Search results for 'incomplete predicates' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Christopher Gauker (2012). What Tipper is Ready For: A Semantics for Incomplete Predicates. Noûs 46 (1):61-85.score: 90.0
    This paper presents a precise semantics for incomplete predicates such as “ready”. Incomplete predicates have distinctive logical properties that a semantic theory needs to accommodate. For instance, “Tipper is ready” logically implies “Tipper is ready for something”, but “Tipper is ready for something” does not imply “Tipper is ready”. It is shown that several approaches to the semantics of incomplete predicates fail to accommodate these logical properties. The account offered here defines contexts as structures (...)
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  2. Delia Graff Fara (forthcoming). Names Are Predicates. Philosophical Review.score: 45.0
    Tyler Burge convinced us that names are predicates in at least some of their occurrences: -/- There are relatively few Alfreds in Princeton. -/- Names, when predicates, satisfy the being-called condition: schematically, a name "N" is true of a thing just in case that thing is called N. This paper defends the unified view that names are predicates in all of their occurrences. I follow Clarence Sloat, Paul Elbourne, and Ora Matushansky in saying that when a name (...)
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  3. John Brentlinger (1972). Incomplete Predicates and the Two- World Theory of the Phaedo. Phronesis 17 (1):61-79.score: 45.0
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  4. John Brentlinger (1972). Incomplete Predicates and the Two-World Theory of the "Phaedo". Phronesis 17 (1):61 - 79.score: 45.0
  5. Sungho Choi (2008). The Incompleteness of Dispositional Predicates. Synthese 163 (2):157 - 174.score: 37.0
    Elizabeth Prior claims that dispositional predicates are incomplete in the sense that they have more than one argument place. To back up this claim, she offers a number of arguments that involve such ordinary dispositional predicates as ‘fragile’, ‘soluble’, and so on. In this paper, I will first demonstrate that one of Prior’s arguments that ‘is fragile’ is an incomplete predicate is mistaken. This, however, does not immediately mean that Prior is wrong that ‘fragile’ is an (...)
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  6. Terence Parsons (1970). Criticism of "Are Predicates and Relational Expressions Incomplete?". Philosophical Review 79 (2):240-245.score: 36.0
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  7. Peter Long (1969). Are Predicates and Relational Expressions Incomplete? Philosophical Review 78 (1):90-98.score: 36.0
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  8. Ari Maunu (2006). Some Fregean Considerations on Predicates and Their Reference. Tabula Rasa 25.score: 27.0
    The aim of this paper is (i) to defend Frege's view that the referents of predicates are certain kinds of functions, or "concepts", i.e. incomplete entities, and not their extensions (i.e. sets of objects described by those predicates); and (ii) to justify, by a natural augmentation of Frege's semantic theory with modal ingredients, Frege's position that the sameness between concepts, or property-sharing, turns only on the sameness of extensions. Several problems with the doctrine that a predicate's extension (...)
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  9. Dmitrij Skvortsov (1998). On Some Kripke Complete and Kripke Incomplete Intermediate Predicate Logics. Studia Logica 61 (2):281-292.score: 24.0
    The Kripke-completeness and incompleteness of some intermediate predicate logics is established. In particular, we obtain a Kripke-incomplete logic (H* +A+D+K) where H* is the intuitionistic predicate calculus, A is a disjunction-free propositional formula, D = x(P(x) V Q) xP(x) V Q, K = ¬¬x(P(x) V ¬P(x)) (the negative answer to a question of T. Shimura).
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  10. Sandro Zucchi (1999). Incomplete Events, Intensionality and Imperfective Aspect. Natural Language Semantics 7 (2):179-215.score: 21.0
    I discuss two competing theories of the progressive: the theory proposed in Parsons (1980, 1985, 1989, 1990) and the theory proposed in Landman (1992). These theories differ in more than one way. Landman regards the progressive as an intentional operator, while Parsons doesn't. Moreover, Landman and Parsons disagree on what uninflected predicates denote. For Landman, cross the street has in its denotation complete events of crossing the street; the aspectual contribution of English simple past (perfective aspect) is the identity (...)
