Search results for 'informational encapsulation' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Dustin Stokes & Vincent Bergeron, Modular Architectures and Informational Encapsulation: A Dilemma.score: 180.0
    Amongst philosophers and cognitive scientists, modularity remains a popular choice for an architecture of the human mind, primarily because of the supposed explanatory value of this approach. Modular architectures can vary both with respect to the strength of the notion of modularity and the scope of the modularity of mind. We propose a dilemma for modular architectures, no matter how these architectures vary along these two dimensions. First, if a modular architecture commits to the informational encapsulation of modules, (...)
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  2. Marcel Kinsbourne (1985). Parallel Processing Explains Modular Informational Encapsulation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (1):23-23.score: 150.0
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  3. Wayne Wu (2013). Visual Spatial Constancy and Modularity: Does Intention Penetrate Vision? Philosophical Studies 165 (2):647-669.score: 90.0
    Is vision informationally encapsulated from cognition or is it cognitively penetrated? I shall argue that intentions penetrate vision in the experience of visual spatial constancy: the world appears to be spatially stable despite our frequent eye movements. I explicate the nature of this experience and critically examine and extend current neurobiological accounts of spatial constancy, emphasizing the central role of motor signals in computing such constancy. I then provide a stringent condition for failure of informational encapsulation that emphasizes (...)
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  4. Maciej Witek, Contextual Facilitation of Colour Recognition: Penetrating Beliefs or Colour-Shape Associations?score: 90.0
    My aim in this paper is to defend the view that the processes underlying early vision are informationally encapsulated. Following Marr (1982) and Pylyshyn (1999) I take early vision to be a cognitive process that takes sensory information as its input and produces the so-called primal sketches or shallow visual outputs: informational states that represent visual objects in terms of their shape, location, size, colour and luminosity. Recently, some researchers (Schirillo 1999, Macpherson 2012) have attempted to undermine the idea (...)
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  5. Jack C. Lyons (forthcoming). Unencapsulated Modules and Perceptual Judgment. In A. Raftopoulos J. Zeimbekis (ed.), Cognitive Penetrability. Oxford University Press.score: 74.0
    To what extent are cognitive capacities, especially perceptual capacities, informationally encapsulated and to what extent are they cognitively penetrable? And why does this matter? Two reasons we care about encapsulation/penetrability are: (a) encapsulation is sometimes held to be definitional of modularity, and (b) penetrability has epistemological implications independent of modularity. I argue that modularity does not require encapsulation; that modularity may have epistemological implications independently of encapsulation; and that the epistemological implications of the cognitive penetrability of (...)
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  6. Mitch Parsell (2009). Quinean Social Skills: Empirical Evidence From Eye-Gaze Against Information Encapsulation. Biology and Philosophy 24 (1):1-19.score: 72.0
    Since social skills are highly significant to the evolutionary success of humans, we should expect these skills to be efficient and reliable. For many Evolutionary Psychologists efficiency entails encapsulation: the only way to get an efficient system is via information encapsulation. But encapsulation reduces reliability in opaque epistemic domains. And the social domain is darkly opaque: people lie and cheat, and deliberately hide their intentions and deceptions. Modest modularity [Currie and Sterelny (2000) Philos Q 50:145–160] attempts to (...)
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  7. Robert Briscoe (forthcoming). Cognitive Penetration and the Reach of Phenomenal Content. In Athanassios Raftopoulos & John Zeimbekis (eds.), Cognitive Penetrability. Oxford University Press.score: 62.0
    This chapter critically assesses recent arguments that acquiring the ability to categorize an object as belonging to a certain high-level kind can cause the relevant kind property to be represented in visual phenomenal content. The first two arguments, developed respectively by Susanna Siegel (2010) and Tim Bayne (2009), employ an essentially phenomenological methodology. The third argument, developed by William Fish (2013), by contrast, is supported by an array of psychophysical and neuroscientific findings. I argue that while none of these arguments (...)
