Search results for 'internal and external questions' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Robin Le Poidevin (1995). Internal and External Questions About God. Religious Studies 31 (4):485 - 500.score: 444.0
    Characteristic of metaphysics are general questions of existence, such as 'Are there numbers?' This kind of question is the target of Carnap's argument for deflationism, to the effect that general existential questions, if taken at face value, are meaningless. This paper considers deflationism in a theological context, and argues that the question 'Does God exist?' can appropriately be grouped with the 'metaphysical' questions attacked by Carnap. Deflationism thus has the surprising consequence that the correct approach to theism (...)
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  2. Natalja Deng (2012). Questions About 'Internal and External Questions About God'. Religious Studies 48 (2):257-268.score: 435.0
    This article is an evaluation of Le Poidevin’s use of Carnap’s stance on ontology within the philosophy of religion. Le Poidevin claims that 1) theists need to take God to be a putative entity within space-time in order for their claim that God exists to be meaningful, and that 2) instrumentalism about theology is viable. I argue that although Le Poidevin’s response to Carnap’s argument is no less problematic than that argument itself, his position is in fact thoroughly un-Carnapian. The (...)
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  3. Graham H. Bird (1995). Carnap and Quine: Internal and External Questions. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 42 (1):41 - 64.score: 435.0
  4. Graham Bird (2003). Carnap's Internal and External Questions: Part I: Quine's Criticisms. In. In Thomas Bonk (ed.), Language, Truth and Knowledge. Kluwer. 97--131.score: 435.0
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  5. I. Carnap'S. Distinctions (2003). Carnap's Internal and External Questions: Part I: Quine's Criticisms. In Thomas Bonk (ed.), Language, Truth and Knowledge. Kluwer. 2--97.score: 435.0
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  6. Robin Le Poidevin (forthcoming). Internal and External Questions About God. Religious Studies.score: 435.0
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  7. Bruce N. Waller (1978). Carnap and Quine on the Distinction Between External and Internal Questions. Philosophical Studies 33 (3):301 - 312.score: 405.0
  8. Ericka Tucker (2012). Developing Normative Consensus: How the ‘International Scene’ Reshapes the Debate Over the Internal and External Criticism of Harmful Social Practices. Journal of East-West Thought 2 (1):107-121.score: 267.0
    Can we ever justly critique the norms and practices of another culture? When activists or policy-makers decide that one culture’s traditional practice is harmful and needs to be eradicated, does it matter whether they are members of that culture? Given the history of imperialism, many argue that any critique of another culture’s practices must be internal. Others argue that we can appeal to a universal standard of human wellbeing to determine whether or not a particular practice is legitimate or (...)
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  9. Bulent Menguc, Seigyoung Auh & Lucie Ozanne (2010). The Interactive Effect of Internal and External Factors on a Proactive Environmental Strategy and its Influence on a Firm's Performance. Journal of Business Ethics 94 (2):279 - 298.score: 261.0
    While the literature on the effective management of business and natural environment interfaces is rich and growing, there are still two questions regarding which the literature has yet to reach a definitive conclusion: (1) what is the interactive effect between internal and external drivers on a proactive environmental strategy (PES)? and (2) does a PES influence firm's performance? Drawing on the resource-based view for the internal drivers' perspective and institutional and legitimacy theories for the external (...)
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  10. Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (1994). The Internal/External Question. Grazier Philosophishe Studien 47:31-41.score: 246.3
    For Rudolf Carnap the question ‘Do numbers exist?’ does not have just one sense. Asked from within mathematics, it has a trivial answer that could not possibly divide philosophers of mathematics. Asked from outside of mathematics, it lacks meaning. This paper discusses Carnap’s distinction and defends much of what he has to say.
