Search results for 'information theory' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Léon Brillouin (1956/2004). Science and Information Theory. Dover Publications.
    A classic source for understanding the connections between information theory and physics, this text was written by one of the giants of 20th-century physics and is appropriate for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. Topics include the principles of coding, coding problems and solutions, the analysis of signals, a summary of thermodynamics, thermal agitation and Brownian motion, and thermal noise in an electric circuit. A discussion of the negentropy principle of information introduces the author's renowned examination of Maxwell's (...)
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  2.  21
    Gérard Battail (2013). Biology Needs Information Theory. Biosemiotics 6 (1):77-103.
    Communication is an important feature of the living world that mainstream biology fails to adequately deal with. Applying two main disciplines can be contemplated to fill in this gap: semiotics and information theory. Semiotics is a philosophical discipline mainly concerned with meaning; applying it to life already originated in biosemiotics. Information theory is a mathematical discipline coming from engineering which has literal communication as purpose. Biosemiotics and information theory are thus concerned with distinct and (...)
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  3.  5
    Gérard Battail (2009). Applying Semiotics and Information Theory to Biology: A Critical Comparison. [REVIEW] Biosemiotics 2 (3):303-320.
    Since the beginning of the XX-th century, it became increasingly evident that information, besides matter and energy, is a major actor in the life processes. Moreover, communication of information has been recognized as differentiating living things from inanimate ones, hence as specific to the life processes. Therefore the sciences of matter and energy, chemistry and physics, do not suffice to deal with life processes. Biology should also rely on sciences of information. A majority of biologists, however, did (...)
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  4.  13
    Sean Devine (2014). An Algorithmic Information Theory Challenge to Intelligent Design. Zygon 49 (1):42-65.
    William Dembski claims to have established a decision process to determine when highly unlikely events observed in the natural world are due to Intelligent Design. This article argues that, as no implementable randomness test is superior to a universal Martin-Löf test, this test should be used to replace Dembski's decision process. Furthermore, Dembski's decision process is flawed, as natural explanations are eliminated before chance. Dembski also introduces a fourth law of thermodynamics, his “law of conservation of information,” to argue (...)
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  5.  13
    Giacomo M. D’Ariano & Paolo Perinotti (2016). Quantum Theory is an Information Theory. Foundations of Physics 46 (3):269-281.
    In this paper we review the general framework of operational probabilistic theories, along with the six axioms from which quantum theory can be derived. We argue that the OPT framework along with a relaxed version of five of the axioms, define a general information theory. We close the paper with considerations about the role of the observer in an OPT, and the interpretation of the von Neumann postulate and the Schrödinger-cat paradox.
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  6.  41
    Jae-Weon Lee (2011). Quantum Mechanics Emerges From Information Theory Applied to Causal Horizons. Foundations of Physics 41 (4):744-753.
    It is suggested that quantum mechanics is not fundamental but emerges from classical information theory applied to causal horizons. The path integral quantization and quantum randomness can be derived by considering information loss of fields or particles crossing Rindler horizons for accelerating observers. This implies that information is one of the fundamental roots of all physical phenomena. The connection between this theory and Verlinde’s entropic gravity theory is also investigated.
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  7.  68
    David Ellerman (2009). Counting Distinctions: On the Conceptual Foundations of Shannon's Information Theory. Synthese 168 (1):119 - 149.
    Categorical logic has shown that modern logic is essentially the logic of subsets (or “subobjects”). In “subset logic,” predicates are modeled as subsets of a universe and a predicate applies to an individual if the individual is in the subset. Partitions are dual to subsets so there is a dual logic of partitions where a “distinction” [an ordered pair of distinct elements (u, u′) from the universe U] is dual to an “element”. A predicate modeled by a partition π on (...)
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  8.  31
    Peter D. Grünwald & Paul M. B. Vitányi (2003). Kolmogorov Complexity and Information Theory. With an Interpretation in Terms of Questions and Answers. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 12 (4):497-529.