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  8. Jeffrey S. Bowers (1999). The Visual Categories for Letters and Words Reside Outside Any Informationally Encapsulated Perceptual System. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):368-369.score: 50.0
    According to Pylyshyn, the early visual system is able to categorize perceptual inputs into shape classes based on visual similarity criteria; it is also suggested that written words may be categorized within early vision. This speculation is contradicted by the fact that visually unrelated exemplars of a given letter (e.g., a/A) or word (e.g., read/READ) map onto common visual categories.
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  9. Athanassios Raftopoulos (2001). Is Perception Informationally Encapsulated? The Issue of the Theory‐Ladenness of Perception. Cognitive Science 25 (3):423-451.score: 50.0
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  10. John Bolender (2001). A Two-Tiered Cognitive Architecture for Moral Reasoning. Biology and Philosophy 16 (3):339-356.score: 30.0
    The view that moral cognition is subserved by a two-tieredarchitecture is defended: Moral reasoning is the result both ofspecialized, informationally encapsulated modules which automaticallyand effortlessly generate intuitions; and of general-purpose,cognitively penetrable mechanisms which enable moral judgment in thelight of the agent's general fund of knowledge. This view is contrastedwith rival architectures of social/moral cognition, such as Cosmidesand Tooby's view that the mind is wholly modular, and it is argued thata two-tiered architecture is more plausible.
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  11. Liza Skidelsky (2007). Modularidad e innatismo: una crítica a la noción sustancial de módulo. Revista de Filosofía (Madrid) 31 (2):83-107.score: 30.0
    In the Philosophy of Cognitive Science, it is a common held view that the modularity hypothesis for cognitive mechanisms and the innateness hypothesis for mental contents are conceptually independent. In this paper I distinguish between substantial and deflationist modularity as well as between substantial and deflationist innatism, and I analyze whether the conceptual independence between substantial modularity and innatism holds. My conclusion will be that if what is taken into account are the essential properties of the substantial modules, i.e. domain (...)
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  12. Luciano Floridi (2006). Four Challenges for a Theory of Informational Privacy. Ethics and Information Technology 8 (3):109-119.score: 25.0
    In this article, I summarise the ontological theory of informational privacy (an approach based on information ethics) and then discuss four types of interesting challenges confronting any theory of informational privacy: (1) parochial ontologies and non-Western approaches to informational privacy; (2) individualism and the anthropology of informational privacy; (3) the scope and limits of informational privacy; and (4) public, passive and active informational privacy. I argue that the ontological theory of informational privacy can (...)
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  13. Luciano Floridi (2005). The Ontological Interpretation of Informational Privacy. Ethics and Information Technology 7 (4):185-200.score: 25.0
    The paper outlines a new interpretation of informational privacy and of its moral value. The main theses defended are: (a) informational privacy is a function of the ontological friction in the infosphere, that is, of the forces that oppose the information flow within the space of information; (b) digital ICTs (information and communication technologies) affect the ontological friction by changing the nature of the infosphere (re-ontologization); (c) digital ICTs can therefore both decrease and protect informational privacy but, (...)
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  14. Herman T. Tavani (2008). Floridi's Ontological Theory of Informational Privacy: Some Implications and Challenges. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 10 (2-3):155-166.score: 25.0
    This essay critically analyzes Luciano Floridi’s ontological theory of informational privacy. Organized into two main parts, Part I examines some key foundational components of Floridi’s privacy theory and it considers some of the ways in which his framework purports to be superior to alternative theories of informational privacy. Part II poses two specific challenges for Floridi’s theory of informational privacy, arguing that an adequate privacy theory should be able to: (i) differentiate informational privacy from other kinds (...)
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  15. Diane P. Michelfelder (2001). The Moral Value of Informational Privacy in Cyberspace. Ethics and Information Technology 3 (2):129-135.score: 25.0
    Solutions to the problem ofprotecting informational privacy in cyberspacetend to fall into one of three categories:technological solutions, self-regulatorysolutions, and legislative solutions. In thispaper, I suggest that the legal protection ofthe right to online privacy within the USshould be strengthened. Traditionally, inidentifying where support can be found in theUS Constitution for a right to informationalprivacy, the point of focus has been on theFourth Amendment; protection in this contextfinds its moral basis in personal liberty,personal dignity, self-esteem, and othervalues. On the other (...)
