Search results for 'language instinct' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. James Pearson (2013). Nietzsche on Instinct and Language Ed. By João Constâncio and Maria João Mayer Branco (Review). Journal of Nietzsche Studies 44 (1):115-117.score: 96.0
    Nietzsche’s critique of the will to truth, and, more specifically, the metaphysical tradition, is inextricable from both his philosophy of language and his turn to physiology. Though the way in which Nietzsche conceived of the intertwinement of language, reason, and the body developed through the course of his philosophical maturation, it is nonetheless a recurrent motif spanning the breadth of his oeuvre. As the editors state in their introduction to Nietzsche on Instinct and Language (NIL), the (...)
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  2. Steven Pinker (1995). The Language Instinct. Harper Perennial.score: 90.0
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  3. Johan De Smedt (2009). Cognitive Modularity in the Light of the Language Faculty. Logique et Analyse 208:373-387.score: 84.0
    Ever since Chomsky, language has become the paradigmatic example of an innate capacity. Infants of only a few months old are aware of the phonetic structure of their mother tongue, such as stress-patterns and phonemes. They can already discriminate words from non-words and acquire a feel for the grammatical structure months before they voice their first word. Language reliably develops not only in the face of poor linguistic input, but even without it. In recent years, several scholars have (...)
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  4. Raymond W. Gibbs Jr & Nathaniel Clark (2012). No Need for Instinct: Coordinated Communication as an Emergent Self Organized Process. Pragmatics and Cognition 20 (2):241-262.score: 48.0
    Language serves many purposes in our individual lives and our varied interpersonal interactions. Daniel Everett's claim that language primarily emerges from an “interactional instinct“ and not a classic “language instinct“ gives proper weight to the importance of coordinated communication in meeting our adaptive needs. Yet the argument that language is a “cultural tool“, motivated by an underlying “instinct“, does not adequately explain the complex, yet complementary nature of both linguistic regularities and variations in (...)
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  5. David J. Cole (1999). I Don't Think So: Pinker on the Mentalese Monopoly. Philosophical Psychology 12 (3):283-295.score: 42.0
    Stephen Pinker sets out over a dozen arguments in The language instinct (Morrow, New York, 1994) for his widely shared view that natural language is inadequate as a medium for thought. Thus he argues we must suppose that the primary medium of thought and inference is an innate propositional representation system, mentalese. I reply to the various arguments and so defend the view that some thought essentially involves natural language. I argue mentalese doesn't solve any of (...)
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  6. Paul E. Griffiths (2004). Instinct in the '50s: The British Reception of Konrad Lorenz's Theory of Instinctive Behavior. Biology and Philosophy 19 (4):609-631.score: 42.0
    At the beginning of the 1950s most students of animal behavior in Britain saw the instinct concept developed by Konrad Lorenz in the 1930s as the central theoretical construct of the new ethology. In the mid 1950s J.B.S. Haldane made substantial efforts to undermine Lorenz''s status as the founder of the new discipline, challenging his priority on key ethological concepts. Haldane was also critical of Lorenz''s sharp distinction between instinctive and learnt behavior. This was inconsistent with Haldane''s account of (...)
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  7. Mohan Matthen (2011). The Art Instinct. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 41 (2):337-356.score: 42.0
    Denis Dutton died a day or two after Christmas in 2010. I had the good fortune to meet him in February 2010, when I participated in an Author-Meets-Critics session on The Art Instinct at the American Philosophical Association, Central Division. (The Critical Notice that follows is a development of my comments there.) Dennis was a passionate, intelligent, influential, and well connected man, who had a vigorous philosophical mind, fully on display in The Art Instinct. Outside of academic philosophy, (...)
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  8. James Russell (2004). What is Language Development?: Rationalist, Empiricist, and Pragmatist Approaches to the Acquisition of Syntax. OUP Oxford.score: 42.0
    Language development is one of the major battle grounds within the humanities and sciences. This is the first time that the three major theories in language development research have been fully described and compared within the covers of a single book. The three approaches: (1) The rationalism of Chomsky and the syntactic nativism that it entails; (2) The empiricism instinct in connectionist modelling of syntactic development; (3) The pragmatism of those who see the child as actively 'constructing' (...)