    We compare the elementary theories of Shannon information and Kolmogorov complexity, the extent to which they have a common purpose, and wherethey are fundamentally different. We discuss and relate the basicnotions of both theories: Shannon entropy, Kolmogorov complexity, Shannon mutual informationand Kolmogorov (``algorithmic'') mutual information. We explainhow universal coding may be viewed as a middle ground betweenthe two theories. We consider Shannon's rate distortion theory, whichquantifies useful (in a certain sense) information.We use the communication of (...) as our guiding motif, and we explain howit relates to sequential question-answer sessions. (shrink)
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  9.  6
    Sean Devine (2006). The Application of Algorithmic Information Theory to Noisy Patterned Strings. Complexity 12 (2):52-58.
    Although algorithmic information theory provides a measure of the information content of string of characters, problems of noise and noncomputability emerge. However, if pattern in a noisy string is recognized by reference to a set of similar strings, this article shows that a compressed algorithmic description of a noisy string is possible and illustrates this with some simple examples. The article also shows that algorithmic information theory can quantify the (...) in complex organized systems where pattern is nested within pattern. (shrink)
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  10. Wesley Elsberry & Jeffrey Shallit (2011). Information Theory, Evolutionary Computation, and Dembski's "Complex Specified Information". Synthese 178 (2):237 - 270.
    Intelligent design advocate William Dembski has introduced a measure of information called "complex specified information", or CSI. He claims that CSI is a reliable marker of design by intelligent agents. He puts forth a "Law of Conservation of Information" which states that chance and natural laws are incapable of generating CSI. In particular, CSI cannot be generated by evolutionary computation. Dembski asserts that CSI is present in intelligent causes and in the flagellum of Escherichia coli, and concludes (...)
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  11. Christopher G. Timpson (2015). Quantum Information Theory and the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Oxford University Press Uk.
    Christopher G. Timpson provides the first full-length philosophical treatment of quantum information theory and the questions it raises for our understanding of the quantum world. He argues for an ontologically deflationary account of the nature of quantum information, which is grounded in a revisionary analysis of the concepts of information.
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  12.  59
    Luciano Floridi (2004). Outline of a Theory of Strongly Semantic Information. Minds and Machines 14 (2):197-221.
    This paper outlines a quantitative theory of strongly semantic information (TSSI) based on truth-values rather than probability distributions. The main hypothesis supported in the paper is that the classic quantitative theory of weakly semantic information (TWSI), based on probability distributions, assumes that truth-values supervene on factual semantic information, yet this principle is too weak and generates a well-known semantic paradox, whereas TSSI, according to which factual semantic information encapsulates truth, (...)
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  13. Christoph Jäger (2004). Skepticism, Information, and Closure: Dretske's Theory of Knowledge. Erkenntnis 61 (2-3):187 - 201.
    According to Fred Dretske's externalist theory of knowledge a subject knows that p if and only if she believes that p and this belief is caused or causally sustained by the information that p. Another famous feature of Dretske's epistemology is his denial that knowledge is closed under known entailment. I argue that, given Dretske's construal of information, he is in fact committed to the view that both information and knowledge are closed under known entailment. Hence, (...)
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  14.  55
    Luciano Floridi (2012). Semantic Information and the Network Theory of Account. Synthese 184 (3):431-454.
    The article addresses the problem of how semantic information can be upgraded to knowledge. The introductory section explains the technical terminology and the relevant background. Section 2 argues that, for semantic information to be upgraded to knowledge, it is necessary and sufficient to be embedded in a network of questions and answers that correctly accounts for it. Section 3 shows that an information flow network of type A fulfils such a requirement, by warranting that the erotetic deficit, (...)
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  15.  13
    Aleksandr I͡Akovlevich Khinchin (1957). Mathematical Foundations of Information Theory. New York, Dover Publications.
    Comprehensive, rigorous introduction to work of Shannon, McMillan, Feinstein and Khinchin. Translated by R. A. Silverman and M. D. Friedman.
