Search results for 'internal meaning' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Andrew J. Reck & Institute for Encyclopedia of Human Ideas on Ultimate Reality and Meaning (1994). American Philosophers' Ideas of Ultimate Reality and Meaning.
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  2. Valer Ambrus (1999). Is Putnam's Causal Theory of Meaning Compatible with Internal Realism? Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 30 (1):1-16.
    Putnam originally developed his causal theory of meaning in order to support scientific realism and reject the notion of incommensurability. Later he gave up this position and adopted instead what he called ‘internal realism’, but apparently without changing his mind on topics related to his former philosophy of language. The question must arise whether internal realism, which actually is a species of antirealism, is compatible with the causal theory of meaning. In giving an answer I begin (...)
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  3.  23
    Michael McKinsey (1991). The Internal Basis of Meaning. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 72 (June):143-69.
  4.  8
    Malka Rappaport Hovav (2008). Lexicalized Meaning and the Internal Temporal Structure of Events. In Susan Rothstein (ed.), Theoretical and Crosslinguistic Approaches to the Semantics of Aspect. John Benjamins
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  5.  6
    Ch Goossens (1989). Meaning, Truth Conditions and the Internal Point of View. Philosophical Inquiry 11 (3-4):27-45.
  6.  1
    Malka Rappaport Hovav (2008). Lexicalized Meaning and the Internal. In Susan Rothstein (ed.), Theoretical and Crosslinguistic Approaches to the Semantics of Aspect. John Benjamins 13.
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  7. A. Crimaldi (1996). Meaning and Problem of the Mysterious as an Internal Triumph of Philosophy as Seen in Sturzo, Mario'pensiero Dellavvenire'. Filosofia 47 (1):129-141.
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  8. David E. Mutchler (forthcoming). Adaptations of the Roman Catholic Church to Latin American Development: The Meaning of Internal Church Conflict. Social Research.
     
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  9. Aaron Smuts (2013). The Good Cause Account of the Meaning of Life. Southern Journal of Philosophy 51 (4):536-562.
    I defend the theory that one's life is meaningful to the extent that one promotes the good. Call this the good cause account (GCA) of the meaning of life. It holds that the good effects that count towards the meaning of one's life need not be intentional. Nor must one be aware of the effects. Nor does it matter whether the same good would have resulted if one had not existed. What matters is that (...)
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  10.  76
    Tyrus Fisher (2011). Quine's Behaviorism and Linguistic Meaning: Why Quine's Behaviorism is Not Illicit. Philosophia 39 (1):51-59.
    Some of Quine’s critics charge that he arrives at a behavioristic account of linguistic meaning by starting from inappropriately behavioristic assumptions (Kripke 1982, 14; Searle 1987, 123). Quine has even written that this account of linguistic meaning is a consequence of his behaviorism (Quine 1992, 37). I take it that the above charges amount to the assertion that Quine assumes the denial of one or more of the following claims: (1) Language-users associate mental ideas with their linguistic expressions. (...)
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  11.  77
    Jakub Mácha (2011). Metaphor in the Twilight Area Between Philosophy and Linguistics. In P. Stalmaszczyk & K. Kosecki (eds.), Turning Points in the Philosophy of Language and Linguistics. Peter Lang 159--169.
    This paper investigates the issue whether metaphors have a metaphorical or secondary meaning and how this question is related to the borderline between philosophy and linguistics. On examples by V. Woolf and H. W. Auden, it will be shown that metaphor accomplishes something more than its literal meaning expresses and this “more” cannot be captured by any secondary meaning. What is essential in the metaphor is not a secondary meaning but an internal relation between a (...)
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  12. John T. Sanders (1993). Merleau-Ponty, Gibson and the Materiality of Meaning. Man and World 26 (3):287-302.
    While there are numerous differences between the approaches taken by Maurice Merleau-Ponty and James J. Gibson, the basic motivation of the two thinkers, as well as the internal logic of their respective views, is extraordinarily close. Both were guided throughout their lives by an attempt to overcome the dualism of subject and object, and both devoted considerable attention to their "Gestaltist" predecessors. There can be no doubt but that it is largely because of this common cause that the subsequent (...)
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  13.  38
    Antônio Gomes, Ricardo Gudwin, Charbel Niño El-Hani & João Queiroz (2007). Towards the Emergence of Meaning Processes in Computers From Peircean Semiotics. Mind and Society 6 (2):173-187.
