Search results for 'linguistic experiments' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Thought Experiments (1992). Thought Experiments and the Epistemology of Laws. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 22:15-4.score: 120.0
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  2. Christina Behme (2014). Assessing Direct and Indirect Evidence in Linguistic Research. Topoi 33 (2):373-383.score: 102.0
    This paper focuses on the linguistic evidence base provided by proponents of conceptualism (e.g., Chomsky) and rational realism (e.g., Katz) and challenges some of the arguments alleging that the evidence allowed by conceptualists is superior to that of rational realists. Three points support this challenge. First, neither conceptualists nor realists are in a position to offer direct evidence. This challenges the conceptualists’ claim that their evidence is inherently superior. Differences between the kinds of available indirect evidence will be discussed. (...)
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  3. Brian Riordan & Michael N. Jones (2011). Redundancy in Perceptual and Linguistic Experience: Comparing Feature-Based and Distributional Models of Semantic Representation. Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (2):303-345.score: 72.0
    Abstract Since their inception, distributional models of semantics have been criticized as inadequate cognitive theories of human semantic learning and representation. A principal challenge is that the representations derived by distributional models are purely symbolic and are not grounded in perception and action; this challenge has led many to favor feature-based models of semantic representation. We argue that the amount of perceptual and other semantic information that can be learned from purely distributional statistics has been underappreciated. We compare the representations (...)
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  4. Nat Hansen (2013). A Slugfest of Intuitions: Contextualism and Experimental Design. Synthese 190 (10):1771-1792.score: 66.0
    This paper considers ways that experimental design can affect judgments about informally presented context shifting experiments. Reasons are given to think that judgments about informal context shifting experiments are affected by an exclusive reliance on binary truth value judgments and by experimenter bias. Exclusive reliance on binary truth value judgments may produce experimental artifacts by obscuring important differences of degree between the phenomena being investigated. Experimenter bias is an effect generated when, for example, experimenters disclose (even unconsciously) their (...)
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  5. Max Louwerse & Sterling Hutchinson (2012). Neurological Evidence Linguistic Processes Precede Perceptual Simulation in Conceptual Processing. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 66.0
    There is increasing evidence from response time experiments that language statistics and perceptual simulations both play a role in conceptual processing. In an EEG experiment we compared neural activity in cortical regions commonly associated with linguistic processing and visual perceptual processing to determine to what extent symbolic and embodied accounts of cognition applied. Participants were asked to determine the semantic relationship of word pairs (e.g., sky – ground) or to determine their iconic relationship (i.e., if the presentation of (...)
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  6. Sterling Hutchinson Max Louwerse (2012). Neurological Evidence Linguistic Processes Precede Perceptual Simulation in Conceptual Processing. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 66.0
    There is increasing evidence from response time experiments that language statistics and perceptual simulations both play a role in conceptual processing. In an EEG experiment we compared neural activity in cortical regions commonly associated with linguistic processing and visual perceptual processing to determine to what extent symbolic and embodied accounts of cognition applied. Participants were asked to determine the semantic relationship of word pairs (e.g., sky – ground) or to determine their iconic relationship (i.e., if the presentation of (...)
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  7. Oren Kolodny, Arnon Lotem & Shimon Edelman (2014). Learning a Generative Probabilistic Grammar of Experience: A Process‐Level Model of Language Acquisition. Cognitive Science 38 (4).score: 62.0
    We introduce a set of biologically and computationally motivated design choices for modeling the learning of language, or of other types of sequential, hierarchically structured experience and behavior, and describe an implemented system that conforms to these choices and is capable of unsupervised learning from raw natural-language corpora. Given a stream of linguistic input, our model incrementally learns a grammar that captures its statistical patterns, which can then be used to parse or generate new data. The grammar constructed in (...)