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  16. Heinrich Wansing (1993). Informational Interpretation of Substructural Propositional Logics. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 2 (4):285-308.score: 25.0
    This paper deals with various substructural propositional logics, in particular with substructural subsystems of Nelson's constructive propositional logics N– and N. Doen's groupoid semantics is extended to these constructive systems and is provided with an informational interpretation in terms of information pieces and operations on information pieces.
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  17. Michael Nagenborg (2009). Designing Spheres of Informational Justice. Ethics and Information Technology 11 (3):175-179.score: 25.0
    J. van den Hoven suggested to analyse privacy from the perspective of informational justice, whereby he referred to the concept of distributive justice presented by M. Walzer in “ Spheres of Justice ”. In “privacy as contextual integrity” Helen Nissenbaum did also point to Walzer’s approach of complex equality as well to van den Hoven’s concept. In this article I will analyse the challenges of applying Walzer’s concept to issues of informational privacy. I will also discuss the possibilities (...)
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  18. Gustavo Cevolani (2011). Strongly Semantic Information and Verisimilitude. Etica and Politica / Ethics and Politics (2):159-179.score: 24.0
    In The Philosophy of Information, Luciano Floridi presents a theory of “strongly semantic information”, based on the idea that “information encapsulates truth” (the so-called “veridicality thesis”). Starting with Popper, philosophers of science have developed different explications of the notion of verisimilitude or truthlikeness, construed as a combination of truth and information. Thus, the theory of strongly semantic information and the theory of verisimilitude are intimately tied. Yet, with few exceptions, this link has virtually pass unnoticed. In this paper, we briefly (...)
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  19. Luciano Floridi (2007). A Defence of Informational Structural Realism. Synthese 161 (2):219 - 253.score: 24.0
    This is the revised version of an invited keynote lecture delivered at the 1st Australian Computing and Philosophy Conference (CAP@AU; the Australian National University in Canberra, 31 October–2 November, 2003). The paper is divided into two parts. The first part defends an informational approach to structural realism. It does so in three steps. First, it is shown that, within the debate about structural realism (SR), epistemic (ESR) and ontic (OSR) structural realism are reconcilable. It follows that a version of (...)
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  20. Jason Bridges (2006). Does Informational Semantics Commit Euthyphro's Fallacy. Noûs 40 (3):522�547.score: 24.0
    In this paper, I argue that informational semantics, the most well-known and worked-out naturalistic account of intentional content, conflicts with a fundamental psychological principle about the conditions of belief-formation. Since this principle is an important premise in the argument for informational semantics, the upshot is that the view is self-contradictory??indeed, it turns out to be guilty of a sophisticated version of the fallacy famously committed by Euthyphro in the eponymous Platonic dialogue. Criticisms of naturalistic accounts of content typically (...)
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  21. James H. Fetzer (2004). Information: Does It Have to Be True? [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 14 (2):223-229.score: 24.0
    Luciano Floridi (2003) offers a theory of information as a strongly semantic notion, according to which information encapsulates truth, thereby making truth a necessary condition for a sentence to qualify as information. While Floridi provides an impressive development of this position, the aspects of his approach of greatest philosophical significance are its foundations rather than its formalization. He rejects the conception of information as meaningful data, which entails at least three theses – that information can be false; that tautologies are (...)
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  22. Luciano Floridi (2004). Outline of a Theory of Strongly Semantic Information. Minds and Machines 14 (2):197-221.score: 24.0
    This paper outlines a quantitative theory of strongly semantic information (TSSI) based on truth-values rather than probability distributions. The main hypothesis supported in the paper is that the classic quantitative theory of weakly semantic information (TWSI), based on probability distributions, assumes that truth-values supervene on factual semantic information, yet this principle is too weak and generates a well-known semantic paradox, whereas TSSI, according to which factual semantic information encapsulates truth, can avoid the paradox and is more in line with the (...)
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  23. Hyo-Sook Kim (2009). Examining the Role of Informational Justice in the Wake of Downsizing From an Organizational Relationship Management Perspective. Journal of Business Ethics 88 (2):297 - 312.score: 24.0
    The purpose of this study was to examine how employees’ experiences, in the wake of an organization’s downsizing, would influence employee–organization relationships and the employees’ decisions to remain with the organization. In investigating survivors’ responses to downsizing, informational justice was chosen as an antecedent of the survivors’ intentions to leave and Organization–Public Relationship (OPR) was hypothesized to function as a mediator between informational justice and turnover intentions. The results revealed significant associations between informational justice and OPR as (...)