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  11. Daniel Rothschild & Gabriel Segal (2009). Indexical Predicates. Mind and Language 24 (4):467--493.score: 18.0
    We discuss the challenge to truth-conditional semantics presented by apparent shifts in extension of predicates such as 'red'. We propose an explicit indexical semantics for 'red' and argue that our account is preferable to the alternatives on conceptual and empirical grounds.
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  12. Asa Maria Wikforss (2004). Externalism and Incomplete Understanding. Philosophical Quarterly 54 (215):287-294.score: 18.0
    Sarah Sawyer has challenged my claim that social externalism depends on the assumption that individuals have an incomplete grasp of their own concepts. Sawyer denies that Burge's later sofa thought-experiment relies on this assumption: the unifying principle behind the thought-experiments supporting social externalism, she argues, is just that referents play a role in the individuation of concepts. I argue that Sawyer fails to show that social externalism need not rely on the assumption of incomplete understanding. To establish the (...)
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  13. Décio Krause & Steven French (2007). Quantum Sortal Predicates. Synthese 154 (3):417 - 430.score: 18.0
    Sortal predicates have been associated with a counting process, which acts as a criterion of identity for the individuals they correctly apply to. We discuss in what sense certain types of predicates suggested by quantum physics deserve the title of ‘sortal’ as well, although they do not characterize either a process of counting or a criterion of identity for the entities that fall under them. We call such predicates ‘quantum-sortal predicates’ and, instead of a process of (...)
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  14. Charles Sayward (1981). Must Synonymous Predicates Be Coextensive? Logique Et Analyse 95:430-435.score: 18.0
    Two cases are distinguished. In one case two predicates belong to distinct languages. A straight-forward argument is presented that the predicates might be synonymous without being coextensive. In the second case the predicates belong to the same language. Here the issue is more involved, but the same conclusion is reached.
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  15. Dan López de Sa (2008). The Over-Generalization Problem: Predicates Rigidly Signifying the "Unnatural&Quot;. Synthese 163 (2):263 - 272.score: 18.0
    According to the simple proposal, a predicate is rigid iff it signifies the same property across the different possible worlds. The simple proposal has been claimed to suffer from an over-generalization problem. Assume that one can make sense of predicates signifying properties, and assume that trivialization concerns, to the effect that the notion would cover any predicate whatsoever, can be overcome. Still, the proposal would over-generalize, the worry has it, by covering predicates for artifactual, social, or evaluative properties, (...)
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  16. Miklós Ferenczi (2009). On Conservative Extensions in Logics with Infinitary Predicates. Studia Logica 92 (1):121 - 135.score: 18.0
    If the language is extended by new individual variables, in classical first order logic, then the deduction system obtained is a conservative extension of the original one. This fails to be true for the logics with infinitary predicates. But it is shown that restricting the commutativity of quantifiers and the equality axioms in the extended system and supposing the merry-go-round property in the original system, the foregoing extension is already conservative. It is shown that these restrictions are crucial for (...)
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  17. Yakir Levin (2004). Cartesians, Strawsonians and the Univocal Meaning of Mental Predicates. Acta Analytica 19 (32):91-106.score: 18.0
    The paper examines the Cartesian and the Strawsonian answers to the question of why self-applied and other-applied mental predicates mean the same. While these answers relate to different, complementary aspects of this question, they seem and are usually considered as incompatible. Indeed, their apparent incompatibility constitutes a major objection to the Cartesian answer. A primary aim of the paper is to show that the Strawsonian answer does not pose a real problem to the Cartesian answer. Unlike other attempts to (...)
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  18. Andrea Iacona (2004). Modal Predicates. Australasian Journal of Logic (2):56-69.score: 18.0
    Despite the wide acceptance of standard modal logic, there has always been a temptation to think that ordinary modal discourse may be correctly analyzed and adequately represented in terms of predicates rather than in terms of operators. The aim of the formal model outlined in this paper is to capture what I take to be the only plausible sense in which ‘possible’ and ‘necessary’ can be treated as predicates. The model is built by enriching the language of standard (...)
