Search results for 'inefficiency' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Tessa Hebb (2006). The Economic Inefficiency of Secrecy: Pension Fund Investors' Corporate Transparency Concerns. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 63 (4):385 - 405.score: 16.0
    In the wake of recent corporate scandals, this paper traces the growing power of pension funds to provide managerial oversight of the firms they hold in their investment portfolios. Increasingly pension funds are exercising their legitimate rights as owners to raise the corporate governance standards of the firms they invest in. Within corporate governance generally, pension funds are shifting their attention away from managerial accountability and toward measures that increase transparency in firm-level decision-making. Pension funds use transparency to ensure that (...)
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  2. Niccie L. McKay, Mary E. Deily & Fred H. Dorner (2002). Ownership and Changes in Hospital Inefficiency, 1986–1991. Inquiry 39 (4):388-399.score: 15.0
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  3. G. Mooney (1984). Medical Ethics: An Excuse for Inefficiency? Journal of Medical Ethics 10 (4):183-185.score: 15.0
    There is frequently an appearance of conflict between medicine and economics. This arises first because the nature of health and health care requires the doctor to make decisions on behalf of the patient and thus serves to explain why medical ethics exist. But secondly it is due to the relative lack of acceptance of the ethics of the common good within medical ethics. As a result while economics in the field of health has as an objective the maximisation of the (...)
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  4. K. Voigt (2014). Rationing, Inefficiency and the Role of Clinicians. Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (2):94-96.score: 15.0
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  5. A. J. Lewis (1932). The Mental Defective. A Problem in Social Inefficiency. The Eugenics Review 24 (3):217.score: 15.0
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  6. Gianluca Di Muzio (2008). The Problem of Divine Inefficiency. Think 6 (17-18):75-84.score: 15.0
    Gianluca Di Muzio develops a novel objection to theism.
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  7. D. Strech & M. Danis (2014). How Can Bedside Rationing Be Justified Despite Coexisting Inefficiency? The Need for 'Benchmarks of Efficiency'. Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (2):89-93.score: 15.0
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  8. Edward Saraydar (1990). The Inefficiency of Some Efficiency Comparisons: A Reply to Nye. Economics and Philosophy 6 (01):153-.score: 15.0
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  9. R. S. Lazarus (1985). Toward an Understanding of Efficiency and Inefficiency in Human Affairs: Discussion of Schönpflug's Theory. In Michael Frese & John Sabini (eds.), Goal Directed Behavior: The Concept of Action in Psychology. L. Erlbaum Associates. 189--198.score: 15.0
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  10. E. C. Pasour Jr (1979). Conservation," X-Inefficiency" and Efficient Use of Natural Resources. Journal of Libertarian Studies 3 (4):371-390.score: 15.0
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  11. Michael D. Rosko, Jose Proenca, Jacqueline S. Zinn & Gloria J. Bazzoli (2007). Hospital Inefficiency: What is the Impact of Membership in Different Types of Systems? Inquiry 44 (3):335-349.score: 15.0
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  12. M. Rosko, J. Proenca, J. Zinn & G. Bazzoli (2007). The Impact of Membership in Different Types of Systems on Hospital Cost-Inefficiency. Inquiry 44:335-49.score: 15.0
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  13. Wolfgang Schönpflug (1985). Goal Directed Behavior as a Source of Stress: Psychological Origins and Consequences of Inefficiency. In Michael Frese & John Sabini (eds.), Goal Directed Behavior: The Concept of Action in Psychology. L. Erlbaum Associates. 172--188.score: 15.0
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  14. Il Singh, R. Molloy & R. Parasuraman (1992). Central Display Location Does Not Reduce Inefficiency in Monitoring for Automation Failures. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 30 (6):454-454.score: 15.0
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  15. Jeremy Till (2012). Costas Panayotakis, Remaking Scarcity: From Capitalist Inefficiency to Economic Democracy. Radical Philosophy 173:56.score: 15.0
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  16. Danny Frederick (2011). Scarcity and Saving Lives. The Reasoner 5 (6):89-90.score: 7.0
    I argue that, because of scarcity, the right to life cannot imply an obligation on others to save the life of the right-holder, and that collectivising resources for health care not only ensures that resources are used inefficiently and inappropriately but also removes from people the authority to make decisions for themselves about matters of health, life and death.