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  24. Donald Gillies (2010). Informational Realism and World 3. Knowledge, Technology and Policy 23 (1-2):7-24.score: 24.0
    This paper takes up a suggestion made by Floridi that the digital revolution is bringing about a profound change in our metaphysics. The paper aims to bring some older views from philosophy of mathematics to bear on this problem. The older views are concerned principally with mathematical realism—that is the claim that mathematical entities such as numbers exist. The new context for the discussion is informational realism, where the problem shifts to the question of the reality of information. Mathematical (...)
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  25. Matthew Rellihan (2013). Informational Semantics and Frege Cases. Acta Analytica 28 (3):267-294.score: 24.0
    One of the most important objections to information-based semantic theories is that they are incapable of explaining Frege cases. The worry is that if a concept’s intentional content is a function of its informational content, as such theories propose, then it would appear that coreferring expressions have to be synonymous, and if this is true, it’s difficult to see how an agent could believe that a is F without believing that b is F whenever a and b are identical. (...)
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  26. David W. Shoemaker (2010). Self-Exposure and Exposure of the Self: Informational Privacy and the Presentation of Identity. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 12 (1):3-15.score: 22.0
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  27. Sylvie Dubois & Carmen G. Loiselle (2009). Cancer Informational Support and Health Care Service Use Among Individuals Newly Diagnosed: A Mixed Methods Approach. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (2):346-359.score: 21.0
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  28. Douglas L. Nelson, Jerry Peebles & Frank Pancotto (1970). Phonetic Similarity as Opposed to Informational Structure as a Determinant of Word Encoding. Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (1):117.score: 21.0
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  29. Michael I. Posner & Ellen Rossman (1965). Effect of Size and Location of Informational Transforms Upon Short-Term Retention. Journal of Experimental Psychology 70 (5):496.score: 21.0
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  30. Lyle E. Bourne Jr, Donald E. Guy, David H. Dodd & Don R. Justeen (1965). Concept Identification: The Effects of Varying Length and Informational Components of the Intertrial Interval. Journal of Experimental Psychology 69 (6):624.score: 21.0
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  31. William Epstein & Cynthia A. Morgan-Paap (1974). The Effect of Level of Depth Processing and Degree of Informational Discrepancy on Adaptation to Uniocular Image Magnification. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (4):585.score: 21.0
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  32. Gilbert K. Krulee (1958). Some Informational Aspects of Form Discrimination. Journal of Experimental Psychology 55 (2):143.score: 21.0
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  33. Frederick R. Adams (2003). The Informational Turn in Philosophy. Minds and Machines 13 (4):471-501.score: 20.0
    This paper traces the application of information theory to philosophical problems of mind and meaning from the earliest days of the creation of the mathematical theory of communication. The use of information theory to understand purposive behavior, learning, pattern recognition, and more marked the beginning of the naturalization of mind and meaning. From the inception of information theory, Wiener, Turing, and others began trying to show how to make a mind from informational and computational materials. Over the last 50 (...)
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  34. Orlin Vakarelov (2011). The Cognitive Agent: Overcoming Informational Limits. Adaptive Behavior 19 (2):83-100.score: 20.0
    This article provides an answer to the question: What is the function of cognition? By answering this question it becomes possible to investigate what are the simplest cognitive systems. It addresses the question by treating cognition as a solution to a design problem. It defines a nested sequence of design problems: (1) How can a system persist? (2) How can a system affect its environment to improve its persistence? (3) How can a system utilize better information from the environment to (...)
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  35. Luciano Floridi (2011). The Informational Nature of Personal Identity. Minds and Machines 21 (4):549-566.score: 20.0
    In this paper, I present an informational approach to the nature of personal identity. In “Plato and the problem of the chariot”, I use Plato’s famous metaphor of the chariot to introduce a specific problem regarding the nature of the self as an informational multiagent system: what keeps the self together as a whole and coherent unity? In “Egology and its two branches” and “Egology as synchronic individualisation”, I outline two branches of the theory of the self: one (...)