    In this work, we propose a computational approach to the triadic model of Peircean semiosis (meaning processes). We investigate theoretical constraints about the feasibility of simulated semiosis. These constraints, which are basic requirements for the simulation of semiosis, refer to the synthesis of irreducible triadic relations (Sign–Object–Interpretant). We examine the internal organization of the triad S–O–I, that is, the relative position of its elements and how they relate to each other. We also suggest a multi-level approach based on (...)
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  14.  13
    Eliano Pessa & Graziano Terenzi (2007). Semiosis in Cognitive Systems: A Neural Approach to the Problem of Meaning. [REVIEW] Mind and Society 6 (2):189-209.
    This paper deals with the problem of understanding semiosis and meaning in cognitive systems. To this aim we argue for a unified two-factor account according to which both external and internal information are non-independent aspects of meaning, thus contributing as a whole in determining its nature. To overcome the difficulties stemming from this approach we put forward a theoretical scheme based on the definition of a suitable representation space endowed with a set of transformations, and (...)
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  15.  48
    Jakob Hohwy (2006). Internalized Meaning Factualism. Philosophia 34 (3):325-336..
    The normative character of meaning creates deep problems for the attempt to give a reductive explanation of the constitution of meaning. I identify and critically examine an increasingly popular Carnap-style position, which I call Internalized Meaning Factualism (versions of which I argue are defended by, e.g., Robert Brandom, Paul Horwich and Huw Price), that promises to solve the problems. According to this position, the problem of meaning can be solved by prohibiting an external perspective on (...) constituting properties. The idea is that if we stick to a perspective on meaning that is internal to meaning discourse, then we can preserve the normativity of meaning and yet locate meaning in the natural world. I develop a generic motivation for this position, but argue that, since this motivation is consistent with the Ramsey–Carnap–Lewis–Jackson reductionist strategy, internalized meaning factualism is unstable. The problems about the normativity of meaning can therefore not be sidestepped in this way. (shrink)
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  16.  33
    Ludovic De Cuypere & Klaas Willems (2008). Meaning and Reference in Aristotle's Concept of the Linguistic Sign. Foundations of Science 13 (3-4):307-324.
    To Aristotle, spoken words are symbols, not of objects in the world, but of our mental experiences related to these objects. Presently there are two major strands of interpretation of Aristotle’s concept of the linguistic sign. First, there is the structuralist account offered by Coseriu (Geschichte der Sprachphilosophie. Von den Anfängen bis Rousseau, 2003 [1969], pp. 65–108) whose interpretation is reminiscent of the Saussurean sign concept. A second interpretation, offered by Lieb (in: Geckeler (Ed.) Logos Semantikos: Studia Linguistica in Honorem (...)
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  17. Jeff Speaks (2006). Is Mental Content Prior to Linguistic Meaning?: Stalnaker on Intentionality. Noûs 40 (3):428-467.
    Since the 1960's, work in the analytic tradition on the nature of mental and linguistic content has converged on the views that social facts about public language meaning are derived from facts about the thoughts of individuals, and that these thoughts are constituted by properties of the internal states of agents. I give a two-part argument against this picture of intentionality: first, that if mental content is prior to public language meaning, then a view of mental content (...)
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  18.  87
    Julian Kiverstein (2012). The Meaning of Embodiment. Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (4):740-758.
    There is substantial disagreement among philosophers of embodied cognitive science about the meaning of embodiment. In what follows, I describe three different views that can be found in the current literature. I show how this debate centers around the question of whether the science of embodied cognition can retain the computer theory of mind. One view, which I will label body functionalism, takes the body to play the functional role of linking external resources for problem solving with internal (...)
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  19.  38
    Pedro Karczmarczyk (2012). Los argumentos del lenguaje privado. Notas para la reconstrucción de una controversia. Dialogos 92:73-124.
    Intentaremos reconstruir la controversia acerca de la posibilidad de un lenguaje privado. Analizamos primero las posiciones “epistemológicas” (Malcolm y Fogelin), mostrando sus fallos. Luego analizamos la versión “semántica” (Kenny y Tugendhat) encontrándolas igualmente fallidas. La crítica de Barry Stroud a los argumentos trascendentales como argumentos antiescépticos nos permite discernir el presupuesto común que debilita las posiciones anteriores. Asimismo, la reconstrucción permite apreciar mejor la manera en la que la versión de Kripke evita comprometerse con este presupueto. Argumentamos que esta versión (...)