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  19. Dan López de Sa (2008). The Over-Generalization Problem: Predicates Rigidly Signifying the “Unnatural”. [REVIEW] Synthese 163 (2):263-272.score: 18.0
    According to the simple proposal, a predicate is rigid iff it signifies the same property across the different possible worlds. The simple proposal has been claimed to suffer from an over-generalization problem. Assume that one can make sense of predicates signifying properties, and assume that trivialization concerns, to the effect that the notion would cover any predicate whatsoever, can be overcome. Still, the proposal would over-generalize, the worry has it, by covering predicates for artifactual, social, or evaluative properties, (...)
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  20. Giorgio Magri (2009). A Theory of Individual-Level Predicates Based on Blind Mandatory Scalar Implicatures. Natural Language Semantics 17 (3):245-297.score: 18.0
    Predicates such as tall or to know Latin, which intuitively denote permanent properties, are called individual-level predicates. Many peculiar properties of this class of predicates have been noted in the literature. One such property is that we cannot say #John is sometimes tall. Here is a way to account for this property: this sentence sounds odd because it triggers the scalar implicature that the alternative John is always tall is false, which cannot be, given that, if John (...)
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  21. Luca Anderlini & Leonardo Felli (1999). Incomplete Contracts and Complexity Costs. Theory and Decision 46 (1):23-50.score: 18.0
    This paper investigates, in a simple risk-sharing framework, the extent to which the incompleteness of contracts could be attributed to the complexity costs associated with the writing and the implementation of contracts. We show that, given any measure of complexity in a very general class, it is possible to find simple contracting problems such that, when complexity costs are explicitly taken into account, the contracting parties optimally choose an incomplete contract which coincides with the ‘default’ division of surplus. Optimal (...)
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  22. Serdar Güner & Daniel Druckman (2000). Identification of a Princess Under Incomplete Information: An Amarna Story. Theory and Decision 48 (4):383-407.score: 18.0
    This article presents four analyses of an interaction between the middle-Bronze Age Pharaoh Nibmuarea and the Babylonian king Kadashman-Enlil as described in the Amarna letters (Moran [1992] The Amarna Letters, The Johns Hopkins Universiy Press, Baltimore, Maryland). Intent on denying the Pharaoh his daughter in marriage, the Babylonian king was faced with the choice of sending messengers who could (''dignitaries'') or could not identify (''non-dignitaries'') his missing sister in the Pharaoh's court. Intent on marrying the king's daughter, the Pharaoh was (...)
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  23. Leandro Nascimento (2011). Remarks on the Consumer Problem Under Incomplete Preferences. Theory and Decision 70 (1):95-110.score: 18.0
    This article revisits the standard results of demand theory when the preference relation is a continuous preorder that admits an equicontinuous multi-utility representation. We study the consumer problem as the constrained maximization of a continuous vector-valued utility mapping, and show how to rederive those results. In particular, we provide a link between the literature on vector optimization and the analysis of the consumer problem under incomplete preferences.
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  24. József Sákovics (2001). Games of Incomplete Information Without Common Knowledge Priors. Theory and Decision 50 (4):347-366.score: 18.0
    We relax the assumption that priors are common knowledge, in the standard model of games of incomplete information. We make the realistic assumption that the players are boundedly rational: they base their actions on finite-order belief hierarchies. When the different layers of beliefs are independent of each other, we can retain Harsányi's type-space, and we can define straightforward generalizations of Bayesian Nash Equilibrium (BNE) and Rationalizability in our context. Since neither of these concepts is quite satisfactory, we propose a (...)
