Search results for 'information processing' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. David A. Pearce, H. Wansing & All-Berlin Workshop on Nonclassical Logics and Information Processing (1992). Nonclassical Logics and Information Processing International Workshop, Berlin, Germany, November 9-10, 1990 : Proceedings. [REVIEW]
     
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  2. Max Velmans (1991). Is Human Information Processing Conscious? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):651-69.
    Investigations of the function of consciousness in human information processing have focused mainly on two questions: (1) where does consciousness enter into the information processing sequence and (2) how does conscious processing differ from preconscious and unconscious processing. Input analysis is thought to be initially "preconscious," "pre-attentive," fast, involuntary, and automatic. This is followed by "conscious," "focal-attentive" analysis which is relatively slow, voluntary, and flexible. It is thought that simple, familiar stimuli can be identified (...)
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  3. Gualtiero Piccinini & Andrea Scarantino (2011). Information Processing, Computation, and Cognition. Journal of Biological Physics 37 (1):1-38.
    Computation and information processing are among the most fundamental notions in cognitive science. They are also among the most imprecisely discussed. Many cognitive scientists take it for granted that cognition involves computation, information processing, or both – although others disagree vehemently. Yet different cognitive scientists use ‘computation’ and ‘information processing’ to mean different things, sometimes without realizing that they do. In addition, computation and information processing are surrounded by several myths; first and (...)
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  4.  19
    Kenneth M. Sayre (1986). Intentionality and Information Processing: An Alternative Model for Cognitive Science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):121-38.
    This article responds to two unresolved and crucial problems of cognitive science: (1) What is actually accomplished by functions of the nervous system that we ordinarily describe in the intentional idiom? and (2) What makes the information processing involved in these functions semantic? It is argued that, contrary to the assumptions of many cognitive theorists, the computational approach does not provide coherent answers to these problems, and that a more promising start would be to fall back on mathematical (...)
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  5. Gualtiero Piccinini & Andrea Scarantino (2010). Computation Vs. Information Processing: Why Their Difference Matters to Cognitive Science. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 41 (3):237-246.
    Since the cognitive revolution, it’s become commonplace that cognition involves both computation and information processing. Is this one claim or two? Is computation the same as information processing? The two terms are often used interchangeably, but this usage masks important differences. In this paper, we distinguish information processing from computation and examine some of their mutual relations, shedding light on the role each can play in a theory of cognition. We recommend that theoristError: Illegal (...)
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  6.  45
    Nir Fresco & Marty J. Wolf (2014). The Instructional Information Processing Account of Digital Computation. Synthese 191 (7):1469-1492.
    What is nontrivial digital computation? It is the processing of discrete data through discrete state transitions in accordance with finite instructional information. The motivation for our account is that many previous attempts to answer this question are inadequate, and also that this account accords with the common intuition that digital computation is a type of information processing. We use the notion of reachability in a graph to defend this characterization in memory-based systems and underscore the importance (...)
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  7. Jeffrey White (2012). An Information Processing Model of Psychopathy. In Angelo S. Fruili & Luisa D. Veneto (eds.), Moral Psychology. Nova 1-34.
    Psychopathy is increasingly in the public eye. However, it is yet to be fully and effectively understood. Within the context of the DSM-IV, for example, it is best regarded as a complex family of disorders. The upside is that this family can be tightly related along common dimensions. Characteristic marks of psychopaths include a lack of guilt and remorse for paradigm case immoral actions, leading to the common conception of psychopathy rooted in affective dysfunctions. An adequate portrait of psychopathy is (...)
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  8.  36
    Vinod Goel (1991). Notationality and the Information Processing Mind. Minds and Machines 1 (2):129-166.
    Cognitive science uses the notion of computational information processing to explain cognitive information processing. Some philosophers have argued that anything can be described as doing computational information processing; if so, it is a vacuous notion for explanatory purposes.An attempt is made to explicate the notions of cognitive information processing and computational information processing and to specify the relationship between them. It is demonstrated that the resulting notion of computational information (...)
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  9.  34
    Luís Santos-Pinto (2009). Asymmetries in Information Processing in a Decision Theory Framework. Theory and Decision 66 (4):317-343.