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  16.  9
    Arkady Plotnitsky (2015). A Matter of Principle: The Principles of Quantum Theory, Dirac’s Equation, and Quantum Information. Foundations of Physics 45 (10):1222-1268.
    This article is concerned with the role of fundamental principles in theoretical physics, especially quantum theory. The fundamental principles of relativity will be addressed as well, in view of their role in quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory, specifically Dirac’s work, which, in particular Dirac’s derivation of his relativistic equation of the electron from the principles of relativity and quantum theory, is the main focus of this article. I (...)
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  17.  7
    D. E. Berlyne (1957). Conflict and Information-Theory Variables as Determinants of Human Perceptual Curiosity. Journal of Experimental Psychology 53 (6):399.
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  18. Amiel Feinstein (1958). Foundations of Information Theory. New York, Mcgraw-Hill.
     
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  19.  4
    Douglas L. Nelson (1969). Information Theory and Stimulus Encoding in Free and Serial Recall: Ordinal Position of Formal Similarity. Journal of Experimental Psychology 80 (3p1):537.
  20.  3
    Douglas L. Nelson & Frank A. Rowe (1969). Information Theory and Stimulus Encoding in Paired-Associate Acquisition: Ordinal Position of Formal Similarity. Journal of Experimental Psychology 79 (2p1):342.
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  21.  20
    Abraham A. Moles (1966). Information Theory and Esthetic Perception. Urbana, University of Illinois Press.
  22.  4
    Murray Aborn & Herbert Rubenstein (1952). Information Theory and Immediate Recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology 44 (4):260.
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  23.  2
    Arie M. Oostlander & Hans De Swart (1966). Search-Discrimination Time and the Applicability of Information Theory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (3):423.
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  24. Laura Felline (2010). Structural Explanation From Special Relativity to Quantum Information Theory. In M. D'Agostino, G. Giorello & F. Laudisa (eds.), SILFS New Essays in Logic and Philosophy of Science. College Pubblications
  25.  8
    Lawrence William Rosenfield (1971). Aristotle and Information Theory. The Hague,Mouton.
  26. Rob Clifton, Jeffrey Bub & Hans Halvorson (2003). Characterizing Quantum Theory in Terms of Information-Theoretic Constraints. Foundations of Physics 33 (11):1561-1591.
    We show that three fundamental information-theoretic constraints -- the impossibility of superluminal information transfer between two physical systems by performing measurements on one of them, the impossibility of broadcasting the information contained in an unknown physical state, and the impossibility of unconditionally secure bit commitment -- suffice to entail that the observables and state space of a physical theory are quantum-mechanical. We demonstrate the converse derivation in part, and consider the implications of alternative answers to (...)
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  27.  20
    Christopher G. Timpson (2013). Quantum Information Theory and the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. OUP Oxford.
    Christopher G. Timpson provides the first full-length philosophical treatment of quantum information theory and the questions it raises for our understanding of the quantum world. He argues for an ontologically deflationary account of the nature of quantum information, which is grounded in a revisionary analysis of the concepts of information.
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  28.  17
    Luís Santos-Pinto (2009). Asymmetries in Information Processing in a Decision Theory Framework. Theory and Decision 66 (4):317-343.
    Research in psychology suggests that some individuals are more sensitive to positive than to negative information while others are more sensitive to negative rather than positive information. I take these cognitive positive–negative asymmetries in information processing to a Bayesian decision-theory model and explore its consequences in terms of decisions and payoffs. I show that in monotone decision problems economic agents with more positive-responsive information structures are always better off, ex ante, when they (...)
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  29.  25
    Iii George Medley (2013). The Inspiration of God and Wolfhart Pannenberg's “Field Theory of Information”. Zygon 48 (1):93-106.
    This paper will examine the implications of an extended “field theory of information,” suggested by Wolfhart Pannenberg, specifically in the Christian understanding of creation. The paper argues that the Holy Spirit created the world as field, a concept from physics, and the creation is directed by the logos utilizing information. Taking into account more recent developments of information theory, the essay further suggests that present creation has a causal impact upon the information utilized in (...)