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  36. Shaun D. Pattinson (2009). Consent and Informational Responsibility. Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (3):176-179.score: 20.0
    The notion of “consent” is frequently referred to as “informed consent” to emphasise the informational component of a valid consent. This article considers aspects of that informational component. One misuse of the language of informed consent is highlighted. Attention is then directed to some features of the situation in which consent would not have been offered had certain information been disclosed. It is argued that whether or not such consent is treated as sufficiently informed must, from a moral (...)
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  37. Massimo Durante (2013). Dealing with Legal Conflicts in the Information Society. An Informational Understanding of Balancing Competing Interests. Philosophy and Technology 26 (4):437-457.score: 20.0
    The present paper aims at addressing a crucial legal conflict in the information society: i.e., the conflict between security and civil rights, which calls for a “fine and ethical balance”. Our purpose is to understand, from the legal theory viewpoint, how a fine ethical balance can be conceived and what the conditions for this balance to be possible are. This requires us to enter in a four-stage examination, by asking: (1) What types of conflict may be dealt with by means (...)
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  38. Terrell Ward Bynum (2014). On the Possibility of Quantum Informational Structural Realism. Minds and Machines 24 (1):123-139.score: 20.0
    In The Philosophy of Information, Luciano Floridi presents an ontological theory of Being qua Being, which he calls “Informational Structural Realism”, a theory which applies, he says, to every possible world. He identifies primordial information (“dedomena”) as the foundation of any structure in any possible world. The present essay examines Floridi’s defense of that theory, as well as his refutation of “Digital Ontology” (which some people might confuse with his own). Then, using Floridi’s ontology as a starting point, the (...)
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  39. Pierre Uzan (2010). Informational Branching Universe. Foundations of Science 15 (1):1-28.score: 20.0
    This paper suggests an epistemic interpretation of Belnap’s branching space-times theory based on Everett’s relative state formulation of the measurement operation in quantum mechanics. The informational branching models of the universe are evolving structures defined from a partial ordering relation on the set of memory states of the impersonal observer. The totally ordered set of their information contents defines a linear “time” scale to which the decoherent alternative histories of the informational universe can be referred—which is quite necessary (...)
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  40. Ariel Caticha (2014). Towards an Informational Pragmatic Realism. Minds and Machines 24 (1):37-70.score: 20.0
    I discuss the design of the method of entropic inference as a general framework for reasoning under conditions of uncertainty. The main contribution of this discussion is to emphasize the pragmatic elements in the derivation. More specifically: (1) Probability theory is designed as the uniquely natural tool for representing states of incomplete information. (2) An epistemic notion of information is defined in terms of its relation to the Bayesian beliefs of ideally rational agents. (3) The method of updating from a (...)
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  41. Andrew J. I. Jones & Xavier Parent (2008). Normative-Informational Positions: A Modal-Logical Approach. [REVIEW] Artificial Intelligence and Law 16 (1):7-23.score: 20.0
    This paper is a preliminary investigation into the application of the formal-logical theory of normative positions to the characterisation of normative-informational positions, pertaining to rules that are meant to regulate the supply of information. First, we present the proposed framework. Next, we identify the kinds of nuances and distinctions that can be articulated in such a logical framework. Finally, we show how such nuances can arise in specific regulations. Reference is made to Data Protection Law and Contract Law, among (...)
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  42. Tim Kenyon (2013). The Informational Richness of Testimonial Contexts. Philosophical Quarterly 63 (250):58-80.score: 20.0
    An influential idea in the epistemology of testimony is that people often acquire justified beliefs through testimony, in contexts too informationally poor for the justification to be evidential. This has been described as the Scarcity of Information Objection (SIO). It is an objection to the reductive thesis that the acceptance of testimony is justified by evidence of general kinds not unique to testimony. SIO hinges on examples intended to show clearly that testimonial justification arises in low-information contexts; I argue that (...)