    Research in psychology suggests that some individuals are more sensitive to positive than to negative information while others are more sensitive to negative rather than positive information. I take these cognitive positive–negative asymmetries in information processing to a Bayesian decision-theory model and explore its consequences in terms of decisions and payoffs. I show that in monotone decision problems economic agents with more positive-responsive information structures are always better off, ex ante, when they face problems where (...)
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  10.  37
    Hagen Lindstädt (2001). More Nonconcavities in Information Processing Functions. Theory and Decision 51 (2/4):351-365.
    The productivity of (human) information processing as an economic activity is a question that is raising some interest. Using Marschak's evaluation framework, Radner and Stiglitz have shown that, under certain conditions, the production function of this activity has increasing marginal returns in its initial stage. This paper shows that, under slightly different conditions, this information processing function has repeated convexities with ongoing processing activity. Even for smooth changes in the signals' likelihoods, the function is only (...)
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  11. W. Edwards, L. D. Phillips, William L. Hays & B. C. Goodman (1968). Probabilistic Information Processing Systems: Design and Evaluation. IEEE Transactions on Systems Science and Cybernetics 4 (3):248-265.
    A Probabilistic Information Processing System uses men and machines in a novel way to perform diagnostic information processing. Men estimate likelihood ratios for each datum and each pair of hypotheses under consideration or a sufficient subset of these pairs. A computer aggregates these estimates by means of Bayes' theorem of probability theory into a posterior distribution that reflects the impact of all available data on all hypotheses being considered. Such a system circumvents human conservatism in (...) processing, the inability of men to aggregate information in such a way as to modify their opinions as much as the available data justify. It also fragments the job of evaluating diagnostic information into small separable tasks. The posterior distributions that are a PIP's output may be used as a guide to human decision making or may be combined with a payoff matrix to make decisions by means of the principle of maximizing expected value. A large simulation-type experiment compared a PIP with three other information processing systems in a simulated strategic war setting of the 1970's. The difference between PIP and its competitors was that in PIP the information was aggregated by computer, while in the other three systems, the operators aggregated the information in their heads. PIP processed the information dramatically more efficiently than did any competitor. Data that would lead PIP to give 99:1 odds in favor of a hypothesis led the next best system to give 4¿: 1 odds. (shrink)
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  12.  16
    Ralph Norman Haber (1983). The Impending Demise of the Icon: A Critique of the Concept of Iconic Storage in Visual Information Processing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (1):1.
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  13.  15
    Nir Fresco & Michaelis Michael (2015). Information and Veridicality: Information Processing and the Bar-Hillel/Carnap Paradox. Philosophy of Science 83 (1):131-151.
    Floridi’s Theory of Strongly Semantic Information posits the Veridicality Thesis. One motivation is that it can serve as a foundation for information-based epistemology being an alternative to the tripartite theory of knowledge. However, the Veridicality thesis is false, if ‘information’ is to play an explanatory role in human cognition. Another motivation is avoiding the so-called Bar-Hillel/Carnap paradox. But this paradox only seems paradoxical, if ‘information’ and ‘informativeness’ are synonymous, logic is a theory of inference, or validity (...)
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  14.  12
    Nir Fresco (2013). Instructional Information Processing: Replies Considered. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Technology 26 (1):71-72.
    Wolf and White address different aspects of the paper and in this present reply space only permits making two brief remarks. One concerns White’s intriguing observation that digital computation without erasing information is possible. The second concerns the importance of control information in digital computing systems.
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  15.  5
    Vladimir E. Bondarenko (2005). Information Processing, Memories, and Synchronization in Chaotic Neural Network with the Time Delay. Complexity 11 (2):39-52.
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  16.  6
    Nancy W. Ingling (1972). Categorization: A Mechanism for Rapid Information Processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology 94 (3):239.
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  17.  5
    Charles W. Eriksen & Terry Spencer (1969). Rate of Information Processing in Visual Perception: Some Results and Methodological Considerations. Journal of Experimental Psychology 79 (2p2):1.
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  18.  9
    Paul M. Fitts (1966). Cognitive Aspects of Information Processing: III. Set for Speed Versus Accuracy. Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (6):849.
