Search results for 'information science' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. John Budd (2001). Knowledge and Knowing in Library and Information Science: A Philosophical Framework. Scarecrow Press.score: 180.0
    This landmark work traces the heritage of thought, from the beginnings of modern science in the seventeenth century, until today, that has influenced the profession of library and information science.
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  2. Massimo Pigliucci & Maarten Boudry (2011). Why Machine-Information Metaphors Are Bad for Science and Science Education. Science and Education 20 (453):471.score: 150.0
    Genes are often described by biologists using metaphors derived from computa- tional science: they are thought of as carriers of information, as being the equivalent of ‘‘blueprints’’ for the construction of organisms. Likewise, cells are often characterized as ‘‘factories’’ and organisms themselves become analogous to machines. Accordingly, when the human genome project was initially announced, the promise was that we would soon know how a human being is made, just as we know how to make airplanes and buildings. (...)
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  3. Tim J. Watts (1987). Ethics of Information Science. Vance Bibliographies.score: 150.0
     
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  4. Anwar Tlili & Emily Dawson (2010). Mediating Science and Society in the EU and UK: From Information-Transmission to Deliberative Democracy? Minerva 48 (4):429-461.score: 146.0
    In this paper we critically review recent developments in policies, practices and philosophies pertaining to the mediation between science and the public within the EU and the UK, focusing in particular on the current paradigm of Public Understanding of Science and Technology (PEST) which seeks to depart from the science information-transmission associated with previous paradigms, and enact a deliberative democracy model. We first outline the features of the current crisis in democracy and discuss deliberative democracy as (...)
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  5. Kenneth M. Sayre (1986). Intentionality and Information Processing: An Alternative Model for Cognitive Science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):121-38.score: 146.0
    This article responds to two unresolved and crucial problems of cognitive science: (1) What is actually accomplished by functions of the nervous system that we ordinarily describe in the intentional idiom? and (2) What makes the information processing involved in these functions semantic? It is argued that, contrary to the assumptions of many cognitive theorists, the computational approach does not provide coherent answers to these problems, and that a more promising start would be to fall back on mathematical (...)
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  6. Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic (2003). Shifting the Paradigm of Philosophy of Science: Philosophy of Information and a New Renaissance. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 13 (4):521-536.score: 144.0
    Computing is changing the traditional field of Philosophy of Science in a very profound way. First as a methodological tool, computing makes possible ``experimental Philosophy'' which is able to provide practical tests for different philosophical ideas. At the same time the ideal object of investigation of the Philosophy of Science is changing. For a long period of time the ideal science was Physics (e.g., Popper, Carnap, Kuhn, and Chalmers). Now the focus is shifting to the field of (...)
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  7. Gang Liu (2007). Philosophy of Information and Foundation for the Future Chinese Philosophy of Science and Technology. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 2 (1):95-114.score: 144.0
    The research programme of the philosophy of information (PI) proposed in 2002 made it an independent area or discipline in philosophical research. The scientific concept of ‘information’ is formally accepted in philosophical inquiry. Hence a new and tool-driven philosophical discipline of PI with its interdisciplinary nature has been established. Philosophy of information is an ‘orientative’ rather than ‘cognitive’ philosophy. When PI is under consideration in the history of Western philosophy, it can be regarded as a shift of (...)
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  8. Elizabeth A. Buchanan (2008). Case Studies in Library and Information Science Ethics. Mcfarland & Co..score: 132.0
    "This work is a valuable casebook, specifically for library and information science professionals, that presents numerous case studies that combine theories of ...
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  9. Barry Smith, Jose L. V. Mejino Jr, Stefan Schulz, Anand Kumar & Cornelius Rosse (2005). Anatomical Information Science. In Spatial Information Theory. Springer.score: 126.0
    The Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) is a map of the human body. Like maps of other sorts – including the map-like representations we find in familiar anatomical atlases – it is a representation of a certain portion of spatial reality as it exists at a certain (idealized) instant of time. But unlike other maps, the FMA comes in the form of a sophisticated ontology of its objectdomain, comprising some 1.5 million statements of anatomical relations among some 70,000 anatomical kinds. (...)
