Search results for 'inefficiency' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  4
    D. Strech & M. Danis (2014). How Can Bedside Rationing Be Justified Despite Coexisting Inefficiency? The Need for 'Benchmarks of Efficiency'. Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (2):89-93.
    Imperfect efficiency in healthcare delivery is sometimes given as a justification for refusing to ration or even discuss how to pursue fair rationing. This paper aims to clarify the relationship between inefficiency and rationing, and the conditions under which bedside rationing can be justified despite coexisting inefficiency. This paper first clarifies several assumptions that underlie the classification of a clinical practice as being inefficient. We then suggest that rationing is difficult to justify in circumstances where the rationing agent (...)
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  2.  3
    K. Voigt (2014). Rationing, Inefficiency and the Role of Clinicians. Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (2):94-96.
    The need for rationing of clinical services and medical resources is a crucial issue facing healthcare systems. On most accounts, the demand for medical services vastly exceeds what can be provided on limited budgets, requiring difficult decisions about which services should and should not be provided to patients, whether patients might have to bear some of the cost of the services they use, and on what basis rationing decisions should be made. At the same time, we know that healthcare systems (...)
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  3. Edward Saraydar (1990). The Inefficiency of Some Efficiency Comparisons: A Reply to Nye. Economics and Philosophy 6 (1):153.
    John Nye feels that one of my two brief specific references to his work “leaves the impression that my work downplays the problems of individual differences in taste or social institutions by dismissing them out of hand”. Let me assure him that he is unduly alarmed, since virtually all readers will read into the passage that he quotes only what I intended and, indeed, what Nye himself intended - that if he or anyone else had found evidence that firm size (...)
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  4.  78
    E. C. Pasour Jr (1979). Conservation," X-Inefficiency" and Efficient Use of Natural Resources. Journal of Libertarian Studies 3 (4):371-390.
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  5.  12
    Tessa Hebb (2006). The Economic Inefficiency of Secrecy: Pension Fund Investors' Corporate Transparency Concerns. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 63 (4):385 - 405.
    In the wake of recent corporate scandals, this paper traces the growing power of pension funds to provide managerial oversight of the firms they hold in their investment portfolios. Increasingly pension funds are exercising their legitimate rights as owners to raise the corporate governance standards of the firms they invest in. Within corporate governance generally, pension funds are shifting their attention away from managerial accountability and toward measures that increase transparency in firm-level decision-making. Pension funds use transparency to ensure that (...)
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  6. M. Rosko, J. Proenca, J. Zinn & G. Bazzoli (2007). The Impact of Membership in Different Types of Systems on Hospital Cost-Inefficiency. Inquiry 44:335-49.
     
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  7. Wolfgang Schönpflug (1985). Goal Directed Behavior as a Source of Stress: Psychological Origins and Consequences of Inefficiency. In Michael Frese & John Sabini (eds.), Goal Directed Behavior: The Concept of Action in Psychology. L. Erlbaum Associates 172--188.
     
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  8.  7
    A. J. Lewis (1932). The Mental Defective. A Problem in Social Inefficiency. The Eugenics Review 24 (3):217.
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  9.  4
    Niccie L. McKay, Mary E. Deily & Fred H. Dorner (2002). Ownership and Changes in Hospital Inefficiency, 1986–1991. Inquiry 39 (4):388-399.
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  10.  2
    Michael D. Rosko, Jose Proenca, Jacqueline S. Zinn & Gloria J. Bazzoli (2007). Hospital Inefficiency: What is the Impact of Membership in Different Types of Systems? Inquiry 44 (3):335-349.
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  11.  3
    Gianluca Di Muzio (2008). The Problem of Divine Inefficiency. Think 6 (17-18):75-84.
    Gianluca Di Muzio develops a novel objection to theism.