  19.  2
    Irving Biederman (1972). Human Performance in Contingent Information-Processing Tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology 93 (2):219.
  20.  10
    Marty J. Wolf (2013). The Importance of Actualizing Control in the Processing of Instructional Information. Philosophy and Technology 26 (1):67-70.
    This commentary on Fresco's article "Information processing as an account of concrete digital computation" illuminates the two intertwined roles that the definition of the term "information" plays in Fresco's analysis. It provides analysis of the notion of actualizing control in information processing. The key point made is that not all control information in common computational devices cannot be processed.
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  21.  2
    Paul M. Fitts & Gail Switzer (1962). Cognitive Aspects of Information Processing: I. The Familiarity of S-R Sets and Subsets. Journal of Experimental Psychology 63 (4):321.
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  22.  3
    Ira H. Bernstein, Ned N. Pederson & Donald L. Schurman (1972). Intersensory Versus Intrasensory Contingent Information Processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology 94 (2):156.
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  23.  5
    George E. Briggs & James M. Swanson (1970). Encoding, Decoding, and Central Functions in Human Information Processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (2):296.
  24.  8
    Richard F. Dillon & L. Starling Reid (1969). Short-Term Memory as a Function of Information Processing During the Retention Interval. Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (2):261.
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  25.  4
    George E. Briggs & John Blaha (1969). Memory Retrieval and Central Comparison Times in Information Processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology 79 (3p1):395.
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  26.  2
    J. Richard Simon, John L. Craft & A. M. Small (1970). Manipulating the Strength of a Stereotype: Interference Effects in an Auditory Information-Processing Task. Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (1):63.
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  27.  2
    Irwin D. Nahinsky & Frank L. Slaymaker (1969). Sampling Without Replacement and Information Processing Following Correct Responses in Concept Identification. Journal of Experimental Psychology 80 (3p1):475.
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  28.  4
    Fred L. Royer (1971). Information Processing of Visual Figures in the Digit Symbol Substitution Task. Journal of Experimental Psychology 87 (3):335-342.
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  29.  4
    Robert E. Morin, Bert Forrin & Wayne Archer (1961). Information Processing Behavior: The Role of Irrelevant Stimulus Information. Journal of Experimental Psychology 61 (1):89.
  30.  8
    Edward A. Holden (1973). Effects of Stimulus Alternation on Sequential Information Processing by Retarded and Nonretarded Subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology 101 (2):262.
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  31.  2
    Paul M. Fitts, James R. Peterson & Gerson Wolpe (1963). Cognitive Aspects of Information Processing: II. Adjustments to Stimulus Redundancy. Journal of Experimental Psychology 65 (5):423.
  32.  1
    Richard W. Olshavsky & Lee W. Gregg (1970). Information Processing Rates and Task Complexity. Journal of Experimental Psychology 83 (1p1):131.
  33.  1
    J. Richard Simon, A. M. Small, Richard A. Ziglar & John L. Craft (1970). Response Interference in an Information Processing Task: Sensory Versus Perceptual Factors. Journal of Experimental Psychology 85 (2):311.
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  34.  1
    Harold L. Williams, Wesley S. Beaver, Mary T. Spence & Orvis H. Rundell (1969). Digital and Kinesthetic Memory with Interpolated Information Processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology 80 (3p1):530.
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  35.  1
    William C. Howell & David L. Kreidler (1963). Information Processing Under Contradictory Instructional Sets. Journal of Experimental Psychology 65 (1):39.
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  36.  4
    Richard P. LeMay & J. Richard Simon (1969). Temporal and Symbolic S-R Compatibility in a Sequential Information-Processing Task. Journal of Experimental Psychology 80 (3p1):558.
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  37.  2
    Robert K. Lindsay & Jane M. Lindsay (1966). Reaction Time and Serial Versus Parallel Information Processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (2):294.
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  38.  5
    Raymond M. Bergner (2006). Cognition: Unobservable Information Processing or Private Social Practice? Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 26 (1-2):154-171.