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  9. Gregory M. Nixon (1999). A 'Hermeneutic Objection': Language and the Inner View. Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 (2-3):257-269.score: 30.0
    In the worlds of philosophy, linguistics, and communications theory, a view has developed which understands conscious experience as experience which is 'reflected' back upon itself through language. This indicates that the consciousness we experience is possible only because we have culturally invented language and subsequently evolved to accommodate it. This accords with the conclusions of Daniel Dennett (1991), but the 'hermeneutic objection' would go further and deny that the objective sciences themselves have escaped the hermeneutic circle. -/- The (...)
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  10. Stephen Crain & Drew Khlentzos (2010). The Logic Instinct. Mind and Language 25 (1):30-65.score: 30.0
    We present a series of arguments for logical nativism, focusing mainly on the meaning of disjunction in human languages. We propose that all human languages are logical in the sense that the meaning of linguistic expressions corresponding to disjunction (e.g. English or , Chinese huozhe, Japanese ka ) conform to the meaning of the logical operator in classical logic, inclusive- or . It is highly implausible, we argue, that children acquire the (logical) meaning of disjunction by observing how adults use (...)
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  11. Liangkang Ni (2009). Moral Instinct and Moral Judgment. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (2):238-250.score: 30.0
    Human beings’ moral life can be divided into two forms, one based on moral instincts and the other on moral judgments. The former is carried on without deliberation, while the latter relies upon valuations and judgments. The two can ultimately be viewed as man’s innate moral nature and acquired moral conventions. Theoretically, preference for the former will lead to naturalism and for the latter to culturalism, but this is the reality of man’s moral life. Moreover, there may be a parallel (...)
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  12. Hao Tang (2014). A Meeting of the Conceptual and the Natural: Wittgenstein on Learning a Sensation‐Language. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 89 (1).score: 30.0
    Since the rise of modern natural science there has been deep tension between the conceptual and the natural. Wittgenstein's discussion of how we learn a sensation-language contains important resources that can help us relieve this tension. The key here, I propose, is to focus our attention on animal nature, conceived as partially re-enchanted (in the sense recommended by John McDowell). To see how nature, so conceived, helps us relieve the tension in question, it is crucial to gain a firm (...)
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  13. Ni Liangkang & Yu Xin (2009). Moral Instinct and Moral Judgment. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (2):238 - 250.score: 30.0
    Human beings' moral life can be divided into two forms, one based on moral instincts and the other on moral judgments. The former is carried on without deliberation, while the latter relies upon valuations and judgments. The two can ultimately be viewed as man's innate moral nature and acquired moral conventions. Theoretically, preference for the former will lead to naturalism and for the latter to culturalism, but this is the reality of man's moral life. Moreover, there may be a parallel (...)
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  14. Steven Pinker, Grammar Puss.score: 24.0
     Language is a human instinct.   All societies have complex language, and everywhere the languages use the same kinds of grammatical machinery like nouns, verbs, auxiliaries, and agreement. All normal children develop language without conscious effort or formal lessons, and by the age of three they speak in  fluent  grammatical  sentences, outperforming the most sophisticated computers. Brain damage or congenital conditions can make a person a linguistic savant while severely retarded, or unable (...)
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  15. Norman Malcolm (1982). Wittgenstein: The Relation of Language to Instinctive Behaviour. Philosophical Investigations 5 (1):3-22.score: 24.0
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  16. Judith Butler (1989). The Body Politics of Julia Kristeva. Hypatia 3 (3):104 - 118.score: 24.0
    Julia Kristeva attempts to expose the limits of Lacan's theory of language by revealing the semiotic dimension of language that it excludes. She argues that the semiotic potential of language is subversive, and describes the semiotic as a poeticmaternal linguistic practice that disrupts the symbolic, understood as culturally intelligible rule-governed speech. In the course of arguing that the semiotic contests the universality of the Symbolic, Kristeva makes several theoretical moves which end up consolidating the power of (...)
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  17. Rush Rhees (1997). Language as Emerging From Instinctive Behaviour. Philosophical Investigations 20 (1):1–14.score: 24.0
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  18. John D. Barrow (2005). The Artful Universe Expanded. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    Our love of art, writes John Barrow, is the end product of millions of years of evolution. How we react to a beautiful painting or symphony draws upon instincts laid down long before humans existed. Now, in this enhanced edition of the highly popular The Artful Universe, Barrow further explores the close ties between our aesthetic appreciation and the basic nature of the Universe. Barrow argues that the laws of the Universe have imprinted themselves upon our thoughts and actions in (...)