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  12.  3
    G. Mooney (1984). Medical Ethics: An Excuse for Inefficiency? Journal of Medical Ethics 10 (4):183-185.
    There is frequently an appearance of conflict between medicine and economics. This arises first because the nature of health and health care requires the doctor to make decisions on behalf of the patient and thus serves to explain why medical ethics exist. But secondly it is due to the relative lack of acceptance of the ethics of the common good within medical ethics. As a result while economics in the field of health has as an objective the maximisation of the (...)
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  13. Ted Benton (2014). Costas Panayotakis. Remaking Scarcity: From Capitalist Inefficiency to Economic Democracy. [REVIEW] Environmental Ethics 36 (1):127-128.
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  14. Tessa Hebb (2006). The Economic Inefficiency of Secrecy: Pension Fund Investors’ Corporate Transparency Concerns. Journal of Business Ethics 63 (4):385-405.
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  15. R. S. Lazarus (1985). Toward an Understanding of Efficiency and Inefficiency in Human Affairs: Discussion of Schönpflug's Theory. In Michael Frese & John Sabini (eds.), Goal Directed Behavior: The Concept of Action in Psychology. L. Erlbaum Associates 189--198.
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  16. Il Singh, R. Molloy & R. Parasuraman (1992). Central Display Location Does Not Reduce Inefficiency in Monitoring for Automation Failures. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 30 (6):454-454.
     
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  17. Jeremy Till (2012). Costas Panayotakis, Remaking Scarcity: From Capitalist Inefficiency to Economic Democracy. Radical Philosophy 173:56.
     
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  18. Danny Frederick (2011). Scarcity and Saving Lives. The Reasoner 5 (6):89-90.
    I argue that, because of scarcity, the right to life cannot imply an obligation on others to save the life of the right-holder, and that collectivising resources for health care not only ensures that resources are used inefficiently and inappropriately but also removes from people the authority to make decisions for themselves about matters of health, life and death.
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  19.  3
    C. Jane Wallace & Lucy Savitz (2008). Estimating Waste in Frontline Health Care Worker Activities. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (1):178-180.
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  20. Uwe Steinhoff (2014). Just Cause and 'Right Intention'. Journal of Military Ethics 13 (1):32-48.
    I argue that the criterion of just cause is not independent of proportionality and other valid jus ad bellum criteria. One cannot know whether there is a just cause without knowing whether the other (valid) criteria (apart from ‘right intention’) are satisfied. The advantage of this account is that it is applicable to all wars, even to wars where nobody will be killed or where the enemy has not committed a rights violation but can be justifiably warred against anyway. This (...)
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  21. Richard Adams & Chris Barrie (2013). The Bureaucratization of War: Moral Challenges Exemplified by the Covert Lethal Drone. Ethics and Global Politics 6 (4):245-260.
    This article interrogates the bureaucratization of war, incarnate in the covert lethal drone. Bureaucracies are criticized typically for their complexity, inefficiency, and inflexibility. This article is concerned with their moral indifference. It explores killing, which is so highly administered, so morally remote, and of such scale, that we acknowledge a covert lethal program. This is a bureaucratized program of assassination in contravention of critical human rights. In this article, this program is seen to compromise the advance of global (...)
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  22.  19
    John R. Boatright (2004). Employee Governance and the Ownership of the Firm. Business Ethics Quarterly 14 (1):1-21.
    Employee governance, which includes employee ownership and employee participation in decision making, is regarded by manyas morally preferable to control of corporations by shareholders. However, employee governance is rare in advanced market economies due to its relative inefficiency compared with shareholder governance. Given this inefficiency, should employee governance be given up as an impractical ideal? This article contends that the debate over this question is hampered by an inadequate conception of employee governance that fails to take into account (...)
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  23.  94
    László E. Szabó (2000). On Fine's Resolution of the EPR-Bell Problem. Foundations of Physics 30 (11):1891-1909.