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  11. Tarja Knuuttila (2005). Questioning External and Internal Representation The Case of Scientific Models Tarja Knuuttila and Timo Honkela. In. In L. Magnani & R. Dossena (eds.), Computing, Philosophy and Cognition. 4--209.score: 215.0
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  12. Timothy Williamson (2006). Can Cognition Be Factorized Into Internal and External Components? In Robert J. Stainton (ed.), Contemporary Debates in Cognitive Science. Malden MA: Blackwell Publishing.score: 192.0
    0. Platitudinously, cognitive science is the science of cognition. Cognition is usually defined as something like the process of acquiring, retaining and applying knowledge. To a first approximation, therefore, cognitive science is the science of knowing. Knowing is a relation between the knower and the known. Typically, although not always, what is known involves the environment external to the knower. Thus knowing typically involves a relation between the agent and the external environment. It is not internal to (...)
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  13. Ralph Wedgwood (2006). The Internal and External Components of Cognition. In Robert J. Stainton (ed.), Contemporary Debates in Cognitive Science. Malden MA: Blackwell Publishing. 307--325.score: 192.0
    Timothy Williamson has presented several arguments that seek to cast doubt on the idea that cognition can be factorized into internal and external components. In the first section of this paper, I attempt to evaluate these arguments. My conclusion will be that these arguments establish several highly important points, but in the end these arguments fail to cast any doubt either on the idea that cognitive science should be largely concerned with internal mental processes, or on the (...)
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  14. Lorenz B. Puntel (1999). On the Logical Positivists' Theory of Truth: The Fundamental Problem and a New Perspective. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 30 (1):101-130.score: 183.0
    The present article purports to show that the protocol sentence debate, pursued by some leading members of the Vienna Circle in the mid-1930s, was essentially a controversy over the explanation and the real significance of the concept of truth. It is further shown that the fundamental issue underlying the discussions about the concept of truth was the relationship between form and content, as well as between logic/language and the world. R. Carnap was the philosopher who most explicitly and systematically attempted (...)
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  15. William C. Howell (1971). Uncertainty From Internal and External Sources: A Clear Case of Overconfidence. Journal of Experimental Psychology 89 (2):240.score: 176.0
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  16. Kenneth R. Westphal (1998). ‘Transcendental Reflections on Pragmatic Realism’. In K. R. Westphal (ed.), Pragmatism, Reason, & Norms: A Realistic Assessment. Fordham UP. 17--58.score: 174.0
    By deepening Austin’s reflections on the ‘open texture’ of empirical concepts, Frederick L. Will defends an ‘externalist’ account of mental content: as human beings we could not think, were we not in fact cognizant of a natural world structured by events and objects with identifiable and repeatable similarities and differences. I explicate and defend Will’s insight by developing a parallel critique of Kant’s and Carnap’s rejections of realism, both of whom cannot account properly for the content of experience. This critique (...)
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  17. George H. Axinn (1988). International Technical Interventions in Agriculture and Rural Development: Some Basic Trends, Issues, and Questions. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 5 (1-2):6-15.score: 171.0
    This paper presents some of the basic trends, issues, and questions regarding the last four decades of international development cooperation in agriculture. The impact of technical cooperation tends to account for only a small proportion of change; the bulk of the variance being caused by internal, rather than external, forces and events. The paper reviews both multilateral and bilateral technical cooperation, and then illustrates with the case of U.S. universities in international technical cooperation. It goes on to (...)
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  18. Ernst-Joachim Hossner & Felix Ehrlenspiel (2010). Time-Referenced Effects of an Internal Vs. External Focus of Attention on Muscular Activity and Compensatory Variability. Frontiers in Psychology 1:230-230.score: 170.0
    The paralysis-by-analysis phenomenon, i.e., attending to the execution of one’s movement impairs performance, has gathered a lot of attention over recent years (see Wulf, 2007, for a review). Explanations of this phenomenon, e.g., the hypotheses of constrained action (Wulf and colleagues, e.g., McNevin et al., 2003) or of step-by-step execution (Beilock et al., 2002; Masters, 1992), however, do not refer to the level of underlying mechanisms on the level of sensorimotor control. For this purpose, a “nodal-point hypothesis” is presented here (...)
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  19. Catharine Abell & Gregory Currie (1999). Internal and External Pictures. Philosophical Psychology 12 (4):429-445.score: 168.0
    What do pictures and mental images have in common? The contemporary tendency to reject mental picture theories of imagery suggests that the answer is: not much. We show that pictures and visual imagery have something important in common. They both contribute to mental simulations: pictures as inputs and mental images as outputs. But we reject the idea that mental images involve mental pictures, and we use simulation theory to strengthen the anti-pictorialist's case. Along the way we try to account for (...)