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  10. Antonio Bereijo (2012). The Category of "Applied Science": An Analysis of Its Justification From "Information Science" As Design Science. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 101 (1):327-350.score: 122.0
    This paper addresses the problem of the distinction between basic science and applied science. It also explores their differences with regard to technology. For this analysis, as well as a general epistemological and methodological approach, we study a particular case: information science. As the emphasis of the paper is on the category of applied science, it includes a critical analysis of Philip Kitcher's proposal. First, there is an examination of Ph. Kitcher's thought, because he has (...)
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  11. Luciano Floridi (2002). On Defining Library and Information Science as Applied Philosophy of Information. Social Epistemology 16 (1):37 – 49.score: 120.0
    This paper analyses the relations between philosophy of information (PI), library and information science (LIS) and social epistemology (SE). In the first section, it is argued that there is a natural relation between philosophy and LIS but that SE cannot provide a satisfactory foundation for LIS. SE should rather be seen as sharing with LIS a common ground, represented by the study of information, to be investigated by a new discipline, PI. In the second section, the (...)
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  12. Ouyang Kang (2008). On the Emergence and the Research Outline of Social Information Science. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 46:37-52.score: 120.0
    Social Information Science (or Social Informatics) is a new and interdiscipline branch subject in China. This paper probe the emergence and the research outline of social information science. 1. The proposal of the social information science. We set up the research from an extension from the theoretical informatics to the concrete informatics; a internal bond of integrating various subjects in humane and social sciences; an intersection and mutual permeation between the social science and (...)
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  13. Søren Brier (1997). What is a Possible Ontological and Epistemological Framework for a True Universal 'Information Science'?: The Suggestion of a Cybersemiotics. World Futures 49 (3):287-308.score: 120.0
    (1997). What is a possible ontological and epistemological framework for a true universal ‘information science'?: The suggestion of a cybersemiotics. World Futures: Vol. 49, The Quest for a Unified Theory of Information, pp. 287-308.
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  14. Søren Brier, Cybersemiotics and the Problems of the Information-Processing Paradigm as a Candidate for a Unified Science of Information Behind Library Information Science.score: 120.0
    As an answer to the humanistic, socially oriented critique of the information-processing paradigms used as a conceptual frame for library information science, this article formulates a broader and less objective concept of communication than that of the information-processing paradigm. Knowledge can be seen as the mental phenomenon that documents (combining signs into text, depending on the state of knowledge of the recipient) can cause through interpretation. The examination of these “correct circumstances” is an important part of (...)
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  15. Maria Eunice Quilici Gonzalez (2005). Information and Mechanical Models of Intelligence: What Can We Learn From Cognitive Science? Pragmatics and Cognition 13 (3):565-582.score: 120.0
  16. Liu Gang (2007). Philosophy of Information and Foundation for the Future Chinese Philosophy of Science and Technology. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 2 (1):95-114.score: 120.0
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  17. Petros Gelepithis (1997). A Rudimentary Theory of Information: Consequences for Information Science and Information Systems. World Futures 49 (3):275-286.score: 120.0
    (1997). A rudimentary theory of information: Consequences for information science and information systems. World Futures: Vol. 49, The Quest for a Unified Theory of Information, pp. 275-286.
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  18. Antonino Drago & Emanuele Drago (1997). Information Science as a Paradigmatic Instance of a Problem-Based Theory. World Futures 49 (3):251-273.score: 120.0
    (1997). Information science as a paradigmatic instance of a problem‐based theory. World Futures: Vol. 49, The Quest for a Unified Theory of Information, pp. 251-273.
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  19. S. Dockx (1965). Information and Prediction in Science. New York, Academic Press.score: 120.0
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  20. William L. Ascher (2004). Scientific Information and Uncertainty: Challenges for the Use of Science in Policymaking. Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (3):437-455.score: 114.0
    Science can reinforce the healthy aspects of the politics of the policy process, to identify and further the public interest by discrediting policy options serving only special interests and helping to select among “science-confident” and “hedging” options. To do so, scientists must learn how to manage and communicate the degree of uncertainty in scientific understanding and prediction, lest uncertainty be manipulated to discredit science or to justify inaction. For natural resource and environmental policy, the institutional interests of (...)