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  8. András Kertész (forthcoming). The Puzzle of Thought Experiments in Conceptual Metaphor Research. Foundations of Science:1-28.score: 58.0
    How can thought experiments lead to new empirical knowledge if they do not make use of empirical information? This puzzle has been widely discussed in the philosophy of science. It arises in conceptual metaphor research as well and is especially important for the clarification of its empirical foundations. The aim of the paper is to suggest a possible solution to the puzzle of thought experiments in conceptual metaphor research. The solution rests on the application of a novel metatheoretical (...)
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  9. John M. Mikhail (2011). Elements of Moral Cognition: Rawls' Linguistic Analogy and the Cognitive Science of Moral and Legal Judgment. Cambridge University Press.score: 54.0
    Is the science of moral cognition usefully modeled on aspects of Universal Grammar? Are human beings born with an innate "moral grammar" that causes them to analyze human action in terms of its moral structure, with just as little awareness as they analyze human speech in terms of its grammatical structure? Questions like these have been at the forefront of moral psychology ever since John Mikhail revived them in his influential work on the linguistic analogy and its implications for (...)
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  10. Ira A. Noveck, Gennaro Chierchia, Florelle Chevaux, Raphaelle Guelminger & Emmanuel Sylvestre (2002). Linguistic-Pragmatic Factors in Interpreting Disjunctions. Thinking and Reasoning 8 (4):297 – 326.score: 54.0
    The connective or can be treated as an inclusive disjunction or else as an exclusive disjunction. Although researchers are aware of this distinction, few have examined the conditions under which each interpretation should be anticipated. Based on linguistic-pragmatic analyses, we assume that interpretations are initially inclusive before either (a) remaining so, or (b) becoming exclusive by way of an implicature ( but not both ). We point to a class of situations that ought to predispose disjunctions to inclusive interpretations (...)
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  11. H. Wind Cowles, Matthew Walenski & Robert Kluender (2007). Linguistic and Cognitive Prominence in Anaphor Resolution: Topic, Contrastive Focus and Pronouns. Topoi 26 (1):3-18.score: 54.0
    This paper examines the role that linguistic and cognitive prominence play in the resolution of anaphor–antecedent relationships. In two experiments, we found that pronouns are immediately sensitive to the cognitive prominence of potential antecedents when other antecedent selection cues are uninformative. In experiment 1, results suggest that despite their theoretical dissimilarities, topic and contrastive focus both serve to enhance cognitive prominence. Results from experiment 2 suggest that the contrastive prosody appropriate for focus constructions may also play an important (...)
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  12. Jennifer Culbertson, Paul Smolensky & Colin Wilson (2013). Cognitive Biases, Linguistic Universals, and Constraint‐Based Grammar Learning. Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (3):392-424.score: 54.0
    According to classical arguments, language learning is both facilitated and constrained by cognitive biases. These biases are reflected in linguistic typology—the distribution of linguistic patterns across the world's languages—and can be probed with artificial grammar experiments on child and adult learners. Beginning with a widely successful approach to typology (Optimality Theory), and adapting techniques from computational approaches to statistical learning, we develop a Bayesian model of cognitive biases and show that it accounts for the detailed pattern of (...)
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  13. Anna Papafragou, Spatial Position in Language and Visual Memory: A Cross-Linguistic Comparison.score: 54.0
    German and English speakers employ different strategies to encode static spatial scenes involving the axial position (standing vs. lying) of an inanimate figure object with respect to a ground object. In a series of three experiments, we show that this linguistic difference is not reflected in native speakers’ ability to detect changes in axial position in nonlinguistic memory tasks. Furthermore, even when participants are required to use language to encode a spatial scene, they do not rely on language (...)
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  14. Barbara Tomaszewicz (2013). Linguistic and Visual Cognition: Verifying Proportional and Superlative Most in Bulgarian and Polish. [REVIEW] Journal of Logic, Language and Information 22 (3):335-356.score: 54.0
    The verification of a sentence against a visual display in experimental conditions reveals a procedure that is driven solely by the properties of the linguistic input and not by the properties of the context (the set-up of the visual display) or extra-linguistic cognition (operations executed to obtain the truth value). This procedure, according to the Interface Transparency Thesis (ITT) (Lidz et al. in Nat Lang Semant 19(3):227–256, 2011), represents the meaning of an expression at the interface with the (...)