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  30.  26
    Lucas Dunlap (2015). On the Common Structure of the Primitive Ontology Approach and the Information-Theoretic Interpretation of Quantum Theory. Topoi 34 (2):359-367.
    We use the primitive ontology framework of Allori et al. to analyze the quantum information-theoretic interpretation of Bub and Pitowsky. There are interesting parallels between the two approaches, which differentiate them both from the more standard realist interpretations of quantum theory. Where they differ, however, is in terms of their commitments to an underlying ontology on which the manifest image of the world supervenes. Employing the primitive ontology framework in this way makes perspicuous the differences (...)
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  31.  65
    Anja Matschuck (2011). Non-Local Correlations in Therapeutic Settings? A Qualitative Study on the Basis of Weak Quantum Theory and the Model of Pragmatic Information. Axiomathes 21 (2):249-261.
    Weak Quantum Theory (WQT) and the Model of Pragmatic Information (MPI) are two psychophysical concepts developed on the basis of quantum physics. The present study contributes to their empirical examination. The issue of the study is whether WQT and MPI can not only explain ‘psi’-phenomena theoretically but also prove to be consistent with the empirical phenomenology of extrasensory perception (ESP). From the main statements of both models, 33 deductions for psychic readings are derived. Psychic readings (...)
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  32.  10
    Bernd Carsten Stahl, Neil F. Doherty, Mark Shaw & Helge Janicke (2014). Critical Theory as an Approach to the Ethics of Information Security. Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (3):675-699.
    Information security can be of high moral value. It can equally be used for immoral purposes and have undesirable consequences. In this paper we suggest that critical theory can facilitate a better understanding of possible ethical issues and can provide support when finding ways of addressing them. The paper argues that critical theory has intrinsic links to ethics and that it is possible to identify concepts frequently used in critical theory to pinpoint ethical concerns. Using the (...)
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  33.  37
    Orlin Vakarelov (2013). From Interface to Correspondence: Recovering Classical Representations in a Pragmatic Theory of Semantic Information. Minds and Machines (3):1-25.
    One major fault line in foundational theories of cognition is between the so-called “representational” and “non-representational” theories. Is it possible to formulate an intermediate approach for a foundational theory of cognition by defining a conception of representation that may bridge the fault line? Such an account of representation, as well as an account of correspondence semantics, is offered here. The account extends previously developed agent-based pragmatic theories of semantic information, where meaning of an information state is defined (...)
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  34.  59
    Ingetraut Dahlberg (2008). The Information Coding Classification : A Modern, Theory-Based Fully-Faceted, Universal System of Knowledge Fields. [REVIEW] Axiomathes 18 (2):161-176.
    Introduction into the structure, contents and specifications of the Information Coding Classification, developed in the seventies and used in many ways by the author and a few others following its publication in 1982. Its theoretical basis is explained consisting in the Integrative Level Theory, following an evolutionary approach of ontical areas, and integrating also on each level the aspects contained in the sequence of the levels, the distinction between categories of form and categories of being, the application of (...)
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  35. Christopher Gordon Timpson (2013). Quantum Information Theory & the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Oxford University Press.
    Quantum Information Theory and the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics is a conceptual analysis of one of the most prominent and exciting new areas of physics, providing the first full-length philosophical treatment of quantum information theory and the questions it raises for our understanding of the quantum world. -/- Beginning from a careful, revisionary, analysis of the concepts of information in the everyday and classical information-theory settings, Christopher (...)
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  36.  25
    Jessica Pfeifer (2006). The Use of Information Theory in Biology: Lessons From Social Insects. Biological Theory 1 (3):317-330.
    In this paper, I discuss how information theory has been used in the study of animal communication, as well as how these uses are justified. Biologists justify their use of Shannon’s information measures by the work they do in allowing for comparisons between different organisms and because they measure a quantity that is purported to be important for natural selection. I argue that there are problems with both sorts of justification. To make these difficulties clear, I focus (...)