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  25. Piotr Kulicki, Robert Trypuz, Paweł Garbacz & Marek Lechniak (2010). Epistemic Capacities, Incompatible Information and Incomplete Beliefs. In In proceeding of: ILCLI International Workshop on Logic and Philosophy of Knowledge, Communication and Action (LogKCA-10).score: 18.0
    We investigate a speci c model of knowledge and beliefs and their dynamics. The model is inspired by public announcement logic and the approach to puzzles concerning knowledge using that logic. In the model epistemic considerations are based on ontology. The main notion that constitutes a bridge between these two disciplines is the notion of epistemic capacities. Within the model we study scenarios in which agents can receive false announcements and can have incomplete or improper views about other agent's (...)
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  26. Taishi Kurahashi (forthcoming). Rosser-Type Undecidable Sentences Based on Yablo's Paradox. Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-19.score: 16.0
    It is widely considered that Gödel’s and Rosser’s proofs of the incompleteness theorems are related to the Liar Paradox. Yablo’s paradox, a Liar-like paradox without self-reference, can also be used to prove Gödel’s first and second incompleteness theorems. We show that the situation with the formalization of Yablo’s paradox using Rosser’s provability predicate is different from that of Rosser’s proof. Namely, by using the technique of Guaspari and Solovay, we prove that the undecidability of each instance of Rosser-type formalizations of (...)
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  27. Tatsuya Shimura (2000). Kripke Incompleteness of Predicate Extensions of the Modal Logics Axiomatized by a Canonical Formula for a Frame with a Nontrivial Cluster. Studia Logica 65 (2):237-247.score: 16.0
    We generalize the incompleteness proof of the modal predicate logic Q-S4+ p p + BF described in Hughes-Cresswell [6]. As a corollary, we show that, for every subframe logic Lcontaining S4, Kripke completeness of Q-L+ BF implies the finite embedding property of L.
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  28. Volker Halbach, Hannes Leitgeb & Philip Welch (2003). Possible-Worlds Semantics for Modal Notions Conceived as Predicates. Journal of Philosophical Logic 32 (2):179-223.score: 15.0
    If □ is conceived as an operator, i.e., an expression that gives applied to a formula another formula, the expressive power of the language is severely restricted when compared to a language where □ is conceived as a predicate, i.e., an expression that yields a formula if it is applied to a term. This consideration favours the predicate approach. The predicate view, however, is threatened mainly by two problems: Some obvious predicate systems are inconsistent, and possible-worlds semantics for predicates (...)
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  29. Richard Bradley (2009). Revising Incomplete Attitudes. Synthese 171 (2):235 - 256.score: 15.0
    Bayesian models typically assume that agents are rational, logically omniscient and opinionated. The last of these has little descriptive or normative appeal, however, and limits our ability to describe how agents make up their minds (as opposed to changing them) or how they can suspend or withdraw their opinions. To address these limitations this paper represents the attitudinal states of non-opinionated agents by sets of (permissible) probability and desirability functions. Several basic ways in which such states of mind can be (...)
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  30. Sebastian Löbner (2000). Polarity in Natural Language: Predication, Quantification and Negation in Particular and Characterizing Sentences. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 23 (3):213-308.score: 15.0
    The present paper is an attempt at the investigation of the nature of polarity contrast in natural languages. Truth conditions for natural language sentences are incomplete unless they include a proper definition of the conditions under which they are false. It is argued that the tertium non datur principle of classical bivalent logical systems is empirically invalid for natural languages: falsity cannot be equated with non-truth. Lacking a direct intuition about the conditions under which a sentence is false, we (...)
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  31. Roy A. Benton (2002). A Simple Incomplete Extension of T Which is the Union of Two Complete Modal Logics with F.M.P. Journal of Philosophical Logic 31 (6):527-541.score: 15.0
    I present here a modal extension of T called KTLM which is, by several measures, the simplest modal extension of T yet presented. Its axiom uses only one sentence letter and has a modal depth of 2. Furthermore, KTLM can be realized as the logical union of two logics KM and KTL which each have the finite model property (f.m.p.), and so themselves are complete. Each of these two component logics has independent interest as well.