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  15. Martin K. Jones (2007). A Gricean Analysis of Understanding in Economic Experiments. Journal of Economic Methodology 14 (2):167-185.score: 54.0
    Understanding is an issue of crucial importance in economic experiments. Different ideas of how to achieve full understanding have resulted in disparate and contradictory recommendations on the correct methods for economic experiments. It is argued that a more systematic approach is necessary based on the linguistic theories of pragmatics put forward by Grice. This provides resources for assessing understanding in practical experiments. JEL classification: B41.
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  16. Jonas Åkerman (2013). Forced‐March Sorites Arguments and Linguistic Competence. Dialectica 67 (4):403-426.score: 54.0
    Agent relativists about vagueness (henceforth ‘agent relativists’) hold that whether or not an object x falls in the extension of a vague predicate ‘P’ at a time t depends on the judgemental dispositions of a particular competent agent at t. My aim in this paper is to critically examine arguments that purport to support agent relativism by appealing to data from forced-march Sorites experiments. The most simple and direct versions of such forced-march Sorites arguments rest on the following (implicit) (...)
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  17. Julien Musolino (2004). The Semantics and Acquisition of Number Words: Integrating Linguistic and Developmental Perspectives. Cognition 93 (1):1-41.score: 54.0
    This article brings together two independent lines of research on numerally quantified expressions, e.g. two girls. One stems from work in linguistic theory and asks what truth conditional contributions such expressions make to the utterances in which they are used--in other words, what do numerals mean? The other comes from the study of language development and asks when and how children learn the meaning of such expressions. My goal is to show that when integrated, these two perspectives can both (...)
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  18. Max M. Louwerse & Patrick Jeuniaux (2010). The Linguistic and Embodied Nature of Conceptual Processing. Cognition 114 (1):96-104.score: 54.0
    Recent theories of cognition have argued that embodied experience is important for conceptual processing. Embodiment can be contrasted with linguistic factors such as the typical order in which words appear in language. Here, we report four experiments that investigated the conditions under which embodiment and linguistic factors determine performance. Participants made speeded judgments about whether pairs of words or pictures were semantically related or had an iconic relationship. The embodiment factor was operationalized as the degree to which (...)
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  19. Katherine A. Yoshida, John R. Iversen, Aniruddh D. Patel, Reiko Mazuka, Hiromi Nito, Judit Gervain & Janet F. Werker (2010). The Development of Perceptual Grouping Biases in Infancy: A Japanese-English Cross-Linguistic Study. Cognition 115 (2):356-361.score: 54.0
    Perceptual grouping has traditionally been thought to be governed by innate, universal principles. However, recent work has found differences in Japanese and English speakers' non-linguistic perceptual grouping, implicating language in non-linguistic perceptual processes (Iversen, Patel, & Ohgushi, 2008). Two experiments test Japanese- and English-learning infants of 5-6 and 7-8 months of age to explore the development of grouping preferences. At 5-6 months, neither the Japanese nor the English infants revealed any systematic perceptual biases. However, by 7-8 months, (...)
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  20. Louis Sass & Elizabeth Pienkos (2013). Beyond Words: Linguistic Experience in Melancholia, Mania, and Schizophrenia. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-21.score: 52.0
    In this paper, we use a phenomenological approach to compare the unusual ways in which language can be experienced by individuals with schizophrenia or severe mood disorders, specifically mania and melancholia (psychotic depression). Our discussion follows a tripartite/dialectical format: first we describe traditionally observed distinctions (i.e., decrease or increase in amount or rate of speech in the affective conditions, versus alterations of coherence, clarity, or interpersonal anchoring in schizophrenia); then we consider some apparent similarities in the experience of language in (...)