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  20. María Jiménez-Buedo (2011). Conceptual Tools for Assessing Experiments: Some Well-Entrenched Confusions Regarding the Internal/External Validity Distinction. Journal of Economic Methodology 18 (3):271-282.score: 168.0
    The notions of internal and external validity of an experiment, coined by Donald T. Campbell in the context of social scientific quasi-experimentation more than 50 years ago, are still central in the debates around the experimental method, both for practitioners and for philosophers of science. This paper points at the more problematic aspects of the distinction between the internal and external validity of experiments and, with a focus on the field of behavioural economics, traces the many (...)
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  21. Arkadiusz Chrudzimski (2005). Internal, External and Intra-Individual Relations. Axiomathes 15 (4):487-512.score: 164.0
    In this paper I argue that there are in fact external relations in Russell’s sense. The level at which we are forced to acknowledge them is, however, not the level of relations between concrete individual objects. All relations of this kind, which I will call “inter-individual” relations, can be construed as supervenient on the monadic properties of their terms. But if we pursue our ontological analysis a little bit deeper and consider the internal structure of a concrete individual, (...)
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  22. Brian Epstein (2008). The Internal and the External in Linguistic Explanation. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 8 (22):77-111.score: 156.0
    Chomsky and others have denied the relevance of external linguistic entities, such as E-languages, to linguistic explanation, and have questioned their coherence altogether. I discuss a new approach to understanding the nature of linguistic entities, focusing in particular on making sense of the varieties of kinds of “words” that are employed in linguistic theorizing. This treatment of linguistic entities in general is applied to constructing an understanding of external linguistic entities.
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  23. Edwin M. Hartman (2011). Virtue, Profit, and the Separation Thesis: An Aristotelian View. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 99 (1):5 - 17.score: 153.0
    If social scientists take natural science as a model, they may err in their predictions and may offer facile ethical views. Maclntyre assails them for this, but he is unduly pessimistic about business, and in rejecting the separation thesis he raises some difficulties about naturalism.Aristotle's views of the good life and of the close relationship between internal and external goods provide a corrective to Maclntyre, and in fact suggest how virtues can support social capital and thus prevail within (...)
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  24. Tom L. Beauchamp (2001). Internal and External Standards for Medical Morality. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (6):601 – 619.score: 148.0
    What grounds and justifies conclusions in medical ethics? Is the source external or internal to medicine? Thee influential types of answer have appeared in recent literature: an internal account, an external account, and a mixed internal / external account. The first defends an ethic derived from either the ends of medicine or professional practice standards. The second maintains that precepts in medical ethics rely upon and require justification by external standards such as those (...)
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  25. TerryMorehead Dworkin & Melissa S. Baucus (1998). Internal Vs. External Whistleblowers: A Comparison of Whistleblowering Processes. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 17 (12):1281-1298.score: 144.0
    We conduct quantitative and qualitative analysis of 33 cases of internal and external whistleblowers wrongfully fired for reporting wrongdoing. Our results show external whistleblowers have less tenure with the organization, greater evidence of wrongdoing, and they tend to be more effective in changing organizational practices. External whistleblowers also experience more extensive retaliation than internal whistleblowers, and patterns of retaliation by management against the whistleblower vary depending on whether the whistleblower reports internally or externally. We discuss (...)
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  26. John Dilworth (2004). Internal Versus External Representation. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 62 (1):23-36.score: 144.0
    I argue that the concept of representation is ambiguous: a picture of 'a man', when there is no actual man that it depicts, both does, in one sense, and does not, in another sense, represent 'a man'--hence the need for a distinction of internal from external representation. Internal representation is also defended from reductive, non-referential alternative views, and from 'prosthesis' views of picturing, according to which seeing a picture of an actual man just is seeing through the (...)