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  17. Allin Cottrell, Word Processors: Stupid and Inefficient.score: 6.0
    The word processor is a stupid and grossly inefficient tool for preparing text for communication with others. That is the claim I shall defend below. It will probably strike you as bizarre at first sight. If I am against word processors, what do I propose: that we write in longhand, or use a mechanical typewriter? No. While there are things to be said in favor of these modes of text preparation I take it for granted that most readers of this (...)
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  18. C. Jane Wallace & Lucy Savitz (2008). Estimating Waste in Frontline Health Care Worker Activities. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (1):178-180.score: 6.0
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  19. Claire Zedelius, Harm Veling & Henk Aarts (2012). When Unconscious Rewards Boost Cognitive Task Performance Inefficiently: The Role of Consciousness in Integrating Value and Attainability Information. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 6.0
    Research has shown that high vs. low value rewards improve cognitive task performance independent of whether they are perceived consciously or unconsciously. However, efficient performance in response to high value rewards also depends on whether or not rewards are attainable. This raises the question of whether unconscious reward processing enables people to take into account such attainability information. Building on a theoretical framework according to which conscious reward processing is required to enable higher level cognitive processing, the present research tested (...)
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  20. Julia Annas (1982). Aristotle on Inefficient Causes. Philosophical Quarterly 32 (129):311-326.score: 5.0
  21. Geoffrey Brennan & Loren Lomasky (1984). Inefficient Unanimity. Journal of Applied Philosophy 1 (1):151-163.score: 5.0
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  22. G. K. Chesterton (1992). The Crime of Being Inefficient. The Chesterton Review 18 (2):164-165.score: 5.0
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  23. Christine L. Larson Daniel M. Stout, Alexander J. Shackman (2013). Failure to Filter: Anxious Individuals Show Inefficient Gating of Threat From Working Memory. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 5.0
    Dispositional anxiety is a well-established risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders along the internalizing spectrum, including anxiety and depression. Importantly, many of the maladaptive behaviors characteristic of anxiety, such as anticipatory apprehension, occur when threat is absent. This raises the possibility that anxious individuals are less efficient at gating threat’s access to working memory, a limited capacity workspace where information is actively retained, manipulated, and used to flexibly guide goal-directed behavior when it is no longer present in the (...)
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  24. Daniel M. Greenberger (2009). Extending the Concept of an “Element of Reality” to Work with Inefficient Detectors. In. In Wayne C. Myrvold & Joy Christian (eds.), Quantum Reality, Relativistic Causality, and Closing the Epistemic Circle. Springer. 87--94.score: 5.0
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  25. Charles W. Collier (2011). An Inefficient Truth. Critical Review 23 (1-2):29-71.score: 5.0
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  26. Jacques Cory (forthcoming). The Inefficient Existing Safeguards of the Stakeholders' Interests. Activist Business Ethics.score: 5.0
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  27. Benjamin Freedman (1977). The Case for Medical Care, Inefficient or Not. Hastings Center Report 7 (2):31-39.score: 5.0
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  28. Katina Urdaneta (2012). Gestión de Proyectos En Consejos Comunales Del Municipio Maracaibo:¿ Eficiente o Ineficiente?/Project Management by Communal Councils in the Maracaibo Municipality: Efficient or Inefficient? Telos 13 (3):355-370.score: 5.0
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  29. Arthur Fine (1991). Inequalities for Nonideal Correlation Experiments. Foundations of Physics 21 (3):365-378.score: 3.0
    This paper addresses the “inefficiency loophole” in the Bell theorem. We examine factorizable stochastic models for the Bell inequalities, where we allow the detection efficiency to depend both on the “hidden” state of the measured system and also its passage through an analyzer. We show that, nevertheless, if the efficiency functions are symmetric between the two wings of the experiment, one can dispense with supplementary assumptions and derive new inequalities that enable the models to be tested even for highly (...)