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  21. George Turski (1991). Experience and Expression: The Moral Linguistic Constitution of Emotions. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 21 (4):373–392.score: 50.0
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  22. I. Blecha (2005). Language Games and Pre-Linguistic Experience. Organon F. Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 12 (1):21-39.score: 50.0
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  23. Roger N. Shepard (1993). On the Physical Basis, Linguistic Representation, and Conscious Experience of Colors. In Gilbert Harman (ed.), Conceptions of the Human Mind: Essays in Honor of George A. Miller. Lawrence Erlbaum.score: 50.0
     
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  24. Sebastian Lutz (2009). Ideal Language Philosophy and Experiments on Intuitions. Studia Philosophica Estonica 2 (2):117-139.score: 48.0
    Proponents of linguistic philosophy hold that all non-empirical philosophical problems can be solved by either analyzing ordinary language or developing an ideal one. I review the debates on linguistic philosophy and between ordinary and ideal language philosophy. Using arguments from these debates, I argue that the results of experimental philosophy on intuitions support linguistic philosophy. Within linguistic philosophy, these experimental results support and complement ideal language philosophy. I argue further that some of the critiques of experimental (...)
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  25. Michael Devitt (2012). Semantic Epistemology: Response to Machery. Theoria 27 (2):229-233.score: 48.0
    Machery argues: (1) that “philosophers’ intuitions about reference are not more reliable than lay people’s —if anything, they are probably worse”; (2) that “intuitions about the reference of proper names and uses of proper names provide equally good evidence for theories of reference”. (1) lacks theoretical and empirical support. (2) cannot be right because usage provides the evidence that intuitions are reliable.
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  26. Bryan Frances (1999). On the Explanatory Deficiencies of Linguistic Content. Philosophical Studies 93 (1):45-75.score: 40.0
    The Burge-Putnam thought experiments have generated the thesis that beliefs are not fixed by the constitution of the body. However, many philosophers have thought that if this is true then there must be another content-like property. Even if the contents of our attitudes such as the one in ‘believes that aluminum is a light metal’, do not supervene on our physical makeups, nevertheless people who are physical duplicates must be the same when it comes to evaluating their rationality and (...)
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  27. Erik Stenius (1954). Linguistic Structure and the Structure of Experience. Theoria 20 (1-3):153-172.score: 40.0
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  28. Karen Ann Watson‐Gegeo (2004). A Different World: Embodied Experience and Linguistic Relativity on the Epistemological Path to Somewhere. Anthropology of Consciousness 15 (2):1-23.score: 40.0
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  29. Jonathan Bennett (1957). Review: Erik Stenius, Linguistic Structure and the Structure of Experience. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 22 (4):398-399.score: 40.0
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  30. Kathleen Canning (forthcoming). Feminist History After the Linguistic Turn: Historicizing Discourse and Experience. History and Theory: Feminist Research, Debates, Contestations.score: 40.0
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  31. Max Louwerse & Louise Connell (2011). A Taste of Words: Linguistic Context and Perceptual Simulation Predict the Modality of Words. Cognitive Science 35 (2):381-398.score: 38.0
    Previous studies have shown that object properties are processed faster when they follow properties from the same perceptual modality than properties from different modalities. These findings suggest that language activates sensorimotor processes, which, according to those studies, can only be explained by a modal account of cognition. The current paper shows how a statistical linguistic approach of word co-occurrences can also reliably predict the category of perceptual modality a word belongs to (auditory, olfactory–gustatory, visual–haptic), even though the statistical (...) approach is less precise than the modal approach (auditory, gustatory, haptic, olfactory, visual). Moreover, the statistical linguistic approach is compared with the modal embodied approach in an experiment in which participants verify properties that share or shift modalities. Response times suggest that fast responses can best be explained by the linguistic account, whereas slower responses can best be explained by the embodied account. These results provide further evidence for the theory that conceptual processing is both linguistic and embodied, whereby less precise linguistic processes precede precise simulation processes. (shrink)
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  32. Zoltán Boldizsár Simon (2013). Experience as the Invisible Drive of Historical Writing. Journal of the Philosophy of History 7 (2):183-204.score: 38.0
    From time to time our tiny intellectual worlds are simultaneously shaken by big ideas – ideas that, however big they are, have their expiration-date. Such is the case with the idea of the impossibility to find life outside language. In this essay, I picture what I think is the current state of the philosophy of history after the so-called linguistic turn and what I think the direction is where the philosophy of history might be headed by taking into account (...)