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  37.  86
    Jeff Coulter (1995). The Informed Neuron: Issues in the Use of Information Theory in the Behavioral Sciences. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 5 (4):583-96.
    The concept of “information” is virtually ubiquitous in contemporary cognitive science. It is claimed to be “processed” (in cognitivist theories of perception and comprehension), “stored” (in cognitivist theories of memory and recognition), and otherwise manipulated and transformed by the human central nervous system. Fred Dretske's extensive philosophical defense of a theory of informational content (“semantic” information) based upon the Shannon-Weaver formal theory of information is subjected to critical scrutiny. A major difficulty is identified in Dretske's (...)
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  38.  78
    Wayne C. Myrvold (2010). From Physics to Information Theory and Back. In Alisa Bokulich & Gregg Jaeger (eds.), Philosophy of Quantum Information and Entanglement. Cambridge University Press 181--207.
    Quantum information theory has given rise to a renewed interest in, and a new perspective on, the old issue of understanding the ways in which quantum mechanics differs from classical mechanics. The task of distinguishing between quantum and classical theory is facilitated by neutral frameworks that embrace both classical and quantum theory. In this paper, I discuss two approaches to this endeavour, the algebraic approach, and the convex set approach, with an eye to the strengths of (...)
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  39.  7
    Thomas D. Schneider (2006). Twenty-Five Years of Delila and Molecular Information Theory. Biological Theory 1 (3):250-260.
    A brief personal history is given about how information theory can be applied to binding sites of genetic control molecules on nucleic acids. The primary example used is ribosome binding sites in Escherichia coli. Once the sites are aligned, the information needed to describe the sites can be computed using Claude Shannon’s method. This is displayed by a computer graphic called a sequence logo. The logo represents an average binding site, and the mathematics easily allows one to (...)
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  40.  9
    Patrick Dillon (2004). Trajectories and Tensions in the Theory of Information and Communication Technology in Education. British Journal of Educational Studies 52 (2):138 - 150.
    For largely historical reasons, information and communication technology in education has been heavily influenced by a form of constructivism based on the transmission and transformation of information. This approach has implications for both learning and teaching in the field. The assumptions underlying the approach are explored and a critique offered. Although the transmission approach is entrenched in procedures and pedagogies, it is increasingly challenged by an action-theoretical form of constructivism. In this 'ecology of ideas', (...)
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  41.  53
    Amit Hagar (2003). A Philosopher Looks at Quantum Information Theory. Philosophy of Science 70 (4):752-775.
    Recent suggestions to supply quantum mechanics (QM) with realistic foundations by reformulating it in light of quantum information theory (QIT) are examined and are found wanting by pointing to a basic conceptual problem that QIT itself ignores, namely, the measurement problem. Since one cannot ignore the measurement problem and at the same time pretend to be a realist, as they stand, the suggestions to reformulate QM in light of QIT are nothing but instrumentalism in disguise.
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  42.  93
    Y. Ben-Aryeh, A. Mann & B. C. Sanders (1999). Empirical State Determination of Entangled Two-Level Systems and Its Relation to Information Theory. Foundations of Physics 29 (12):1963-1975.
    Theoretical methods for empirical state determination of entangled two-level systems are analyzed in relation to information theory. We show that hidden variable theories would lead to a Shannon index of correlation between the entangled subsystems which is larger than that predicted by quantum mechanics. Canonical representations which have maximal correlations are treated by the use of Schmidt and Hilbert-Schmidt decomposition of the entangled states, including especially the Bohm singlet state and the GHZ entangled states. We show that quantum (...)
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  43. Rob Clifton (2002). The Subtleties of Entanglement and its Role in Quantum Information Theory. Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2002 (3):S150-S167.