    This paper presents a critique of cognitive psychology's micro-process program, as well as suggestions for a more scientifically and pragmatically viable approach to cognition. The paper proceeds in the following sequence. First, the mainstream point of view of contemporary cognitive psychology regarding cognitive micro-processes is summarized. Second, this view is criticized. Third and finally, cognitive science's neuropsychology program is discussed, not with respect to the considerable value of its findings, but with respect to the interpretation that would appropriately be placed (...)
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  39.  3
    Douglas Griffith & William A. Johnston (1973). An Information-Processing Analysis of Visual Imagery. Journal of Experimental Psychology 100 (1):141.
  40.  2
    Charles M. Solley & Fred W. Snyder (1958). Information Processing and Problem Solving. Journal of Experimental Psychology 55 (4):384.
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  41.  2
    William C. Howell & David L. Kreidler (1964). Instructional Sets and Subjective Criterion Levels in a Complex Information-Processing Task. Journal of Experimental Psychology 68 (6):612.
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  42.  1
    William A. Johnston, Rollie R. Wagstaff & Douglas Griffith (1972). Information-Processing Analysis of Verbal Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 96 (2):307.
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  43.  1
    A. F. Sanders & J. W. Van Borselen (1966). Continuing Memory and Information Processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (6):844.
  44.  1
    John D. Williams (1971). Memory Ensemble Selection in Human Information Processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology 88 (2):231.
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  45.  36
    Nir Fresco (2013). Information Processing as an Account of Concrete Digital Computation. Philosophy and Technology 26 (1):31-60.
    It is common in cognitive science to equate computation (and in particular digital computation) with information processing. Yet, it is hard to find a comprehensive explicit account of concrete digital computation in information processing terms. An information processing account seems like a natural candidate to explain digital computation. But when ‘information’ comes under scrutiny, this account becomes a less obvious candidate. Four interpretations of information are examined here as the basis for an (...)
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  46. Marvin L. Minsky (ed.) (1968). Semantic Information Processing. MIT Press.
  47. Richard M. Shiffrin & Walter E. Schneider (1977). Controlled and Automatic Human Information Processing: Perceptual Learning, Automatic Attending, and a General Theory. Psychological Review 84 (2):128-90.
    Tested the 2-process theory of detection, search, and attention presented by the current authors in a series of experiments. The studies demonstrate the qualitative difference between 2 modes of information processing: automatic detection and controlled search; trace the course of the learning of automatic detection, of categories, and of automatic-attention responses; and show the dependence of automatic detection on attending responses and demonstrate how such responses interrupt controlled processing and interfere with the focusing of attention. The learning (...)
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  48.  78
    William Bechtel & Oron Shagrir (2015). The Non‐Redundant Contributions of Marr's Three Levels of Analysis for Explaining InformationProcessing Mechanisms. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):312-322.
    Are all three of Marr's levels needed? Should they be kept distinct? We argue for the distinct contributions and methodologies of each level of analysis. It is important to maintain them because they provide three different perspectives required to understand mechanisms, especially information-processing mechanisms. The computational perspective provides an understanding of how a mechanism functions in broader environments that determines the computations it needs to perform. The representation and algorithmic perspective offers an understanding of how information about (...)
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  49.  26
    Randall D. Beer & Paul L. Williams (2015). Information Processing and Dynamics in Minimally Cognitive Agents. Cognitive Science 39 (1):1-38.
    There has been considerable debate in the literature about the relative merits of information processing versus dynamical approaches to understanding cognitive processes. In this article, we explore the relationship between these two styles of explanation using a model agent evolved to solve a relational categorization task. Specifically, we separately analyze the operation of this agent using the mathematical tools of information theory and dynamical systems theory. Information-theoretic analysis reveals how task-relevant information flows through the system (...)
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  50. Valerie Gray Hardcastle (1995). A Critique of Information Processing Theories of Consciousness. Minds and Machines 5 (1):89-107.
    Information processing theories in psychology give rise to executive theories of consciousness. Roughly speaking, these theories maintain that consciousness is a centralized processor that we use when processing novel or complex stimuli. The computational assumptions driving the executive theories are closely tied to the computer metaphor. However, those who take the metaphor serious — as I believe psychologists who advocate the executive theories do — end up accepting too particular a notion of a computing device. In this (...)
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