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  33. Judit Gervain, Nuria Sebastian-Galles, Begona Diaz, Itziar Laka, Reiko Mazuka, Naoto Yamane, Marina Nespor & Jacques Mehler (2013). Word Frequency Cues Word Order in Adults: Cross-Linguistic Evidence. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 38.0
    One universal feature of human languages is the division between grammatical functors and content words. From a learnability point of view, functors might provide entry points or anchors into the syntactic structure of utterances due to their high frequency. Despite its potentially universal scope, this hypothesis has not yet been tested on typologically different languages and on populations of different ages. Here we report a corpus study and an artificial grammar learning experiment testing the anchoring hypothesis in Basque, Japanese, French (...)
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  34. Jack Reynolds (2010). Common Sense and Philosophical Methodology: Some Metaphilosophical Reflections on Analytic Philosophy and Deleuze. Philosophical Forum 41 (3):231-258.score: 36.0
    On the question of precisely what role common sense (or related datum like folk psychology, trust in pre-theoretic/intuitive judgments, etc.) should have in reigning in the possible excesses of our philosophical methods, the so-called ‘continental’ answer to this question, for the vast majority, would be “as little as possible”, whereas the analytic answer for the vast majority would be “a reasonably central one”. While this difference at the level of both rhetoric and meta-philosophy is sometimes – perhaps often – problematised (...)
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  35. Giulio Benedetti, Giorgio Marchetti, Alexander A. Fingelkurts & Andrew A. Fingelkurts (2010). Mind Operational Semantics and Brain Operational Architectonics: A Putative Correspondence. Open Neuroimaging Journal 4:53-69.score: 36.0
    Despite allowing for the unprecedented visualization of brain functional activity, modern neurobio-logical techniques have not yet been able to provide satisfactory answers to important questions about the relationship between brain and mind. The aim of this paper is to show how two different but complementary approaches, Mind Operational Semantics (OS) and Brain Operational Architectonics (OA), can help bridge the gap between a specific kind of mental activity—the higher-order reflective thought or linguistic thought—and brain. The fundamental notion that allows the (...)
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  36. Michael Devitt (2012). Whither Experimental Semantics? Theoria 27 (1):5-36.score: 36.0
    The main goal of the paper is to propose a methodology for the theory of reference in which experiments feature prominently. These experiments should primarily test linguistic usage rather than the folk’s referential intuitions. The proposed methodology urges the use of: (A) philosophers’ referential intuitions, both informally and, occasionally, scientifically gathered; (B) the corpus, both informally and scientifically gathered; (C) elicited production; and, occasionally, (D) folk’s referential intuitions. The most novel part of this is (C) and that (...)
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  37. Christine A. Caldwell (2008). Convergent Cultural Evolution May Explain Linguistic Universals. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (5):515-516.score: 36.0
    Christiansen & Chater's (C&C's) argument rests on an assumption that convergent cultural evolution can produce similar (complex) behaviours in isolated populations. In this commentary, I describe how experiments recently carried out by Caldwell and colleagues can contribute to the understanding of such phenomena.
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  38. Guy Politzer (2005). Uncertainty and the Suppression of Inferences. Thinking and Reasoning 11 (1):5 – 33.score: 36.0
    The explanation of the suppression of Modus Ponens inferences within the framework of linguistic pragmatics and of plausible reasoning (i.e., deduction from uncertain premises) is defended. First, this approach is expounded, and then it is shown that the results of the first experiment of Byrne, Espino, and Santamar a (1999) support the uncertainty explanation but fail to support their counterexample explanation. Second, two experiments are presented. In the first one, aimed to refute one objection regarding the conclusions observed, (...)