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  20. Kathrin Glüer (2012). Theories of Meaning and Truth Conditions. In Manuel García-Carpintero & Max Kölbel (eds.), The Continuum Companion to the Philosophy of Language. Continuum International Pub.
    Or, in Donald Davidson’s much quoted words: “What is it for words to mean what they do?” (Davidson 1984, xiii). Davidson himself suggested approaching this matter by asking two different questions: What form should a formal semantics take? And: What is it that makes a semantic theory correct for a particular language, i.e. what determines meaning? The second question concerns the place of semantic facts in a wider metaphysical space: How do these facts relate to non-semantic facts? Can they (...)
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  21.  38
    Sandro Castaldo, Katia Premazzi & Fabrizio Zerbini (2010). The Meaning(s) of Trust. A Content Analysis on the Diverse Conceptualizations of Trust in Scholarly Research on Business Relationships. Journal of Business Ethics 96 (4):657 - 668.
    Scholarly research largely converges on the argument that trust is of paramount importance to drive economic agents toward mutually satisfactory, fair, and ethically compliant behaviors. There is, however, little agreement on the meaning of trust, whose conceptualizations differ with respect to actors, relationships, behaviors, and contexts. At present, we know much better what trust does than what trust is. In this article, we present an extensive review and analysis of the most prominent articles on trust in market relationships. Using (...)
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  22.  25
    Gilead Bar-Elli (2006). Wittgenstein on the Experience of Meaning and the Meaning of Music. Philosophical Investigations 29 (3):217-249.
    An argument is presented to the effect that the ability to feel or to experience meaning conditions the ability to mean, and is thus essential to our notion of meaning. The experience of meaning is manifested in the "fine shades" of use and behavior. Theses, so obvious in music, constitute understanding music, which makes music understanding so relevant to understanding language. Applying these notions of understanding, feeling, and experience--as well as their explication in terms of comparisons, (...) relation, and mastery of technique--to music, where they are so apt and natural, is fertile both for the philosophy of language and the philosophy of music. (edited). (shrink)
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  23.  3
    Idun Røseth, Per-Einar Binder & Ulrik Fredrik Malt (2013). Engulfed by an Alienated and Threatening Emotional Body: The Essential Meaning Structure of Depression in Women. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 44 (2):153-178.
    Women are twice as likely to be diagnosed with a depressive disorder as men. Before trying to explain this difference, we must first understand how women experience depression. We explore the phenomenon of depression through women’s experiences, using Giorgi’s descriptive phenomenological method. An essential meaning structure describes the development of depression: The women find themselves entrapped in a personal mission which had backfired. Motivated by shame and guilt from the past, they overinvest in work or others’ emotions to relieve (...)
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  24.  3
    Magnus Frostenson, Sven Helin & Johan Sandström (2012). The Internal Significance of Codes of Conduct in Retail Companies. Business Ethics 21 (3):263-275.
    This paper focuses on the significance of codes of conduct (CoCs) in the internal work context of two retail companies. A stepwise approach is used. First, the paper identifies in what way employees use and refer to CoCs internally. Second, the function and relevance of CoCs inside the two companies are identified. Third, the paper explains why CoCs tend to function in the identified ways. In both cases, the CoCs are clearly decoupled in the sense that they do not (...)
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  25.  54
    Andreas Blank (2007). Wittgenstein on Expectation, Action, and Internal Relations, 1930-1932. Inquiry 50 (3):270 – 287.
    According to Wittgenstein, internal relations are such that, once their terms are given, it is unthinkable that they do not hold. In his early philosophy, the concept of internal relation plays a central role in his views on meaning. The present paper addresses the question of how Wittgenstein's views about internal relations develop during his years of transition (1930-32). In particular, it investigates the connections between the concepts of internal relation, logical multiplicity, and aspect seeing (...)
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  26.  3
    Asher Jiang (2015). Hume on the Meaning of ‘Power’. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 13 (3):229-248.
    Hume frequently states that we are ignorant of genuine power. There is a well-known internal difficulty concerning this claim concerning ignorance. According to Hume, we do not have an impression-based idea of genuine power; on the other hand, every noun needs a corresponding idea to be meaningful. Is his claim concerning ignorance, which makes use of the noun ‘power’, meaningless in light of his own criterion of meaningfulness? I focus on two exegetical approaches to this difficulty proposed in the (...)