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  27. Liliane Haegeman (2003). Conditional Clauses: External and Internal Syntax. Mind and Language 18 (4):317–339.score: 144.0
    The paper focuses on the difference between eventconditionals and premiseconditionals. An eventconditional contributes to event structure: it modifies the main clause event; a premiseconditional structures the discourse: it makes manifest a proposition that is the privileged context for the processing of the associated clause. The two types of conditional clauses will be shown to differ both in terms of their 'external syntax' and in terms of their 'internal syntax'. The peripheral structure of event conditionals will be shown to (...)
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  28. Ian Underwood (2010). Cross-Count Identity, Distinctness, and the Theory of Internal and External Relations. Philosophical Studies 151 (2):265 - 283.score: 144.0
    Baxter (Australas J Philos 79: 449-464, 2001) proposes an ingenious solution to the problem of instantiation based on his theory of cross-count identity. His idea is that where a particular instantiates a universal it shares an aspect with that universal. Both the particular and the universal are numerically identical with the shared aspect in different counts. Although Baxter does not say exactly what a count is, it appears that he takes ways of counting as mysterious primitives against which different numerical (...)
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  29. A. Smida, M. Hachemane, R. Djelid & A.-H. Hamici (2000). On External and Internal Properties of Extended Elementary Objects. Foundations of Physics 30 (2):287-299.score: 144.0
    The physical interpretation of induced representation intertwining as a process of materialization or localization is extrapolated to mappings (which are not intertwinings) between configuration and momentum representations. Propagation of extended particles composed of an external and an internal mode is a combination of two generalized materializations and two generalized localizations. Our aim is to submit, in the spinless case, the idea that mappings from external representations to internal ones are possible alternatives, probability amplitudes of which must (...)
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  30. J. Gregory Trafton, Susan B. Trickett & Farilee E. Mintz (2005). Connecting Internal and External Representations: Spatial Transformations of Scientific Visualizations. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 10 (1):89-106.score: 144.0
    Many scientific discoveries have depended on external diagrams or visualizations. Many scientists also report to use an internal mental representation or mental imagery to help them solve problems and reason. How do scientists connect these internal and external representations? We examined working scientists as they worked on external scientific visualizations. We coded the number and type of spatial transformations (mental operations that scientists used on internal or external representations or images) and found that (...)
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  31. Charles R. Beitz (forthcoming). Internal and External. Canadian Journal of Philosophy:1-14.score: 144.0
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  32. Ivana S. Mijatovic & Dusan Stokic (2010). The Influence of Internal and External Codes on CSR Practice: The Case of Companies Operating in Serbia. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 94 (4):533 - 552.score: 144.0
    In this article, our aim is to examine the difference between the corporate social responsibility (CSR) practice of the multinational companies (MNCs) and of the domestic companies operating in Serbia, as well as the influence of internal self-regulations such as statements of corporate values and codes of conduct, and external self-regulations such as the implementation of the ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 standards on CSR practice. The CSR practice is observed in five CSR areas: employee relations, customer relations, (...)
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  33. Jau Wei Dan (2012). Internal and External Difficulties in Moral Education. Educational Philosophy and Theory 44 (10):1133-1146.score: 144.0
    Certain difficulties pervade the course of moral education and in this essay a broad picture of these shall be sketched. Moral educators need to understand the problems they will face if they intend to enhance their performance; this includes knowing the limits of moral education, and not going beyond their capacities. These difficulties may be put in two groups, one internal, which is within the control of moral educators; the other external, which is beyond the control of moral (...)
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  34. Abraham Mansbach & Yaacov G. Bachner (2010). Internal or External Whistleblowing: Nurses' Willingness to Report Wrongdoing. Nursing Ethics 17 (4):483-490.score: 144.0
    In Israel, whistleblowing in the nursing profession has been largely ignored. This topic is neither part of the professional—ethical discourse nor a subject for research. Focusing on the divide between internal and external whistleblowing, this article presents a study that explores nurses’ willingness to disclose an act that could jeopardize the rights or safety of patients. Internal disclosure entails reporting wrongdoing to an authority within the organization. External disclosure involves reporting the offense to an outside agency, (...)