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  21. Jeff Coulter (1995). The Informed Neuron: Issues in the Use of Information Theory in the Behavioral Sciences. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 5 (4):583-96.score: 108.0
    The concept of “information” is virtually ubiquitous in contemporary cognitive science. It is claimed to be “processed” (in cognitivist theories of perception and comprehension), “stored” (in cognitivist theories of memory and recognition), and otherwise manipulated and transformed by the human central nervous system. Fred Dretske's extensive philosophical defense of a theory of informational content (“semantic” information) based upon the Shannon-Weaver formal theory of information is subjected to critical scrutiny. A major difficulty is identified in Dretske's equivocations (...)
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  22. Andrea Bonaccorsi (2008). Search Regimes and the Industrial Dynamics of Science. Minerva 46 (3):285-315.score: 108.0
    The article addresses the issue of dynamics of science, in particular of new sciences born in twentieth century and developed after the Second World War (information science, materials science, life science). The article develops the notion of search regime as an abstract characterization of dynamic patterns, based on three dimensions: the rate of growth, the degree of internal diversity of science and the associated dynamics (convergent vs. proliferating), and the nature of complementarity. The article (...)
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  23. Hub Zwart (2009). From Utopia to Science: Challenges of Personalised Genomics Information for Health Management and Health Enhancement. [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 1 (2):155-166.score: 108.0
    From 1900 onwards, scientists and novelists have explored the contours of a future society based on the use of “anthropotechnologies” (techniques applicable to human beings for the purpose of performance enhancement ranging from training and education to genome-based biotechnologies). Gradually but steadily, the technologies involved migrated from (science) fiction into scholarly publications, and from “utopia” (or “dystopia”) into science. Building on seminal ideas borrowed from Nietzsche, Peter Sloterdijk has outlined the challenges inherent in this development. Since time immemorial, (...)
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  24. Gordana Dodig Crnkovic & Mark Burgin (eds.) (forthcoming). INFORMATION AND COMPUTATION. World Scientific.score: 102.0
    The book focuses on relations between information and computation. Information is a basic structure of the world, while computation is a process of the dynamic change of information. In order for anything to exist for an individual, the individual must get information on it, either by means of perception or by re-organization of the existing information into new patterns and networks in the brain. With the advent of World Wide Web and a prospect of semantic (...)
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  25. John Wilkinson (1961). The Concept of Information and the Unity of Science. Philosophy of Science 28 (4):406-413.score: 102.0
    An attempt is made in this paper to analyze the purely formal nature of information-theoretic concepts. The suggestion follows that such concepts, used to supplement the logical and mathematical structure of the language of science, represent an addition to this language of such a sort as to allow the use of a unitary language for the description of phenomena. (The alternative to this approach must be certain multi-linguistic and mutually untranslatable descriptions of related phenomena, as with the various (...)
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  26. Gualtiero Piccinini & Andrea Scarantino (2010). Computation Vs. Information Processing: Why Their Difference Matters to Cognitive Science. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 41 (3):237-246.score: 96.0
    Since the cognitive revolution, it’s become commonplace that cognition involves both computation and information processing. Is this one claim or two? Is computation the same as information processing? The two terms are often used interchangeably, but this usage masks important differences. In this paper, we distinguish information processing from computation and examine some of their mutual relations, shedding light on the role each can play in a theory of cognition. We recommend that theoristError: Illegal entry in bfrange (...)
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  27. Archie L. Dick (2002). Social Epistemology, Information Science and Ideology. Social Epistemology 16 (1):23 – 35.score: 96.0
    Margaret Egan and Jesse Hauk Shera's original conception of social epistemology has never been defined unambiguously, or developed significantly beyond its early formulation. An interesting consequence of this lack of conceptual clarity has been the application of several interpretations of social epistemology. This article discusses how social epistemology was linked with the ideology of apartheid, and with racially segregated library and information services in the Republic of South Africa. In a fraudulent scientific vision for librarianship, social epistemology was assigned (...)