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  27.  83
    Kenneth G. Ferguson (2009). Meaning and the External World. Erkenntnis 70 (3):299 - 311.
    Realism, defined as a justified belief in the existence of the external world, is jeopardized by ‘meaning rationalism,’ the classic theory of meaning that sees the extension of words as a function of the intensions of individual speakers, with no way to ensure that these intensions actually correspond to anything in the external world. To defend realism, Ruth Millikan ( 1984 , 1989a , b , 1993 , 2004 , 2005 ) offers a biological theory of meaning (...)
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  28.  9
    Gülriz Uygur (2008). The Relationship Between Law and Morality From the Internal Point of View. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 40:177-183.
    This article insists on the relationship between law and morality from the internal point of view. H.L.A. Hart makes distinction between internal and external viewpoints. In the framework of Hart’s approach, it is difficult to imagine the internal point of view as a moral point of view. In fact, the internal point of view illuminates the normative character of rules; it shows that the members of the group accept the rules as standards of behavior for the (...)
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  29.  38
    Carleton B. Christensen (1997). Meaning Things and Meaning Others. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 57 (3):495-522.
    At least phenomenologically the way communicative acts reveal intentions is different from the way non-communicative acts do this: the former have an "addressed" character which the latter do not. The paper argues that this difference is a real one, reflecting the irreducibly "conventional" character of human communication. It attempts to show this through a critical analysis of the Gricean programme and its methodologically individualist attempt to explain the "conventional" as derivative from the "non-conventional". It is shown how in order to (...)
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  30.  38
    Richard Horsey (2000). Meaning Postulates and Deference. Philosophical Explorations.
    Fodor (1998) argues that most lexical concepts have no internal structure. He rejects what he calls Inferential Role Semantics (IRS), the view that primitive concepts are constituted by their inferential relations, on the grounds that this violates the compositionality constraint and leads to an unacceptable form of holism. In rejecting IRS, Fodor must also reject meaning postulates. I argue, contra Fodor, that meaning postulates must be retained, but that when suitably constrained they are not susceptible to his (...)
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  31.  20
    David T. Risser (1978). Power and Collective Responsibility. Kinesis 9 (no. 2):23-33.
    This paper argues that organizations, such as corporations, can act and exercise power. This is possible because they possess decision making structures which are more or less formal. The actions of such organizations are not reducible to the actions of its individual members. Further, because these formal group agents could have acted differently or could have been organized to have acted differently, they are morally responsible for the untoward effects of the power they exercise. Morally responsible organizations are subject to (...)
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  32.  10
    R. Palmaru (2012). Making Sense and Meaning: On the Role of Communication and Culture in the Reproduction of Social Systems. Constructivist Foundations 8 (1):63-75.
    Context: Although the relationship between communication and culture has received significant attention among communication scholars over the past thirty or more years, there is still no satisfactory explanation as to how these two are related and how culture evolves in communication. It forces the author to turn to Niklas Luhmann’s social systems theory, which is one of the main hypotheses of how social systems emerge. Problem: Unfortunately, Luhmann’s concept of meaning is too weak to explain the autopoiesis of communication. (...)
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  33.  5
    Anastasia De Vita (2014). Children and Questions of Meaning Through Adults' Representation. On the Image of Philosopher Child. Childhood and Philosophy 10 (19):109-127.
    This article regards a particular way through which adults take children into consideration and listen their voices. Reflections have sprung from a research context, focused on existential questions that children pose during their preschool years in early education settings. The research explored the meanings of these questions for children and adults involved in their education. The questions of meaning emerged by children’s discourses are considered through the representations of childhood that subtend parents and teachers’ educational practices. The article discusses (...)
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  34.  14
    Dan Nesher (1992). Wittgenstein on Language, Meaning, and Use. International Philosophical Quarterly 32 (1):55-78.
    This article reconstructs Wittgenstein's philosophy of language. Language-game is a system of operating rules of meaning consists of internal relations between language expressions and their criteria. It is argued that the "meaning" of words is not their "use", but rather, the meaning is "explained" by their use. The famous #43 paragraph of "Philosophical Investigations" is interpreted as a distinction between explaining the meaning of words by their use "in the language", and explaining it by pointing (...)
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  35.  12
    L. J. van Vuuren & F. Crous (2005). Utilising Appreciative Inquiry (AI) in Creating a Shared Meaning of Ethics in Organisations. Journal of Business Ethics 57 (4):399-412.