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  19. Toni Vogel Carey (2011). The 'Sub-Rational' in Scottish Moral Science. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 9 (2):225-238.score: 24.0
    Jacob Viner introduced the term ‘sub-rational’ to characterize the faculties – human instinct, sentiment and intuition – that fall between animal instinct and full-blown reason. The Scots considered sympathy both an affective and a physiological link between mind and body, and by natural history, they traced the most foundational societal institutions – language and law, money and property – to a sub-rational origin. Their ‘social evolutionism’ anticipated Darwin's ‘dangerous idea’ that humans differ from the lower animals only (...)
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  20. G. E. Vaillant (2011). The Neuroendocrine System and Stress, Emotions, Thoughts and Feelings. Mens Sana Monographs 9 (1):113.score: 24.0
    The philosophy of mind is intimately connected with the philosophy of action. Therefore, concepts like free will, motivation, emotions (especially positive emotions), and also the ethical issues related to these concepts are of abiding interest. However, the concepts of consciousness and free will are usually discussed solely in linguistic, ideational and cognitive (i.e. "left brain") terms. Admittedly, consciousness requires language and the left-brain, but the aphasic right brain is equally conscious; however, what it "hears" are more likely to be (...)
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  21. Chapter Nine, How Successful Is Nation-State?score: 24.0
    We have been witnessing more than two hundred years of successful formation and spread of the nation-state. As a historical reminder, let me quote great French historian of the nineteenth century, Jules Michelet; in spite of its somewhat sentimental tone, his view on the unification of France is typical of what any nationalist would like to say about the successful creation of an ethno-national state: "This unification of France, this destruction of parochial spirit is often considered as the simple result (...)
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  22. John D. Barrow (1995). The Artful Universe. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    Our likes and dislikes--our senses and sensibilities--did not fall ready-made from the sky, argues internationally acclaimed author John D. Barrow. We know we enjoy a beautiful painting or a passionate symphony, but what we don't necessarily understand is that these experiences conjure up latent instincts laid down and perpetuated over millions of years. Now, in The Artful Universe, Barrow explores the close ties between our aesthetic appreciation and the basic nature of the Universe, challenging the commonly held view that our (...)
     
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  23. Juan José Pérez Camacho & Ignacio Sols Lucía (1994). Domingo de Soto en el origen de la ciencia moderna. Revista de Filosofía (Madrid) 12 (1):455.score: 24.0
    As opposed to Descartes, and in accordance with authors such as Nietzsche, Darwin or Chomsky, Pinker sustains that language is just another instinct of human nature. But he differs himself from Chomsky by affirming that language is also the result of the mechanism of natural selection. Recent discoveries seem to strengthen Pinker’s thesis, in as far as it has been possible to establish a link between the FOXP2 gene and language. Philosophy should take good note of (...)
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  24. Jasper Hopkins, Faith and the Rhetoric of Religious Paradox:.score: 24.0
    Within Judeo-Christian theism many of the initially-sounding paradoxical and counter-intuitive expressions—such as Martin Luther’s description of the Christian believer as simul peccator et iustus—seem oftentimes contradictory, or at least pointless, to the unbeliever. Yet, these expressions play an important role within the theistic context of faith. The present essay promotes the view that such expressions should not be eliminatively reduced to “equivalent” restatements of them in non-paradoxical language. For the paradoxical formulations are themselves instinct with a rhetorical force (...)
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  25. Edgar James Swift (1923). Language, Thought, and Instincts. Journal of Philosophy 20 (14):365-372.score: 24.0
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  26. Mark Schroeder (2012). Philosophy of Language for Metaethics. In Gillian Russell & Delia Graff Fara (eds.), The Routledge Companion to the Philosophy of Language. Routledge.score: 21.0
    Metaethics is the study of metaphysics, epistemology, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language, insofar as they relate to the subject matter of moral or, more broadly, normative discourse – the subject matter of what is good, bad, right or wrong, just, reasonable, rational, what we must or ought to do, or otherwise. But out of these four ‘core’ areas of philosophy, it is plausibly the philosophy of language that is most central to metaethics – and (...)