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  28. Elizabeth Buchanan (2004). Ethics in Library and Information Science. What Are We Teaching? Journal of Information Ethics 13 (1):51-60.score: 96.0
  29. Philippe Gagnon (2002). La Théologie de la Nature Et la Science à l'Ère de l'Information. Cerf.score: 96.0
    The history of the relationship between Christian theology and the natural sciences has been conditioned by the initial decision of the masters of the "first scientific revolution" to disregard any necessary explanatory premiss to account for the constituting organization and the framing of naturally occurring entities. Not paying any attention to hierarchical control, they ended-up disseminating a vision and understanding in which it was no longer possible for a theology of nature to send questions in the direction of the experimental (...)
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  30. Martha M. Smith (2010). Elizabeth A. Buchanan and Kathrine A. Henderson: Case Studies in Library and Information Science Ethics McFarland & Company, Jefferson, Nc, 2009, 175 Pp, Isbn: 978-0-7864-3367-. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 12 (4):375-377.score: 96.0
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  31. Toru Nishigaki (2006). The Ethics in Japanese Information Society: Consideration on Francisco Varela's the Embodied Mind From the Perspective of Fundamental Informatics. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 8 (4):237-242.score: 96.0
    The ethics in an information society is discussed from the combined viewpoint of Eastern and Western thoughts. The breakdown of a coherent self threatens the Western ethics and causes nihilism. Francisco Varela, one of the founders of Autopoiesis Theory, tackled this problem and proposed Enactive Cognitive Science by introducing Buddhist middle-way philosophy. Fundamental Informatics gives further insights into the problem, by proposing the concept of a hierarchical autopoietic system. Here the ethics can be described in relation to a (...)
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  32. Saul Gorn (1983). Informatics (Computer and Information Science): Its Ideology, Methodology, and Sociology. In Fritz Machlup (ed.), The Study of Information: Interdisciplinary Messages. Wiley.score: 96.0
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  33. Monique Jucquois-Delpierre (2007). Fictional Reality or Real Fiction: How Can One Decide?: The Strengths and Weaknesses of Information Science Concepts and Methods in the Media World. Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 5 (2/3):235-252.score: 96.0
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  34. Hassan Mortazavian (1983). On System Theory and its Relevance to Problems in Information Science. In Fritz Machlup (ed.), The Study of Information: Interdisciplinary Messages. Wiley.score: 96.0
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  35. Gila Prebor (2007). Information Science – Facing Social and Ethical Challenges: Analysis of Masters' Theses and Doctoral Dissertations Over the Past Five Years (2002-2006) in Information Science Departments Worldwide. [REVIEW] Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 5 (2/3):253-269.score: 96.0
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  36. Shifra Baruchson-Arbib & Vicky Horenstein (2007). An Experiment to Enhance Awareness of the Power of Information: The Social Information Science Concept and Individual Empowerment in Israeli High Schools. Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 5 (2/3):79-97.score: 96.0
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  37. Dale Lonsdale & Charles Oppenheim (1995). Attitudes Toward Ethical Issues: A Survey of UK Reference Librarians and Schools of Librarianship and Information Science. Journal of Information Ethics 4 (2):69-78.score: 96.0
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  38. Martha M. Smith (2010). Elizabeth A. Buchanan and Kathrine A. Henderson: Case Studies in Library and Information Science Ethics. Ethics and Information Technology 12 (4):375-377.score: 96.0
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  39. Shifra Baruchson-Arbib (2007). The Contribution of “Information Science” to the Social and Ethical Challenges of the Information Age. Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 5 (2/3):53-58.score: 96.0
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  40. Maria Eunice Quilici Gonzalez (2005). Information and Mechanical Models of Intelligence: What Can We Learn From Cognitive Science? Pragmatics and Cognition 13 (3):565-582.score: 96.0
    The impact of new advanced technology on issues that concern meaningful information and its relation to studies of intelligence constitutes the main topic of the present paper. The advantages, disadvantages and implications of the synthetic methodology developed by cognitive scientists, according to which mechanical models of the mind, such as computer simulations or self-organizing robots, may provide good explanatory tools to investigate cognition, are discussed. A difficulty with this methodology is pointed out, namely the use of meaningless information (...)