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  30. László E. Szabó (2000). On Fine's Resolution of the EPR-Bell Problem. Foundations of Physics 30 (11):1891-1909.score: 3.0
    The aim of this paper is to provide an introduction to Fine's interpretation of quantum mechanics and to show how it can solve the EPR-Bell problem. In the real spin-correlation experiments the detection/emission inefficiency is usually ascribed to independent random detection errors, and treated by the “enhancement hypothesis.” In Fine's interpretation the detection inefficiency is an effect not only of the random errors in the analyzer + detector equipment, but is also the manifestation of a pre-settled (hidden) property (...)
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  31. Richard A. Spinello (2004). Property Rights in Genetic Information. Ethics and Information Technology 6 (1):29-42.score: 3.0
    The primary theme of this paper is the normative case against ownership of one's genetic information along with the source of that information (usually human tissues samples). The argument presented here against such “upstream” property rights is based primarily on utilitarian grounds. This issue has new salience thanks to the Human Genome Project and “bio-prospecting” initiatives based on the aggregation of genetic information, such as the one being managed by deCODE Genetics in Iceland. The rationale for ownership is twofold: ownership (...)
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  32. Adam Henschke (2010). Did You Just Say What I Think You Said? Talking About Genes, Identity and Information. Identity in the Information Society 3 (3):435-456.score: 3.0
    Genetic information is becoming increasingly used in modern life, extending beyond medicine to familial history, forensics and more. Following this expansion of use, the effect of genetic information on people’s identity and ultimately people’s quality of life is being explored in a host of different disciplines. While a multidisciplinary approach is commendable and necessary, there is the potential for the multidisciplinarity to produce conceptual misconnection. That is, while experts in one field may understand their use of a term like ‘gene’, (...)
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  33. Joshua Preiss (2012). American Inequality and the Idea of Personal Reponsibility. Public Affairs Quarterly 26 (4):337-360.score: 3.0
    In terms of income and wealth (and a variety of other measures), citizens of the United States are significantly less equal than their peers in Canada and Europe. In addition, American society is becoming increasingly less equal. Some theorists argue that this inequality is inefficient. Others claim that is unjust. Many Americans, however, are less concerned with the potential inefficiency and injustice of growing inequality. Distinguishing as Milton Friedman does between equality of result and equality of opportunity, many claim (...)
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  34. Uwe Steinhoff (2014). Just Cause and 'Right Intention'. Journal of Military Ethics 13 (1):32-48.score: 3.0
    I argue that the criterion of just cause is not independent of proportionality and other valid jus ad bellum criteria. One cannot know whether there is a just cause without knowing whether the other (valid) criteria (apart from ‘right intention’) are satisfied. The advantage of this account is that it is applicable to all wars, even to wars where nobody will be killed or where the enemy has not committed a rights violation but can be justifiably warred against anyway. This (...)
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  35. Leonard M. Fleck (1994). Just Caring: Health Reform and Health Care Rationing. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 19 (5):435-443.score: 3.0
    Health reform must include health care rationing, both for reasons of fairness and efficiency. Few politicians are willing to accept this claim, including the Clinton Administration. Brown and others have argued that enormous waste and inefficiency must be wrung out of our health care system before morally problematic cost constraining options, such as rationing, can be justifiably adopted. However, I argue that most of the policies and practices that would diminish waste and inefficiency include implicit (and therefore morally (...)
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  36. Eva Hofmann, Erik Hoelzl & Erich Kirchler (2008). A Comparison of Models Describing the Impact of Moral Decision Making on Investment Decisions. Journal of Business Ethics 82 (1):171 - 187.score: 3.0
    As moral decision making in financial markets incorporates moral considerations into investment decisions, some rational decision theorists argue that moral considerations would introduce inefficiency to investment decisions. However, market demand for socially responsible investment is increasing, suggesting that investment decisions are influenced by both financial and moral considerations. Several models can be applied to explain moral behavior. We test the suitability of (a) multiple attribute utility theory (MAUT), (b) theory of planned behavior, and (c) issue-contingent model of ethical decision (...)