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  43. Søren Brier & Cliff Joslyn (2013). What Does It Take to Produce Interpretation? Informational, Peircean and Code-Semiotic Views on Biosemiotics. Biosemiotics 6 (1):143-159.score: 20.0
    This paper presents a critical analysis of code-semiotics, which we see as the latest attempt to create paradigmatic foundation for solving the question of the emergence of life and consciousness. We view code semiotics as a an attempt to revise the empirical scientific Darwinian paradigm, and to go beyond the complex systems, emergence, self-organization, and informational paradigms, and also the selfish gene theory of Dawkins and the Peircean pragmaticist semiotic theory built on the simultaneous types of evolution. As such (...)
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  44. Wu Kun & Joseph E. Brenner (2013). The Informational Stance: Philosophy and Logic. Part I. The Basic Theories. Logic and Logical Philosophy 22 (4):453-493.score: 20.0
    To better understand what information is and to explain information-related issues has become an essential philosophical task. General concepts from science, ethics and sociology are insufficient. As noted by Floridi, a new philosophy, a Philosophy of Information (PI), is needed. In the 80’s, Wu Kun proposed a “The Basic Theory of the Philosophy of Information”, which became available in English only in 2010. Wu and Joseph Brenner then found that the latter’s non-standard “Logic in Reality” provided critical logical support for (...)
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  45. Murat Aydede (1997). Pure Informational Semantics and the Narrow/Broad Dichotomy. In Dunja Jutronic (ed.), The Maribor Papers in Naturalized Semantics. Maribor. 157.score: 20.0
    The influence of historical-causal theories of reference developed in the late sixties and early seventies by Donnellan, Kripke, Putnam and Devitt has been so strong that any semantic theory that has the consequence of assigning disjunctive representational content to the mental states of twins (e.g. [H2O or XYZ]) has been thereby taken to refute itself. Similarly, despite the strength of pre-theoretical intuitions that exact physical replicas like Davidson's Swampman have representational mental states, people have routinely denied that they have any (...)
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  46. Wu Kun & Joseph E. Brenner (2013). The Informational Stance: Philosophy and Logic. Part II. From Physics to Society. Logic and Logical Philosophy 23 (1):81-108.score: 20.0
    In Part I of our joint paper [WuB13], we outlined our respective theories, The Basic Theory of the Philosophy of Information (BTPI) and Logic in Reality (LIR) and showed their synergy for the understanding of complex informational processes. In this part, we develop Wu’s fundamental philosophical insight of the origin of the values of information in the interactions of complex information processing. A key concept in our work is that of a logical isomorphism between human individual and social value (...)
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  47. Christoph Schulz (forthcoming). An Informational Perspective on Agency Causation. Topoi:1-12.score: 20.0
    According to Fred Dretske’s semantic information theory, the process of becoming informed consists of two parts: the transfer of information via a channel, and the subsequent formation of a semantic structure, called ‘digitalisation’. Leaving out any one of the two parts renders the concept of becoming informed incomplete. Similarly, Peter Menzies and Huw Price’s agency-account of causation has a bipartite structure. The account posits that an event A is a cause of a distinct event B in cases where bringing about (...)
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  48. Max Kistler (2000). Source and Channel in the Informational Theory of Mental Content. Facta Philosophica 2 (2):213-36.score: 18.0
    With the aim of giving a naturalistic foundation to the notion of mental representation, Fred Dretske (1981;1988) has put forward and developed the idea that the relation between a representation and its intentional content is grounded on an informational relation. In this explanatory model, mental representations are conceived of as states of organisms which a learning process has selected to play a functional role: a necessary condition for fulfilling this role is that the organism or some proper part of (...)
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  49. J. M. Smallwood, S. F. Baracaia, M. Lowe & M. Obonsawin (2003). Task Unrelated Thought Whilst Encoding Information. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (3):452-484.score: 18.0
    Task unrelated thought (TUT) refers to thought directed away from the current situation, for example a daydream. Three experiments were conducted on healthy participants, with two broad aims. First, to contrast distributed and encapsulated views of cognition by comparing the encoding of categorical and random lists of words (Experiments One and Two). Second, to examine the consequences of experiencing TUT during study on the subsequent retrieval of information (Experiments One, Two, and Three). Experiments One and Two demonstrated lower levels of (...)
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