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  27. Peter Carruthers (1998). Conscious Thinking: Language or Elimination? Mind and Language 13 (4):457-476.score: 21.0
    Do we conduct our conscious propositional thinking in natural language? Or is such language only peripherally related to human conscious thought-processes? In this paper I shall present a partial defence of the former view, by arguing that the only real alternative is eliminativism about conscious propositional thinking. Following some introductory remarks, I shall state the argument for this conclusion, and show how that conclusion can be true. Thereafter I shall defend each of the three main premises in turn.
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  28. Barry C. Smith (2006). What I Know When I Know a Language. In Ernest Lepore & Barry C. Smith (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Language. Oxford University Press.score: 21.0
    EVERY speaker of a language knows a bewildering variety of linguistic facts, and will come to know many more. It is knowledge that connects sound and meaning. Questions about the nature of this knowledge cannot be separated from fundamental questions about the nature of language. The conception of language we should adopt depends on the part it plays in explaining our knowledge of language. This chapter explores options in accounting for language, and our knowledge of (...)
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  29. Christopher D. Viger (2005). Learning to Think: A Response to the Language of Thought Argument for Innateness. Mind and Language 20 (3):313-25.score: 21.0
    Jerry Fodor's argument for an innate language of thought continues to be a hurdle for researchers arguing that natural languages provide us with richer conceptual systems than our innate cognitive resources. I argue that because the logical/formal terms of natural languages are given a usetheory of meaning, unlike predicates, logical/formal terms might be learned without a mediating internal representation. In that case, our innate representational system might have less logical structure than a natural language, making it possible that (...)
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  30. Eugen Fischer (2014). Verbal Fallacies and Philosophical Intuitions: The Continuing Relevance of Ordinary Language Analysis. In Brian Garvey (ed.), Austin on Language. Palgrave Macmillan. 124-140.score: 21.0
    The paper builds on a methodological idea from experimental philosophy and on findings from psycholinguistics, to develop and defend ordinary language analysis (OLA) as practiced in J.L. Austin’s Sense and Sensibilia. That attack on sense-datum theories of perception focuses on the argument from illusion. Through a case-study on this paradoxical argument, the present paper argues for a form of OLA which is psychologically informed, seeks to expose epistemic, rather than semantic, defects in paradoxical arguments, and is immune to the (...)
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  31. Willard V. Quine (1997). The Flowering of Thought in Language. In John M. Preston (ed.), Thought and Language. New York: Cambridge University Press. 171-.score: 21.0
    PHILOSOPHY Supplement: 42 Pages: 171-176 Published: 1997 Conference: Annual Conference of the Royal-Institute-of-Philosophy Location: UNIV READING, READING, ENGLAND Date: SEP , 1996 Sponsor(s): Royal Inst Philos Accession Number: WOS:000071935500009 Document Type: Article; Proceedings Paper Language: English Reprint Address: Quine, WV (reprint author), Harvard Univ, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA Addresses: 1. Harvard Univ, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA Publisher: CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 40 WEST 20TH STREET, NEW YORK, NY 10011-4211 USA Web of Science Category: Philosophy Subject Category: Philosophy IDS Number: YW440 (...)
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  32. Machiel Keestra & Stephen Cowley (2009). Foundationalism and Neuroscience; Silence and Language. Language Sciences 31:531-552.score: 21.0
    Neuroscience offers more than new empirical evidence about the details of cognitive functions such as language, perception and action. Since it also shows many functions to be highly distributed, interconnected and dependent on mechanisms at different levels of processing, it challenges concepts that are traditionally used to describe these functions. The question is how to accommodate these concepts to the recent evidence. A recent proposal, made in Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience (2003) by Bennett and Hacker, is that concepts play (...)
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  33. Ian Pratt-Hartmann (2004). Fragments of Language. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 13 (2):207-223.score: 21.0
    By a fragment of a natural language we mean a subset of thatlanguage equipped with semantics which translate its sentences intosome formal system such as first-order logic. The familiar conceptsof satisfiability and entailment can be defined for anysuch fragment in a natural way. The question therefore arises, for anygiven fragment of a natural language, as to the computational complexityof determining satisfiability and entailment within that fragment. Wepresent a series of fragments of English for which the satisfiabilityproblem is polynomial, (...)