    The aim of this paper is to provide an introduction to Fine's interpretation of quantum mechanics and to show how it can solve the EPR-Bell problem. In the real spin-correlation experiments the detection/emission inefficiency is usually ascribed to independent random detection errors, and treated by the “enhancement hypothesis.” In Fine's interpretation the detection inefficiency is an effect not only of the random errors in the analyzer + detector equipment, but is also the manifestation of a pre-settled (hidden) property (...)
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  24.  27
    Eva Hofmann, Erik Hoelzl & Erich Kirchler (2008). A Comparison of Models Describing the Impact of Moral Decision Making on Investment Decisions. Journal of Business Ethics 82 (1):171 - 187.
    As moral decision making in financial markets incorporates moral considerations into investment decisions, some rational decision theorists argue that moral considerations would introduce inefficiency to investment decisions. However, market demand for socially responsible investment is increasing, suggesting that investment decisions are influenced by both financial and moral considerations. Several models can be applied to explain moral behavior. We test the suitability of (a) multiple attribute utility theory (MAUT), (b) theory of planned behavior, and (c) issue-contingent (...)
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  25.  64
    Arthur Fine (1991). Inequalities for Nonideal Correlation Experiments. Foundations of Physics 21 (3):365-378.
    This paper addresses the “inefficiency loophole” in the Bell theorem. We examine factorizable stochastic models for the Bell inequalities, where we allow the detection efficiency to depend both on the “hidden” state of the measured system and also its passage through an analyzer. We show that, nevertheless, if the efficiency functions are symmetric between the two wings of the experiment, one can dispense with supplementary assumptions and derive new inequalities that enable the models to be tested even for highly (...)
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  26. Adam Henschke (2010). Did You Just Say What I Think You Said? Talking About Genes, Identity and Information. Identity in the Information Society 3 (3):435-456.
    Genetic information is becoming increasingly used in modern life, extending beyond medicine to familial history, forensics and more. Following this expansion of use, the effect of genetic information on people’s identity and ultimately people’s quality of life is being explored in a host of different disciplines. While a multidisciplinary approach is commendable and necessary, there is the potential for the multidisciplinarity to produce conceptual misconnection. That is, while experts in one field may understand their use of a term like (...)
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  27. Jon Elster & Karl O. Moene (eds.) (1989). Alternatives to Capitalism. Cambridge University Press.
    The essays in this provocative collection survey and assess institutional arrangements that offer possible alternatives to capitalism as it exists today. The point of departure agreed upon by the contributors is that on the one hand, capitalism produces unemployment, a lack of autonomy in the workplace, and massive income inequalities; while on the other, central socialist planning is characterized by underemployment, inefficiency, and bureaucracy. In Part I of the volume, various alternatives are proposed: profit-sharing systems, capitalism combined with some (...)
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  28.  58
    Richard A. Spinello (2004). Property Rights in Genetic Information. Ethics and Information Technology 6 (1):29-42.
    The primary theme of this paper is the normative case against ownership of one's genetic information along with the source of that information (usually human tissues samples). The argument presented here against such “upstream” property rights is based primarily on utilitarian grounds. This issue has new salience thanks to the Human Genome Project and “bio-prospecting” initiatives based on the aggregation of genetic information, such as the one being managed by deCODE Genetics in Iceland. The rationale for ownership is twofold: ownership (...)
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  29.  47
    Jon Elster (2006). Fairness and Norms. Social Research: An International Quarterly 73 (2):365-376.
    The term "fairness," in everyday language, seems to be used in two main ways: to express the idea of a fair division of something, and to express the idea of a fair response to the behavior of other people. This latter, by extension, captures the more general notion of reciprocity. Ernst Fehr refers to reciprocity and conditional cooperation as resulting from the operation of social norms. In this paper I suggest a different framework, recognizing differences between social norms and of (...)
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  30.  3
    Po–Keung Ip (2003). Business Ethics and a State–Owned Enterprise in China. Business Ethics 12 (1):64–77.