    . The management of ethics within organisations typically occurs within a problem-solving frame of reference. This often results in a reactive, problem-based and externally induced approach to managing ethics. Although basing ethics management interventions on dealing with and preventing current and possible future unethical behaviour are often effective in that it ensures compliance with rules and regulations, the approach is not necessarily conducive to the creation of sustained ethical cultures. Nor does the approach afford (mainly internal) stakeholders the opportunity (...)
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  36.  2
    D. Marvin Jones, The Original Meaning of Brown: Seattle, Segregation and the Rewriting of History (for Michael Lee and Dukwon).
    Brown famously held that in the field of public education, segregation has no place. But segregation was undefined. Was segregation constituted by mere racial classification, by the fact that the state had divided children into racial groups? Or did Brown condemn a caste system whose effect was to stigmatize black children. In Parents Involved v. Seattle Justice Roberts says segregation is about children not black children. This colorblind approach represents both a rewriting and appropriation of Brown in the service of (...)
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  37. E. Balsemão Pires (2014). Systemic-Internal and Theoretical Views on Second-Order Observations. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):56-58.
    Open peer commentary on the article “The Circular Conditions of Second-order Science Sporadically Illustrated with Agent-based Experiments at the Roots of Observation” by Manfred Füllsack. Upshot: I address Füllsack’s main conclusions in his article regarding the meaning of second-order observations. Especially envisaged are the epistemological and ontological difficulties raised by his scrutiny of the merging between systemic-internal conditions of second-order reflexivity and the thematic-theoretical accounts of selection, intentionality and purposiveness in evolutionary systems.
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  38. Anders Öberg (2011). Hilary Putnam on Meaning and Necessity. Dissertation, Uppsala University
    In this dissertation on Hilary Putnam's philosophy, I investigate his development regarding meaning and necessity, in particular mathematical necessity. Putnam has been a leading American philosopher since the end of the 1950s, becoming famous in the 1960s within the school of analytic philosophy, associated in particular with the philosophy of science and the philosophy of language. Under the influence of W.V. Quine, Putnam challenged the logical positivism/empiricism that had become strong in America after World War II, with influential exponents (...)
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  39. Deborah Jean Brown (1993). Swampman of la Mancha and Other Tales About Meaning. Dissertation, University of Toronto (Canada)
    There is, currently, much resistance to so-maligned Cartesian or internalist theories of meaning and mental content in the philosophies of mind and language. Internalist semantics tend to view the meaning of psychological attitudes as primary and that of public language items as essentially derivative. Moreover, internalists regard meaning as determined by internal facts--mental representations, mental sentences, conceptual roles, cognitive procedures--to name the favourites. In opposition, externalists argue that meaning is determined by external causal and social (...)
     
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  40. Cristina Corredor (1997). Framework of an Intersubjetivist Theory of Meaning. Sorites 8:33-60.
    Here a critical revision is carried out of the intersubjectivist theory of meaning embodied in the Formal Pragmatics developed within the framework of the Theory of Communicative Action . According to very recent «internal» criticisms, only a version of H. Putnam's theory of direct reference can avoid the kind of meaning holism and linguistic relativism which assails Habermas' foundation of shared meaning on the intersubjective validity of a rule. A more detailed analysis of Putnam's views, as (...)
     
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  41. Peeter Selg (2013). The Politics of Theory and the Constitution of Meaning. Sociological Theory 31 (1):1-23.
    How should sociologists use the word theory? Gabriel Abend’s recent insistence that this question should be tackled politically raises two important issues: Is sociology political? And if so, what normative implications follow for its organization? Drawing on Wittgenstein’s notion of family resemblance and post-Gramscian theories of hegemony, I argue that Abend’s proposal that semantic questions about theory can be addressed separately from ontological, evaluative, and teleological ones is untenable. Disagreements about the latter are constitutive, not merely supplementary to the (...) of theory. Against Abend’s deliberative-democratically oriented vision, I propose an agonistic politics of theory. In doing so, I consider both the internal inconsistencies of deliberativism and the practical advantages and sociological relevance of agonism. (shrink)
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  42. Rainer Mausfeld (2010). The Perception of Material Qualities and the Internal Semantics of the Perceptual System. In Albertazzi Liliana, Tonder Gert & Vishwanath Dhanraj (eds.), Perception beyond Inference. The Information Content of Visual Processes. MIT Press
    The chapter outlines an abstract theoretical framework that is currently (re-)emerging in the course of a theoretical convergence of several disciplines. In the first section, the fundamental problem of perception theory is formulated, namely, the generation, by the perceptual system, of meaningful categories from physicogeometric energy patterns. In the second section, it deals with basic intuitions and assumptions underlying what can be regarded as the current Standard Model of Perceptual Psychology and points out why this model is profoundly inadequate for (...)