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  32. Norman Cameron & Ann Magaret (1949). Experimental Studies in Thinking: I. Scattered Speech in the Responses of Normal Subjects to Incomplete Sentences. Journal of Experimental Psychology 39 (5):617.score: 15.0
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  33. Richard L. Patten (1973). Facilitation Effect of Incomplete Reward Reduction in Discrimination: Comparison of Within-Subject and Between-Subject Methods. Journal of Experimental Psychology 100 (1):185.score: 15.0
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  34. Jasmine K. Ahluwalia, Manoj Hariharan, Rhishikesh Bargaje, Beena Pillai & Vani Brahmachari (2009). Incomplete Penetrance and Variable Expressivity: Is There a microRNA Connection? Bioessays 31 (9):981-992.score: 15.0
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  35. Françoise Forges (2006). Correlated Equilibrium in Games with Incomplete Information Revisited. Theory and Decision 61 (4):329-344.score: 15.0
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  36. A. N. Golodnikov, P. S. Knopov & V. A. Pepelyaev (2004). Estimation of Reliability Parameters Under Incomplete Primary Information. Theory and Decision 57 (4):331-344.score: 15.0
    We consider the procedure for small-sample estimation of reliability parameters. The main shortcomings of the classical methods and the Bayesian approach are analyzed. Models that find robust Bayesian estimates are proposed. The sensitivity of the Bayesian estimates to the choice of the prior distribution functions is investigated using models that find upper and lower bounds. The proposed models reduce to optimization problems in the space of distribution functions.
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  37. Fran�Oise Forges (1993). Five Legitimate Definitions of Correlated Equilibrium in Games with Incomplete Information. Theory and Decision 35 (3):277-310.score: 15.0
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  38. Lawrence A. Hall & John N. Marr (1969). Incomplete Reduction of Reward and the Frustration Effect with Hunger Constant. Journal of Experimental Psychology 80 (3p1):493.score: 15.0
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  39. Paola Manzini & Marco Mariotti (2008). On the Representation of Incomplete Preferences Over Risky Alternatives. Theory and Decision 65 (4):303-323.score: 15.0
    We study preferences over lotteries which do not necessarily satisfy completeness. We provide a characterization which generalizes Expected Utility theory. We show in particular that various sure-thing axioms are needed to guaranteee the representability in terms of utility intervals rather than numbers, and to provide a linear interval order representation which is very much in the spirit of Expected Utility theory.
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  40. James H. McHose & H. Wayne Ludvigson (1965). Role of Reward Magnitude and Incomplete Reduction of Reward Magnitude in the Frustration Effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology 70 (5):490.score: 15.0
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  41. Kenton Machina & Harry Deutsch (2002). Vagueness, Ignorance, and Margins for Error. Acta Analytica 17 (1):19-45.score: 14.0
    We argue that the epistemic theory of vagueness cannot adequately justify its key tenet-that vague predicates have precisely bounded extensions, of which we are necessarily ignorant. Nor can the theory adequately account for our ignorance of the truth values of borderline cases. Furthermore, we argue that Williamson’s promising attempt to explicate our understanding of vague language on the model of a certain sort of “inexact knowledge” is at best incomplete, since certain forms of vagueness do not fit Williamson’s (...)
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  42. Danny Frederick (2013). Singular Terms, Predicates and the Spurious 'Is' of Identity. Dialectica 67 (3):325-343.score: 14.0
    Contemporary orthodoxy affirms that singular terms cannot be predicates and that, therefore, ‘is’ is ambiguous as between predication and identity. Recent attempts to treat names as predicates do not challenge this orthodoxy. The orthodoxy was built into the structure of modern formal logic by Frege. It is defended by arguments which I show to be unsound. I provide a semantical account of atomic sentences which draws upon Mill's account of predication, connotation and denotation. I show that singular terms (...)
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  43. Anthony Corsentino (2012). Predicates in Perspective. Synthese 187 (2):519-545.score: 14.0
    A familiar strategy of argument to the effect that natural-language predicates are semantically context dependent rests on constructing what I term Travis cases: different contexts for the use of a predicate are imagined in which its semantic (typically, truth-conditional) properties are claimed to differ. I propose an account of the semantic properties of predicates that give rise to Travis cases; I then argue that the account underwrites a genuine alternative to the standard explanations of Travis cases to be (...)