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  41. Marek Hetmanski (2005). The Myth of Information Science. In Mariusz M. Żydowo (ed.), Ethical Problems in the Rapid Advancement of Science. Polish Academy of Sciences. 46.score: 96.0
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  42. Manfred Kochen (1983). Library Science and Information Science: Broad or Narrow. In Fritz Machlup (ed.), The Study of Information: Interdisciplinary Messages. Wiley. 371--377.score: 96.0
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  43. M. D. Mesarovic (1983). Mathematical Systems Theory and Information Science. In Fritz Machlup (ed.), The Study of Information: Interdisciplinary Messages. Wiley.score: 96.0
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  44. Jozef Ober (2005). Ethics in the Development of Information Science. In Mariusz M. Żydowo (ed.), Ethical Problems in the Rapid Advancement of Science. Polish Academy of Sciences. 59.score: 96.0
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  45. Jesse H. Shera (1983). Librarianship and Information Science. In Fritz Machlup (ed.), The Study of Information: Interdisciplinary Messages. Wiley. 379--388.score: 96.0
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  46. Jong H. Yoon, Summer Sheremata, Ariel Rokem & Michael A. Silver (2013). Windows to the Soul: Vision Science as a Tool for Studying Biological Mechanisms of Information Processing Deficits in Schizophrenia. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 96.0
    Cognitive and information processing deficits are core features and important sources of disability in schizophrenia. Our understanding of the neural substrates of these deficits remains incomplete, in large part because the complexity of impairments in schizophrenia makes the identification of specific deficits very challenging. Vision science presents unique opportunities in this regard: many years of basic research have led to detailed characterization of relationships between structure and function in the early visual system and have produced sophisticated methods to (...)
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  47. Anthony Chemero (2003). Information for Perception and Information Processing. Minds and Machines 13 (4):577-588.score: 90.0
    Do psychologists and computer/cognitive scientists mean the same thing by the term `information'? In this essay, I answer this question by comparing information as understood by Gibsonian, ecological psychologists with information as understood in Barwise and Perry's situation semantics. I argue that, with suitable massaging, these views of information can be brought into line. I end by discussing some issues in (the philosophy of) cognitive science and artificial intelligence.
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  48. David M. Mark, Andre Skupin & Barry Smith (2001). Features, Objects, and Other Things: Ontological Distinctions in the Geographic Domain. In Spatial Information Theory. Foundations of Geographic Information Science. Lecture Notes in Computer Science.score: 90.0
    Two hundred and sixty-three subjects each gave examples for one of five geographic categories: geographic features, geographic objects, geographic concepts, something geographic, and something that could be portrayed on a map. The frequencies of various responses were significantly different, indicating that the basic ontological terms feature, object, etc., are not interchangeable but carry different meanings when combined with adjectives indicating geographic or mappable. For all of the test phrases involving geographic, responses were predominantly natural features such as mountain, river, lake, (...)
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  49. P. C. W. Davies & Niels Henrik Gregersen (eds.) (2010). Information and the Nature of Reality: From Physics to Metaphysics. Cambridge University Press.score: 90.0
    Machine generated contents note: 1. Introduction: does information matter?; Paul Davies and Niels Henrik Gregersen; Part I. History: 2. From matter to materialism ... and (almost) back Ernan McMullin; 3. Unsolved dilemmas: the concept of matter in the history of philosophy and in contemporary physics Philip Clayton; Part II. Physics: 4. Universe from bit Paul Davies; 5. The computational universe Seth Lloyd; 6. Minds and values in the quantum universe Henry Pierce Stapp; Part III. Biology: 7. The concept of (...)
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  50. Timothy Colburn & Gary Shute (2007). Abstraction in Computer Science. Minds and Machines 17 (2):169-184.score: 90.0
    We characterize abstraction in computer science by first comparing the fundamental nature of computer science with that of its cousin mathematics. We consider their primary products, use of formalism, and abstraction objectives, and find that the two disciplines are sharply distinguished. Mathematics, being primarily concerned with developing inference structures, has information neglect as its abstraction objective. Computer science, being primarily concerned with developing interaction patterns, has information hiding as its abstraction objective. We show that abstraction (...)
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