    Since China's Reform Era began in 1979, corporations of all shapes and sizes mushroomed in the economic landscape. Among these companies, a few have distinguished themselves by their unique corporate cultures and financial performance. The Chinese state–owned enterprises are notorious for their inefficiency, conservatism, bloated bureaucracy, and obsoleteness. However, a few good SOEs stand out as corporations of excellence with commitment to business ethics. Very little study has been done on SOE corporate cultures and business ethics, especially (...)
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  31.  22
    Daniel Hausman (2013). Motives and Markets in Health Care. Journal of Practical Ethics 1 (2):64-84.
    The truth about health care policy lies between two exaggerated views: a market view in which individuals purchase their own health care from profit maximizing health-care firms and a control view in which costs are controlled by regulations limiting which treatments health insurance will pay for. This essay suggests a way to avoid on the one hand the suffering, unfairness, and abandonment of solidarity entailed by the market view and, on the other hand, to diminish the inflexibility and inefficiency (...)
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  32.  42
    Joshua Preiss (2012). American Inequality and the Idea of Personal Reponsibility. Public Affairs Quarterly 26 (4):337-360.
    In terms of income and wealth (and a variety of other measures), citizens of the United States are significantly less equal than their peers in Canada and Europe. In addition, American society is becoming increasingly less equal. Some theorists argue that this inequality is inefficient. Others claim that is unjust. Many Americans, however, are less concerned with the potential inefficiency and injustice of growing inequality. Distinguishing as Milton Friedman does between equality of result and equality of opportunity, many claim (...)
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  33.  1
    Irina Shandra (2016). Залізнична криза в донбасі в роки першої світової війни: Погляд представницьких організацій підприємців. Схід 7:60-71.
    Representative organizations of employers massively occur in Russian Empire in the post-reform period as a form of protection of the interests of industrialists and businessmen in terms of development of capitalist relations. One of the issues related to the common interests of entrepreneurs in the First World War were rail transportation. Transport problems during the war was most acute for business associations, and became for them some kind a test of the efficiency. Analysis of periodicals and record keeping documentation of (...)
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  34.  39
    Laszlo E. Szabo & Arthur Fine (2002). A Local Hidden Variable Theory for the GHZ Experiment. Physics Letters A 295:229–240.
    A recent analysis by de Barros and Suppes of experimentally realizable GHZ correlations supports the conclusion that these correlations cannot be explained by introducing local hidden variables. We show, nevertheless, that their analysis does not exclude local hidden variable models in which the inefficiency in the experiment is an effect not only of random errors in the detector equipment, but is also the manifestation of a pre-set, hidden property of the particles ("prism models"). Indeed, we present an explicit prism (...)
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  35.  2
    Paul Harrenstein, Paolo Turrini & Michael Wooldridge (forthcoming). Hard and Soft Preparation Sets in Boolean Games. Studia Logica:1-35.
    A fundamental problem in game theory is the possibility of reaching equilibrium outcomes with undesirable properties, e.g., inefficiency. The economics literature abounds with models that attempt to modify games in order to avoid such undesirable properties, for example through the use of subsidies and taxation, or by allowing players to undergo a bargaining phase before their decision. In this paper, we consider the effect of such transformations in Boolean games with costs, where players control propositional variables that they can (...)
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  36.  22
    Leonard M. Fleck (1994). Just Caring: Health Reform and Health Care Rationing. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 19 (5):435-443.
    Health reform must include health care rationing, both for reasons of fairness and efficiency. Few politicians are willing to accept this claim, including the Clinton Administration. Brown and others have argued that enormous waste and inefficiency must be wrung out of our health care system before morally problematic cost constraining options, such as rationing, can be justifiably adopted. However, I argue that most of the policies and practices that would diminish waste and (...)
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  37.  4
    E. Kummerfeld & K. J. S. Zollman (forthcoming). Conservatism and the Scientific State of Nature. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axv013.