    My aim in this paper is a modest one. I do not have any particular thesis to advance about the nature of entanglement, nor can I claim novelty for any of the material I shall discuss. My aim is simply to raise some questions about entanglement that spring naturally from certain developments in quantum information theory and are, I believe, worthy of serious consideration by philosophers of science. The main topics I discuss are different manifestations of quantum nonlocality, (...)
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  44.  16
    Attila Grandpierre (2006). A Review Of:“Information Theory, Evolution and the Origin of Life as a Digital Message How Life Resembles a Computer” Second Edition. Hubert P. Yockey, 2005, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 400 Pages, Index; Hardcover, US $60.00; ISBN: 0-521-80293-8. [REVIEW] World Futures 62 (5):401-403.
    Information Theory, Evolution and The Origin ofLife: The Origin and Evolution of Life as a Digital Message: How Life Resembles a Computer, Second Edition. Hu- bert P. Yockey, 2005, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 400 pages, index; hardcover, US $60.00; ISBN: 0-521-80293-8. The reason that there are principles of biology that cannot be derived from the laws of physics and chemistry lies simply in the fact that the genetic information content of the genome for constructing even the simplest (...)
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  45.  47
    Michael Cerullo (2011). Integrated Information Theory A Promising but Ultimately Incomplete Theory of Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 18 (11-12):11-12.
    Tononi has proposed a fundamental theory of consciousness he terms Integrated Information Theory (IIT). IIT purports to explain the quantity of conscious experience by linking it with integrated information: information shared by the system as a whole and quantified by adopting a modified version of Shannon's definition of information. Since the fundamental aspect of IIT is information the theory allows for the multiple realizability of consciousness. While there are several concepts within IIT (...)
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  46.  69
    William F. Harms (1998). The Use of Information Theory in Epistemology. Philosophy of Science 65 (3):472-501.
    Information theory offers a measure of "mutual information" which provides an appropriate measure of tracking efficiency for the naturalistic epistemologist. The statistical entropy on which it is based is arguably the best way of characterizing the uncertainty associated with the behavior of a system, and it is ontologically neutral. Though not appropriate for the naturalization of meaning, mutual information can serve as a measure of epistemic success independent of semantic maps and payoff structures. While not containing (...)
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  47.  91
    Joseph F. Hanna (1969). Explanation, Prediction, Description, and Information Theory. Synthese 20 (3):308 - 334.
    The distinction between explanation and prediction has received much attention in recent literature, but the equally important distinction between explanation and description (or between prediction and description) remains blurred. This latter distinction is particularly important in the social sciences, where probabilistic models (or theories) often play dual roles as explanatory and descriptive devices. The distinction between explanation (or prediction) and description is explicated in the present paper in terms of information theory. The explanatory (or predictive) power of a (...)
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  48.  54
    Panu Raatikainen (2000). Algorithmic Information Theory and Undecidability. Synthese 123 (2):217-225.
    Algorithmic information theory, or the theory of Kolmogorov complexity, has become an extraordinarily popular theory, and this is no doubt due, in some part, to the fame of Chaitin’s incompleteness results arising from this field. Actually, there are two rather different results by Chaitin: the earlier one concerns the finite limit of the provability of complexity (see Chaitin, 1974a, 1974b, 1975a); and the later is related to random reals and the halting probability (see Chaitin, 1986, 1987a, (...)
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  49.  21
    Michiel van Lambalgen (1989). Algorithmic Information Theory. Journal of Symbolic Logic 54 (4):1389-1400.
    We present a critical discussion of the claim (most forcefully propounded by Chaitin) that algorithmic information theory sheds new light on Godel's first incompleteness theorem.
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  50.  16
    Alexander Shen (2012). Game Arguments in Computability Theory and Algorithmic Information Theory. In S. Barry Cooper (ed.), How the World Computes. 655--666.
    We provide some examples showing how game-theoretic arguments can be used in computability theory and algorithmic information theory: unique numbering theorem (Friedberg), the gap between conditional complexity and total conditional complexity, Epstein–Levin theorem and some (yet unpublished) result of Muchnik and Vyugin.
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