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  34. Miklós Erdélyi-Szabó, László Kálmán & Agi Kurucz (2008). Towards a Natural Language Semantics Without Functors and Operands. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 17 (1):1-17.score: 21.0
    The paper sets out to offer an alternative to the function/argument approach to the most essential aspects of natural language meanings. That is, we question the assumption that semantic completeness (of, e.g., propositions) or incompleteness (of, e.g., predicates) exactly replicate the corresponding grammatical concepts (of, e.g., sentences and verbs, respectively). We argue that even if one gives up this assumption, it is still possible to keep the compositionality of the semantic interpretation of simple predicate/argument structures. In our opinion, compositionality (...)
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  35. Johan van Benthem (forthcoming). Natural Language and Logic of Agency. Journal of Logic, Language and Information:1-16.score: 21.0
    This light piece reflects on analogies between two often disjoint streams of research: the logical semantics and pragmatics of natural language and dynamic logics of general information-driven agency. The two areas show significant overlap in themes and tools, and yet, the focus seems subtly different in each, defying a simple comparison. We discuss some unusual questions that emerge when the two are put side by side, without any pretense at covering the whole literature or at reaching definitive conclusions.
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  36. Jon Williamson (2003). Bayesianism and Language Change. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 12 (1):53-97.score: 21.0
    Bayesian probability is normally defined over a fixed language or eventspace. But in practice language is susceptible to change, and thequestion naturally arises as to how Bayesian degrees of belief shouldchange as language changes. I argue here that this question poses aserious challenge to Bayesianism. The Bayesian may be able to meet thischallenge however, and I outline a practical method for changing degreesof belief over changes in finite propositional languages.
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  37. Fairouz Kamareddine & Rob Nederpelt (2004). A Refinement of de Bruijn's Formal Language of Mathematics. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 13 (3):287-340.score: 21.0
    We provide a syntax and a derivation system fora formal language of mathematics called Weak Type Theory (WTT). We give the metatheory of WTT and a number of illustrative examples.WTT is a refinement of de Bruijn''s Mathematical Vernacular (MV) and hence:– WTT is faithful to the mathematician''s language yet isformal and avoids ambiguities.
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  38. Ivano Caponigro & Kathryn Davidson (2011). Ask, and Tell as Well: Question–Answer Clauses in American Sign Language. Natural Language Semantics 19 (4):323-371.score: 21.0
    A construction is found in American Sign Language that we call a Question–Answer Clause. It is made of two parts: the first part looks like an interrogative clause conveying a question, while the second part resembles a declarative clause answering that question. The very same signer has to sign both, the entire construction is interpreted as truth-conditionally equivalent to a declarative sentence, and it can be uttered only under certain discourse conditions. These and other properties of Question–Answer Clauses are (...)
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  39. W. Garrett Mitchener (2011). A Mathematical Model of Prediction-Driven Instability: How Social Structure Can Drive Language Change. [REVIEW] Journal of Logic, Language and Information 20 (3):385-396.score: 21.0
    I discuss a stochastic model of language learning and change. During a syntactic change, each speaker makes use of constructions from two different idealized grammars at variable rates. The model incorporates regularization in that speakers have a slight preference for using the dominant idealized grammar. It also includes incrementation: The population is divided into two interacting generations. Children can detect correlations between age and speech. They then predict where the population’s language is moving and speak according to that (...)
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  40. Henry Laycock, Language. “The Language of Science” (ISSN Code.score: 21.0
    I offer a synoptic account of some chief parameters of language and its relationship to communication and to thought, distinguishing in the process between semantical and pragmatic dimensions of utterance.
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  41. Barry C. Smith (2006). What We Know When We Know a Language. In Ernest Lepore & Barry C. Smith (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Language. Oup Oxford.score: 21.0
    EVERY speaker of a language knows a bewildering variety of linguistic facts, and will come to know many more. It is knowledge that connects sound and meaning. Questions about the nature of this knowledge cannot be separated from fundamental questions about the nature of language. The conception of language we should adopt depends on the part it plays in explaining our knowledge of language. This chapter explores options in accounting for language, and our knowledge of (...)