    Those who comment on modern scientific institutions are often quick to praise institutional structures that leave scientists to their own devices. These comments reveal an underlying presumption that scientists do best when left alone—when they operate in what we call the ‘scientific state of nature’. Through computer simulation, we challenge this presumption by illustrating an inefficiency that arises in the scientific state of nature. This inefficiency suggests that one cannot simply presume that science is (...)
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  38.  1
    Kristian Alm (2015). Chains of Trust or Control? A Stakeholder Dilemma. Journal of Business Ethics Education 12:53-76.
    This paper discusses trust between stakeholders, with special emphasis on a new theory from the social sciences and ends up by focusing on a multidimensional dilemma between trust and control. Harald Grimen, an influential philosopher, social scientist and ethicist in Norway, defined trust as a communicative action between a trust-giver and a trust-receiver, characterized by the giver taking few precautions. This first part of his theory provides the basis for a specified interpretation of trust as a collective undertaking among stakeholders (...)
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  39.  15
    Fransisca, P. Tommy Y. S. & Suyasa (2010). Perbandingan Perilaku Konsumtif Berdasarkan Metode Pembayaran. Phronesis 7 (2).
    : Consumptive behavior is an action to buy a goods that actually not to fulfill the daily needs demand but just to fulfill the desire, conducted redundantly causing and extravagance of inefficiency the expense. The aim of this research is to prove that there is a difference in consumptive behavior between subjects who prefer to use credit card and subjects who prefer to use cash. Subjects are 293 young adult women, 171 subjects prefer to use cash payment and 122 (...)
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  40.  3
    J. Félix Lozano (2001). The Transformation by Dialogue of Managers' Code of Conduct: The Davos Manifesto 27 Years On. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 34 (3-4):269 - 277.
    At the World Economic Forum meeting in year 2000 in Davos the economic challenges for the next millennium were presented and analysed. The role of the Internet and communications in the development of the global economy were the central theme of the meeting and the evident inefficiency of traditional control mechanisms was highlighted. This situation implies greater responsibility for management for two fundamental reasons: first because management are ultimately responsible for the fortunes of their organizations, and second because they (...)
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  41. Andreas A. Papandreou (1998). Externality and Institutions. Oxford University Press Uk.
    Pollution, higher traffic noise, or a poisoned river are all examples of externalities---costs which are imposed by an action but which are not built in to the price of that action. One of the problems of economic theory is whether, when analysing the desirability of a new road, for example, the costs that occur as externalities can be fully incorporated into the price of that road. Dr Andreas Papandreou has provided a book which fully explains and analyses the ideas lying (...)
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  42.  8
    I. Bubanovic & S. Najman (2004). Ideas in Theoretical Biology - Failure of Anti-Tumor Immunity in Mammals - Evolution of the Hypothesis. Acta Biotheoretica 52 (1):57-64.
    Observations on the morphological and functional similarity between embryonic or trophoblast tissues and tumors are very old. Over a period of time many investigators have created different hypotheses on the origin of cancerogenesis or tumor efficiency in relation to the host immune system. Some of these ideas have been rejected but many of them are still current. A presumption of the inefficiency of anti-tumor immunity in mammals due to the high similarity between trophoblast and embryonic cells to tumor cells (...)
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  43.  7
    John Vincent Nye (1990). “The Conflation of Productivity and Efficiency in Economics and Economic History”: A Comment. Economics and Philosophy 6 (1):147.
    In a recent article, Edward Saraydar takes economists and economic historians to task for equating productivity and efficiency in comparative economic analysis. Although I found his thesis interesting, I was a bit surprised to see selected remarks from my article on firm size in nineteenth-century France used to frame his criticism of productivity comparisons as a means of making prescriptive statements. The passages selected may mislead the reader as to the nature of my arguments. Let me quote Saraydar on this: (...)
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  44.  16
    Todd Sandler & Harvey E. Lapan (1988). The Calculus of Dissent: An Analysis of Terrorists' Choice of Targets. Synthese 76 (2):245 - 261.