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  37. John R. Boatright (2004). Employee Governance and the Ownership of the Firm. Business Ethics Quarterly 14 (1):1-21.score: 3.0
    Employee governance, which includes employee ownership and employee participation in decision making, is regarded by manyas morally preferable to control of corporations by shareholders. However, employee governance is rare in advanced market economies due to its relative inefficiency compared with shareholder governance. Given this inefficiency, should employee governance be given up as an impractical ideal? This article contends that the debate over this question is hampered by an inadequate conception of employee governance that fails to take into account (...)
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  38. Ryan Patrick Hanley (2009). Social Science and Human Flourishing: The Scottish Enlightenment and Today. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 7 (1):29-46.score: 3.0
    The Scottish Enlightenment is commonly identified as the birthplace of modern social science. But while Scottish and contemporary social science share a commitment to empiricism, contemporary insistence on the separation of empirical analysis from normative judgment invokes a distinction unintelligible to the Scots. In this respect the methods of modern social science seem an attenuation of those of Scottish social science. A similar attenuation can be found in the modern aspiration to judge the outcome of institutions or processes only with (...)
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  39. Todd Sandler & Harvey E. Lapan (1988). The Calculus of Dissent: An Analysis of Terrorists' Choice of Targets. Synthese 76 (2):245 - 261.score: 3.0
    This article applies formal modeling to study a terrorist group''s choice of whether to attack or not, and, in the case of an attack, which of two potential targets to strike. Each potential target individually takes protective measures that influence the terrorists'' perceived success and failure, and, hence, the likelihood of attack. For domestic terrorism, a tendency for potential targets to overdeter is indicated. For transnational terrorism, cases of overdeterrence and underdeterrence are identified. We demonstrate that increased information about terrorists'' (...)
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  40. Leonardo D. de Castro (1995). Exploitation in the Use of Human Subjects for Medical Experimentation: A Re-Examination of Basic Issues. Bioethics 9 (3):259–268.score: 3.0
    Relatively subtle forms of exploitation of human subjects may arise from the inefficiency or incompetence of a researcher, from the existence of a power imbalance between principal and subject, or from the uneven distribution of research risks among various segments of the population. A powerful and knowledgeable person (or institution) may perpetrate the exploitation of an unempowered and ignorant individual even without intending to. There is an ethical burden on the former to protect the interests of the vulnerable. Excessive (...)
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  41. Laszlo E. Szabo & Arthur Fine, A Local Hidden Variable Theory for the GHZ Experiment.score: 3.0
    A recent analysis by de Barros and Suppes of experimentally realizable GHZ correlations supports the conclusion that these correlations cannot be explained by introducing local hidden variables. We show, nevertheless, that their analysis does not exclude local hidden variable models in which the inefficiency in the experiment is an effect not only of random errors in the detector equipment, but is also the manifestation of a pre-set, hidden property of the particles ("prism models"). Indeed, we present an explicit prism (...)
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  42. Fransisca, P. Tommy Y. S. & Suyasa (2010). Perbandingan Perilaku Konsumtif Berdasarkan Metode Pembayaran. Phronesis 7 (2).score: 3.0
    : Consumptive behavior is an action to buy a goods that actually not to fulfill the daily needs demand but just to fulfill the desire, conducted redundantly causing and extravagance of inefficiency the expense. The aim of this research is to prove that there is a difference in consumptive behavior between subjects who prefer to use credit card and subjects who prefer to use cash. Subjects are 293 young adult women, 171 subjects prefer to use cash payment and 122 (...)
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  43. I. Bubanovic & S. Najman (2004). Ideas in Theoretical Biology - Failure of Anti-Tumor Immunity in Mammals - Evolution of the Hypothesis. Acta Biotheoretica 52 (1).score: 3.0
    Observations on the morphological and functional similarity between embryonic or trophoblast tissues and tumors are very old. Over a period of time many investigators have created different hypotheses on the origin of cancerogenesis or tumor efficiency in relation to the host immune system. Some of these ideas have been rejected but many of them are still current. A presumption of the inefficiency of anti-tumor immunity in mammals due to the high similarity between trophoblast and embryonic cells to tumor cells (...)