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  35. Nicholas Jardine (2007). Dead Questions and Vicarious Understandings: Questioning Gadamer's Genealogy. Journal of the Philosophy of History 1 (1):63-78.score: 144.0
    Gadamer's Truth and Method emphasises the priority of engagement with questions in the process of interpretation; however, there are passages which appear dismissive of concerns with 'dead' scientific and philosophical questions. Here I argue that Gadamer's work is nevertheless an important resource for the historical study of the genesis and dissolution of questions. This type of study can overcome the divide between internal history of contents and external history of contexts. In both philosophy and the (...)
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  36. Rainer Mausfeld (2001). What's Within? Can the Internal Structure of Perception Be Derived From Regularities of the External World? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (4):689-690.score: 144.0
    Shepard's approach is regarded as an attempt to rescue, within an evolutionary perspective, an empiricist theory of mind. Contrary to this, I argue that the structure of perceptual representations is essentially co-determined by internal aspects and cannot be understood if we confine our attention to the physical side of perception, however appropriately we have chosen our vocabulary for describing the external world. Furthermore, I argue that Kubovy and Epstein's “more modest interpretation” of Shepard's ideas on motion perception is (...)
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  37. Vladimir Kanovei & Michael Reeken (1995). Internal Approach to External Sets and Universes. Studia Logica 55 (2):347 - 376.score: 144.0
    A problem which enthusiasts ofIST, Nelson's internal set theory, usually face is how to treat external sets in the internal universe which does not contain them directly. To solve this problem, we considerBST,bounded set theory, a modification ofIST which is, briefly, a theory for the family of thoseIST sets which are members of standard sets.We show thatBST is strong enough to incorporate external sets in the internal universe in a way sufficient to develop the most (...)
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  38. Arthur Schram (2005). Artificiality: The Tension Between Internal and External Validity in Economic Experiments. Journal of Economic Methodology 12 (2):225-237.score: 144.0
    The artificiality of a laboratory situation is placed in the context of the tension between external and internal validity. Most economists consider internal validity to be most important. A proper evaluation of the ?artificiality criticism? (a lack of external validity) requires distinguishing the various goals experimentalists pursue. External validity is relatively more important for experiments searching for empirical regularities than for theory?testing experiments. As experimental results are being used more often in the development of new (...)
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  39. Ryan Philip Mott (2013). The Necessary Connection Between Internal and External State Legitimacy: Concerns Regarding Intervention. Journal of Global Ethics 9 (1):1-22.score: 144.0
    It has been traditional in political philosophy to take internal and external state legitimacy as resting on distinct criteria. However, this is a view that is currently being challenged. Assuming that internal and external legitimacy rely on the same criterion, a possible worry that arises is that an unacceptable amount of intervention will necessarily become justifiable. I argue that such worries are not significant and that they do not rule out this alternative to the traditional view.
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  40. Linda M. Sama (2006). Interactive Effects of External Environmental Conditions and Internal Firm Characteristics on Mnes' Choice of Strategy in the Development of a Code of Conduct. Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (2):137-166.score: 144.0
    Abstract: Effects of globalization have amplified the magnitude and frequency of corporate abuses, particularly in developing economies where weak or absent rules undermine social norms and principles. Improving multinational enterprises’ (MNEs) ethical conduct is a factor of both the ability of firms to change behaviors in the direction of the moral good, and their willingness to do so. Constraints and enablers of a firm’s ability to act ethically emanate from the external environment, including the industry environment of which the (...)
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  41. Vladimir Kanovei & Michael Reeken (1996). Internal Approach to External Sets and Universes. Studia Logica 56 (3):293 - 322.score: 144.0
    In this article we show how the universe of HST, Hrbaek set theory (a nonstandard set theory of external type, which includes, in particular, the ZFC Replacement and Separation schemata for all formulas in the language containing the membership and standardness predicates, and Saturation for standard size families of internal sets, but does not include the Power set axiom) admits a system of subuniverses which keep the Replacement, model Power set and Choice (in fact all of ZFC, with (...)