    This article applies formal modeling to study a terrorist group''s choice of whether to attack or not, and, in the case of an attack, which of two potential targets to strike. Each potential target individually takes protective measures that influence the terrorists'' perceived success and failure, and, hence, the likelihood of attack. For domestic terrorism, a tendency for potential targets to overdeter is indicated. For transnational terrorism, cases of overdeterrence and underdeterrence are identified. We demonstrate that increased information about terrorists'' (...)
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  45.  2
    S. Renous, E. Hofling & J. P. Gasc (1998). Respective Role of the Axialand Appendicular Systems in Relation to the Transition to Limblessness. Acta Biotheoretica 46 (2):141-156.
    In lower quadrupedal vertebrates locomotor efficiency seems to result from the associate movements of the axial and appendicular systems, which are totally independent in structure and embryological origin. The curvature of the trunk, produced by a standing wave, magnifies the propulsive action of the limbs. In intermediate forms, the association of an elongate trunk with limbs reduced in size brings about functional consequences which may be noticeably diverse according to the degree of trunk elongation and limb reduction. According to environmental (...)
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  46.  13
    Ryan Patrick Hanley (2009). Social Science and Human Flourishing: The Scottish Enlightenment and Today. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 7 (1):29-46.
    The Scottish Enlightenment is commonly identified as the birthplace of modern social science. But while Scottish and contemporary social science share a commitment to empiricism, contemporary insistence on the separation of empirical analysis from normative judgment invokes a distinction unintelligible to the Scots. In this respect the methods of modern social science seem an attenuation of those of Scottish social science. A similar attenuation can be found in the modern aspiration to judge the outcome of institutions or processes only with (...)
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  47.  2
    Volodymyr Gumeniuk (2014). Економічні Передумови Становлення Ринку Санаторно-Курортних Послуг В Україні. Схід 3:113-117.
    The article aims at studying the economic processes of developing national market of resort services in a historical perspective. The theoretical conceptualization of the market of resort services has been conducted, the basic economic backgrounds of its formation has been defined basing on a comprehensive assessment of researches of Ukrainian and foreign scientists. The article has analyzed the institutional framework of a resort services market in the realities of a mixed model of the national economy. The issues of financial security (...)
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  48.  2
    A. Comment (1990). The Conflation of Productivity and Efficiency in Economics and Economic History. Economics and Philosophy 6:147-152.
    In a recent article, Edward Saraydar (1989) takes economists and economic historians to task for equating productivity and efficiency in comparative economic analysis. Although I found his thesis interesting, I was a bit surprised to see selected remarks from my article on firm size in nineteenth-century France (Nye,1987) used to frame his criticism of productivity comparisons as a means of making prescriptive statements. The passages selected may mislead the reader as to the nature of my arguments. Let me quote Saraydar (...)
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  49.  3
    Emma Smith & Stephen Gorard (2011). Is There a Shortage of Scientists? A Re-Analysis of Supply for the Uk. British Journal of Educational Studies 59 (2):159 - 177.
    Despite a recent economic downturn, there is considerable political and industry pressure to retain or even increase the number of scientists in the UK and other developed countries. Claims are made that the supply of scientists (including engineers and mathematicians) is crucial to the economy and the health of the nation, and a large number of initiatives have been funded to address the problem. We consider these claims in light of a re-analysis of existing figures from 1986 to 2009, for (...)
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  50.  7
    Leonardo D. de Castro (1995). Exploitation in the Use of Human Subjects for Medical Experimentation: A Re-Examination of Basic Issues. Bioethics 9 (3):259–268.
    Relatively subtle forms of exploitation of human subjects may arise from the inefficiency or incompetence of a researcher, from the existence of a power imbalance between principal and subject, or from the uneven distribution of research risks among various segments of the population. A powerful and knowledgeable person (or institution) may perpetrate the exploitation of an unempowered and ignorant individual even without intending to. There is an ethical burden on the former to protect the interests of the vulnerable. Excessive (...)
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