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  44. J. Félix Lozano (2001). The Transformation by Dialogue of Managers' Code of Conduct: The Davos Manifesto 27 Years On. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 34 (3-4):269 - 277.score: 3.0
    At the World Economic Forum meeting in year 2000 in Davos the economic challenges for the next millennium were presented and analysed. The role of the Internet and communications in the development of the global economy were the central theme of the meeting and the evident inefficiency of traditional control mechanisms was highlighted. This situation implies greater responsibility for management for two fundamental reasons: first because management are ultimately responsible for the fortunes of their organizations, and second because they (...)
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  45. Emma Smith & Stephen Gorard (2011). Is There a Shortage of Scientists? A Re-Analysis of Supply for the Uk. British Journal of Educational Studies 59 (2):159 - 177.score: 3.0
    Despite a recent economic downturn, there is considerable political and industry pressure to retain or even increase the number of scientists in the UK and other developed countries. Claims are made that the supply of scientists (including engineers and mathematicians) is crucial to the economy and the health of the nation, and a large number of initiatives have been funded to address the problem. We consider these claims in light of a re-analysis of existing figures from 1986 to 2009, for (...)
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  46. Volodymyr Gumeniuk (2014). Економічні Передумови Становлення Ринку Санаторно-Курортних Послуг В Україні. Схід 3:113-117.score: 3.0
    The article aims at studying the economic processes of developing national market of resort services in a historical perspective. The theoretical conceptualization of the market of resort services has been conducted, the basic economic backgrounds of its formation has been defined basing on a comprehensive assessment of researches of Ukrainian and foreign scientists. The article has analyzed the institutional framework of a resort services market in the realities of a mixed model of the national economy. The issues of financial security (...)
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  47. Rizwaan Jameel Mokal (2002). The Search for Someone to Save: A Defensive Case for the Priority of Secured Credit. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 22 (4):687-728.score: 3.0
    The priority of secured credit has repeatedly and famously been attacked for allowing the exploitation of certain types of unsecured creditor. It has also been blamed for creating inefficiencies. This paper examines these arguments specifically as applied to this jurisdiction, and using both theoretical analysis and recent empirical data, suggests none of them can be sustained. It is argued that security is unlikely to lead to the exploitation of involuntary, ‘uninformed’, or ‘unsophisticated’ creditors, since the perverse incentives it allegedly creates (...)
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  48. Richard M. Lipkin Ning Qian (2011). A Learning-Style Theory for Understanding Autistic Behaviors. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 3.0
    Understanding autism’s ever-expanding array of behaviors, from sensation to cognition, is a major challenge. We posit that autistic and typically-developing brains implement different algorithms that are better suited to learn, represent, and process different tasks; consequently, they develop different interests and behaviors. Computationally, a continuum of algorithms exists, from lookup-table (LUT) learning, which aims to store experiences precisely, to interpolation (INT) learning, which focuses on extracting underlying statistical structure (regularities) from experiences. We hypothesize that autistic and typical brains, respectively, are (...)
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  49. S. Renous, E. Hofling & J. P. Gasc (1998). Respective Role of the Axialand Appendicular Systems in Relation to the Transition to Limblessness. Acta Biotheoretica 46 (2).score: 3.0
    In lower quadrupedal vertebrates locomotor efficiency seems to result from the associate movements of the axial and appendicular systems, which are totally independent in structure and embryological origin. The curvature of the trunk, produced by a standing wave, magnifies the propulsive action of the limbs. In intermediate forms, the association of an elongate trunk with limbs reduced in size brings about functional consequences which may be noticeably diverse according to the degree of trunk elongation and limb reduction. According to environmental (...)
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  50. Seana Valentine Shiffrin (2000). Paternalism, Unconscionability Doctrine, and Accommodation. Philosophy and Public Affairs 29 (3):205–250.score: 1.0
    The unconscionability doctrine in contract law enables a court to decline to enforce a contract whose terms are seriously one-sided, exploitative, or otherwise manifestly unfair. It is often criticized for being paternalist. The essay argues that the characterization of unconscionability doctrine as paternalist reflects common but misleading thought about paternalism and obscures more important issues about autonomy and social connection. The defense responds to another criticism: that unconscionability doctrine is an inappropriate, because economically inefficient, egalitarian tool. The final part discusses (...)
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