-utility representation. We study the consumer problem as the constrained maximization of a continuous vector-valued utility mapping, and show how to rederive those results. In particular, we provide a link between the literature on vector optimization and the analysis of the consumer problem under incomplete preferences.
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  47. József Sákovics (2001). Games of Incomplete Information Without Common Knowledge Priors. Theory and Decision 50 (4):347-366.score: 18.0
    We relax the assumption that priors are common knowledge, in the standard model of games of incomplete information. We make the realistic assumption that the players are boundedly rational: they base their actions on finite-order belief hierarchies. When the different layers of beliefs are independent of each other, we can retain Harsányi's type-space, and we can define straightforward generalizations of Bayesian Nash Equilibrium (BNE) and Rationalizability in our context. Since neither of these concepts is quite satisfactory, we propose a (...)
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  48. Piotr Kulicki, Robert Trypuz, Paweł Garbacz & Marek Lechniak (2010). Epistemic Capacities, Incompatible Information and Incomplete Beliefs. In In proceeding of: ILCLI International Workshop on Logic and Philosophy of Knowledge, Communication and Action (LogKCA-10).score: 18.0
    We investigate a speci c model of knowledge and beliefs and their dynamics. The model is inspired by public announcement logic and the approach to puzzles concerning knowledge using that logic. In the model epistemic considerations are based on ontology. The main notion that constitutes a bridge between these two disciplines is the notion of epistemic capacities. Within the model we study scenarios in which agents can receive false announcements and can have incomplete or improper views about other agent's (...)
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  49. M. J. Cresswell (1995). Incompleteness and the Barcan Formula. Journal of Philosophical Logic 24 (4):379 - 403.score: 16.0
    A (normal) system of propositional modal logic is said to be complete iff it is characterized by a class of (Kripke) frames. When we move to modal predicate logic the question of completeness can again be raised. It is not hard to prove that if a predicate modal logic is complete then it is characterized by the class of all frames for the propositional logic on which it is based. Nor is it hard to prove that if a propositional modal (...)
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  50. Dmitrij Skvortsov (2005). On the Predicate Logic of Linear Kripke Frames and Some of its Extensions. Studia Logica 81 (2):261 - 282.score: 16.0
    We propose a new, rather simple and short proof of Kripke-completeness for the predicate variant of Dummett's logic. Also a family of Kripke-incomplete extensions of this logic that are complete w.r.t. Kripke frames with equality (or equivalently, w.r.t. Kripke sheaves [8]), is described.
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