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  42. Luis M. Miller (2010). Why a Trade-Off? The Relationship Between the External and Internal Validity of Experiments. Theoria 25 (3):301-321.score: 144.0
    Much of the methodological discussion around experiments in economics and other social sciences is framed in terms of the notions of internal and external validity. The standard view is that internal validity and external validity stand in a relationship best described as a trade-off. However, it is also commonly heldthat internal validity is a prerequisite to external validity. This article addresses the problem of the compatibility of these two ideas and analyzes critically the standard (...)
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  43. Annika Wallin & Johannes Persson, Why Internal Validity is Not Prior to External Validity.score: 144.0
    Without a doubt the concepts captures two features of research scientists are aware of in their daily practice. Researchers aim to make correct inferences both about that which is actually studied (internal validity), for instance in an experiment, and about what the results ‘generalize to’ (external validity). Whether or not the language of internal and external validity is used in their disciplines, the tension between these two kinds of inference is often experienced.
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  44. Jennifer D. Ryan Jessica P. K. Chan (2012). Holistic Representations of Internal and External Face Features Are Used to Support Recognition. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 144.0
    Face recognition is impaired when changes are made to external face features (e.g. hairstyle), even when all internal features (i.e. eyes, nose, mouth) remain the same. Eye movement monitoring was used to determine the extent to which altered hairstyles affect processing of face features, thereby shedding light on how internal and external features are stored in memory. Participants studied a series of faces, followed by a recognition test in which novel, repeated and manipulated (altered hairstyle) faces (...)
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  45. Arnold M. Zwicky (1980). "Internal" and "External" Evidence in Linguistics. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1980:598 - 604.score: 144.0
    A Distinction between "internal" and "external" evidence in linguistics is illustrated, and two occasions on which the distinction arises are identified: in the division of labor between linguistics and other fields, and in the choice among alternative descriptions. Assumptions which would bias generative linguists both away from and towards external evidence are explored. Examples from phonological and syntactic analyses are contrasted, and speculations are made as to why evidence should be differently used in phonology and syntax. A (...)
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  46. Terry Morehead Dworkin & Melissa S. Baucus (1998). Internal Vs. External Whistleblowers: A Comparison of Whistleblowering Processes. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 17 (12):1281 - 1298.score: 144.0
    We conduct quantitative and qualitative analysis of 33 cases of internal and external whistleblowers wrongfully fired for reporting wrongdoing. Our results show external whistleblowers have less tenure with the organization, greater evidence of wrongdoing, and they tend to be more effective in changing organizational practices. External whistleblowers also experience more extensive retaliation than internal whistleblowers, and patterns of retaliation by management against the whistleblower vary depending on whether the whistleblower reports internally or externally. We discuss (...)
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  47. Yoshihiko Tanno Mari Kanemoto, Tomohisa Asai, Eriko Sugimori (2013). External Misattribution of Internal Thoughts and Proneness to Auditory Hallucinations: The Effect of Emotional Valence in the Deese–Roediger–McDermott Paradigm. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 144.0
    Previous studies have suggested that a tendency to externalize internal thought is related to auditory hallucinations or even proneness to auditory hallucinations (AHp) in the general population. However, although auditory hallucinations are related to emotional phenomena, few studies have investigated the effect of emotional valence on the aforementioned relationship. In addition, we do not know what component of psychotic phenomena relate to externalizing bias. The current study replicated our previous research, which suggested that individual differences in auditory hallucination-like experiences (...)
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  48. John Earman (ed.) (1993). Philosophical Problems of the Internal and External World. University of Pittsburgh Press.score: 143.0
    Now, considering the determinism or indeterminism of the world, ... The question of free will, and the mind-body problem, are two that come to mind. ...
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  49. Jan Narveson (2009). Internal/External. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 23 (1):125-132.score: 142.0
    Where does domestic policy leave off and foreign policy begin? I point out that many domestic policies have major repercussions forother countries, some of them of a kind that are conducive to violence if not outright warfare. My examples are the drug laws, which create huge incentives for foreign criminals as well as domestic ones; concerns about “global warming” which are likely to impoverish many poor countries or prevent them from advancing; and the penchant for extensive government intervention in the (...)
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  50. Crispin Wright (2008). Internal-External: Doxastic Norms and the Defusing of Skeptical Paradox. Journal of Philosophy 105 (9):501-517.score: 140.0
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