     
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  42. Caj Strandberg (2012). A Dual Aspect Account of Moral Language. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 84 (1):87-122.score: 18.0
    It is often observed in metaethics that moral language displays a certain duality in as much as it seems to concern both objective facts in the world and subjective attitudes that move to action. In this paper, I defend The Dual Aspect Account which is intended to capture this duality: A person’s utterance of a sentence according to which φing has a moral characteristic, such as “φing is wrong,” conveys two things: The sentence expresses, in virtue of its conventional (...)
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  43. Steven Pinker & Paul Bloom (1990). Natural Language and Natural Selection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):707-27.score: 18.0
    Many people have argued that the evolution of the human language faculty cannot be explained by Darwinian natural selection. Chomsky and Gould have suggested that language may have evolved as the by-product of selection for other abilities or as a consequence of as-yet unknown laws of growth and form. Others have argued that a biological specialization for grammar is incompatible with every tenet of Darwinian theory – that it shows no genetic variation, could not exist in any intermediate (...)
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  44. Stewart Duncan, Hobbes on Language: Propositions, Truth, and Absurdity.score: 18.0
    Draft for Martinich and Hoekstra (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Hobbes. -/- Language was central to Hobbes's understanding of human beings and their mental abilities, and criticism of other philosophers' uses of language became a favorite critical tool for him. This paper connects Hobbes's theories about language to his criticisms of others' language, examining Hobbes's theories of propositions and truth, and how they relate to his claims that various sorts of proposition are absurd. It considers whether Hobbes (...)
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  45. Brent Silby, Revealing the Language of Thought.score: 18.0
    Language of thought theories fall primarily into two views. The first view sees the language of thought as an innate language known as mentalese, which is hypothesized to operate at a level below conscious awareness while at the same time operating at a higher level than the neural events in the brain. The second view supposes that the language of thought is not innate. Rather, the language of thought is natural language. So, as an (...)
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  46. Barry C. Smith (2008). What Remains of Our Knowledge of Language? Croatian Journal of Philosophy 8 (22):557-75.score: 18.0
    The new Chomskian orthodoxy denies that our linguistic competence gives us knowledge *of* a language, and that the representations in the language faculty are representations *of* anything. In reply, I have argued that through their intuitions speaker/hearers, (but not their language faculties) have knowledge of language, though not of any externally existing language. In order to count as knowledge, these intuitions must track linguistic facts represented in the language faculty. I defend this idea against (...)
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  47. Jerry A. Fodor (2001). Language, Thought and Compositionality. Mind and Language 16 (1):1-15.score: 18.0
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  48. Jonathan Gray (2012). Hamann, Nietzsche, and Wittgenstein on the Language of Philosophers. In Lisa Marie Anderson (ed.), Hamann and the Tradition. Northwestern University Press.score: 18.0
    In this chapter I shall examine some of Johann Georg Hamann’s claims about how philosophers misuse, misunderstand, and are misled by language. I will then examine how he anticipates things that Friedrich Nietzsche and Ludwig Wittgenstein say on this topic.
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  49. Barry C. Smith (2006). Why We Still Need Knowledge of Language. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 6 (18):431-457.score: 18.0
    In his latest book, Michael Devitt rejects Chomsky’s mentalist conception of linguistics. The case against Chomsky is based on two principal claims. First, that we can separate the study of linguistic competence from the study of its outputs: only the latter belongs to linguistic inquiry. Second, Chomsky’s account of a speaker’s competence as consisiting in the mental representation of rules of a grammar for his language is mistaken. I shall argue, fi rst, that Devitt fails to make a case (...)
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  50. William G. Lycan (2000). Philosophy of Language: A Contemporary Introduction. Routledge.score: 18.0
    Philosophy of Language introduces the non-specialist to the main issues and theories in twentieth-century philosophy of language, focusing specifically on linguistic phenomena. Part I explores several theories of how proper names, descriptions, and other terms bear a referential relation to non-linguistic objects. Part II surveys competing theories of linguistic meaning and compares their various advantages and liabilities. Part III introduces the basic concepts of linguistic pragmatics, includes a detailed discussion of the problems of indirect force, and Part IV (...)
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