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  43.  35
    David Hollenbach (2010). Book Discussion Section: Comparative Ethics, Islam, and Human Rights: Internal Pluralism and the Possible Development of Tradition. Journal of Religious Ethics 38 (3):580-587.
    Dialogue with three major Muslim authors shows that Islam can take a positive stance toward human rights while also presenting differing interpretations of the meaning and scope of rights. Because of their subordination of norms reached through reason to those drawn from faith, as well as negative experiences of the impact of Western colonization of parts of the Muslim world, Abul A‘la Maududi and Sayyid Qutb place significant restrictions on rights of conscience. 'Abdolkarim Soroush's positive support for the role (...)
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  44.  10
    Yakir Levin (2004). Cartesians, Strawsonians and the Univocal Meaning of Mental Predicates. Acta Analytica 19 (32):91-106.
    The paper examines the Cartesian and the Strawsonian answers to the question of why self-applied and other-applied mental predicates mean the same. While these answers relate to different, complementary aspects of this question, they seem and are usually considered as incompatible. Indeed, their apparent incompatibility constitutes a major objection to the Cartesian answer. A primary aim of the paper is to show that the Strawsonian answer does not pose a real problem to the Cartesian answer. Unlike other attempts to show (...)
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  45. Fabrice Correia (2005). Existential Dependence and Cognate Notions. Philosophia Verlag.
    The purpose of the book is to clarify the notion of existential dependence and cognate notions, such as supervenience and the notion of an internal relation. I defend the view that such notions are best understood in terms of the concept of metaphysical grounding, i.e. the concept of one fact obtaining in virtue of other facts, where ‘in virtue of’ has a distinctively metaphysical meaning.
     
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  46. John Stachel (1993). The Meaning of General Covariance. In John Earman, A. Janis & G. Massey (eds.), Philosophical Problems of the Internal and External Worlds: Essays on the Philosophy of Adolph Grünbaum. University of Pittsburgh Press 129--60.
  47.  78
    Bradley Armour-Garb & James A. Woodbridge (2012). Sellars and Pretense on "Truth & 'Correspondence'". Discusiones Filosóficas 13 (21):33-63.
    In this paper, we show how an internal tension in Wilfrid Sellars’s understanding of truth, as well as an external tension in his account of meaning attribution, can be resolved while adhering to a Sellarsian spirit, by appealing to the particular fictionalist accounts of truth-talk and proposition-talk that we have developed elsewhere.
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  48.  76
    James A. McGilvray (1998). Meanings Are Syntactically Individuated and Found in the Head. Mind and Language 13 (2):225-280.
    Expanding on some of Chomsky’s recently expressed views of meaning in a way that is consistent with his long-held rationalist conception of mind, I show how syntax, broadly conceived, could individuate meanings and provide a science of meanings inside the head. Interpretation becomes a pragmatic matter, although a rationalist account of mind shows how internal meanings guide interpretation and, more generally, language use. In this view of meanings, interpretation, and mind, semantics as usually understood disappears.
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  49.  66
    Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (1994). The Internal/External Question. Grazier Philosophishe Studien 47:31-41.
    For Rudolf Carnap the question ‘Do numbers exist?’ does not have just one sense. Asked from within mathematics, it has a trivial answer that could not possibly divide philosophers of mathematics. Asked from outside of mathematics, it lacks meaning. This paper discusses Carnap ’s distinction and defends much of what he has to say.
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  50.  9
    John Barresi, Giving Meaning to Movement: A Developmental Study.
    Recently, researchers have been investigating the effects of kinematic stimulus properties on pattern perception and recognition, However, the stimulus properties that are used to discriminate animate from inanimate objects have received relatively little attention. Earlier research has indicated that the external movement of artificially generated objects is perceived as animate by observers of all ages. In this investigation, children in Grades 1, 4, and 7 and university adults were asked to describe what they saw after viewing computer-generated displays of two (...)
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