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  44. Lou Goble (2000). An Incomplete Relevant Modal Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 29 (1):103-119.score: 14.0
    The relevant modal logic G is a simple extension of the logic RT, the relevant counterpart of the familiar classically based system T. Using the Routley-Meyer semantics for relevant modal logics, this paper proves three main results regarding G: (i) G is semantically complete, but only with a non-standard interpretation of necessity. From this, however, other nice properties follow. (ii) With a standard interpretation of necessity, G is semantically incomplete; there is no class of frames that characterizes G. (iii) (...)
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  45. Gabriel Sandu (1998). Partially Interpreted Relations and Partially Interpreted Quantifiers. Journal of Philosophical Logic 27 (6):587-601.score: 14.0
    Logics in which a relation R is semantically incomplete in a particular universe E, i.e. the union of the extension of R with its anti-extension does not exhaust the whole universe E, have been studied quite extensively in the last years. (Cf. van Benthem (1985), Blamey (1986), and Langholm (1988), for partial predicate logic; Muskens (1996), for the applications of partial predicates to formal semantics, and Doherty (1996) for applications to modal logic.) This is not so with semantically (...)
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  46. Friederike Moltmann, Existence Predicates.score: 12.0
    The most common philosophical view of existence is that existence amounts to existential quantification or is a second-order concept. A less common philosophical view is that existence is a first-order property distinguishing between nonexistent (past, possible, or merely intentional) objects and existing objects. An even less common philosophical view is that existence divides into different ‘modes of being’ for different kinds of entities. The aim of the present paper is to take a closer look at how the notion of existence (...)
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  47. Dan Kaufman (2008). Descartes on Composites, Incomplete Substances, and Kinds of Unity. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 90 (1):39-73.score: 12.0
    It is widely-accepted that Descartes is a substance dualist, i.e. that he holds that there are two and only two kinds of finite substance – mind and body. However, several scholars have argued that Descartes is a substance trialist, where the third kind of substance he admits is the substantial union of a mind and a body, the human being. In this paper, I argue against the trialist interpretation of Descartes. First, I show that the strongest evidence for trialism, based (...)
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  48. Friederike Moltmann (forthcoming). 'Truth Predicates' in Natural Language. In Dora Achourioti, Henri Galinon & José Martinez (eds.), Unifying Theories of Truth. Springer.score: 12.0
    This takes a closer look at the actual semantic behavior of apparent truth predicates in English and re-evaluates the way they could motivate particular philosophical views regarding the formal status of 'truth predicates' and their semantics. The paper distinguishes two types of 'truth predicates' and proposes semantic analyses that better reflect the linguistic facts. These analyses match particular independently motivated philosophical views.
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  49. Peter Lasersohn (2005). Context Dependence, Disagreement, and Predicates of Personal Taste. Linguistics and Philosophy 28 (6):643--686.score: 12.0
    This paper argues that truth values of sentences containing predicates of “personal taste” such as fun or tasty must be relativized to individuals. This relativization is of truth value only, and does not involve a relativization of semantic content: If you say roller coasters are fun, and I say they are not, I am negating the same content which you assert, and directly contradicting you. Nonetheless, both our utterances can be true (relative to their separate contexts). A formal semantic (...)
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  50. Mark Greenberg, Incomplete Understanding, Deference, and the Content of Thought.score: 12.0
    Tyler Burge’s influential arguments have convinced most philosophers that a thinker can have a thought involving a particular concept without fully grasping or having mastery of that concept. In Burge’s (1979) famous example, a thinker who lacks mastery of the concept of arthritis nonetheless has thoughts involving that concept. It is generally supposed, however, that this phenomenon – incomplete understanding, for short – does not require us to reconsider in a fundamental way what it is for a thought to (...)
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