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  39. Sandeep Prasada, Laura Hennefield & Daniel Otap (2012). Conceptual and Linguistic Representations of Kinds and Classes. Cognitive Science 36 (7):1224-1250.score: 36.0
    We investigate the hypothesis that our conceptual systems provide two formally distinct ways of representing categories by investigating the manner in which lexical nominals (e.g., tree, picnic table) and phrasal nominals (e.g., black bird, birds that like rice) are interpreted. Four experiments found that lexical nominals may be mapped onto kind representations, whereas phrasal nominals map onto class representations but not kind representations. Experiment 1 found that phrasal nominals, unlike lexical nominals, are mapped onto categories whose members need not (...)
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  40. Yasuyo Minagawa-Kawai, Alejandrina Cristia, Bria Long, Inga Vendelin, Yoko Hakuno, Michel Dutat, Luca Filippin, Dominique Cabrol & Emmanuel Dupoux (2013). Inights on NIRS Sensitivity From a Cross-Linguistic Study on the Emergence of Phonological Grammar. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 36.0
    Each language has a unique set of phonemic categories and phonotactic rules which determine permissible sound sequences in that language. Behavioral research demonstrates that one’s native language shapes the perception of both sound categories and sound sequences in adults, and neuroimaging results further indicate that the processing of native phonemes and phonotactics involves a left-dominant perisylvian brain network. Recent work using a novel technique, functional Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS), has suggested that a left-dominant network becomes evident towards the end of (...)
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  41. Amy Perfors & Daniel J. Navarro (2014). Language Evolution Can Be Shaped by the Structure of the World. Cognitive Science 38 (1):775-793.score: 36.0
    Human languages vary in many ways but also show striking cross-linguistic universals. Why do these universals exist? Recent theoretical results demonstrate that Bayesian learners transmitting language to each other through iterated learning will converge on a distribution of languages that depends only on their prior biases about language and the quantity of data transmitted at each point; the structure of the world being communicated about plays no role (Griffiths & Kalish, , ). We revisit these findings and show that (...)
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  42. Matthew W. Crocker Afra Alishahi, Afsaneh Fazly, Judith Koehne (2012). Sentence-Based Attentional Mechanisms in Word Learning: Evidence From a Computational Model. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 36.0
    When looking for the referents of nouns, adults and young children are sensitive to cross- situational statistics (Yu & Smith, 2007; Smith & Yu, 2008). In addition, the linguistic context that a word appears in has been shown to act as a powerful attention mechanism for guiding sentence processing and word learning (Landau & Gleitman, 1985; Altmann & Kamide, 1999; Kako & Trueswell, 2000). Koehne & Crocker (2010, 2011) investigate the interaction between cross-situational evidence and guidance from the sentential (...)
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  43. Afra Alishahi, Afsaneh Fazly, Judith Koehne & Matthew W. Crocker (2012). Sentence-Based Attentional Mechanisms in Word Learning: Evidence From a Computational Model. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 36.0
    When looking for the referents of nouns, adults and young children are sensitive to cross- situational statistics (Yu & Smith, 2007; Smith & Yu, 2008). In addition, the linguistic context that a word appears in has been shown to act as a powerful attention mechanism for guiding sentence processing and word learning (Landau & Gleitman, 1985; Altmann & Kamide, 1999; Kako & Trueswell, 2000). Koehne & Crocker (2010, 2011) investigate the interaction between cross-situational evidence and guidance from the sentential (...)
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  44. Stephen Crain, Andrea Gualmini & Paul M. Pietroski (2005). Brass Tacks in Linguistic Theory: Innate Grammatical Principles. In Peter Carruthers, Stephen Laurence & Stephen Stich (eds.), The Innate Mind: Structure and Contents. New York: Oxford University Press New York. 1--175.score: 34.0
    In the normal course of events, children manifest linguistic competence equivalent to that of adults in just a few years. Children can produce and understand novel sentences, they can judge that certain strings of words are true or false, and so on. Yet experience appears to dramatically underdetermine the com- petence children so rapidly achieve, even given optimistic assumptions about children’s nonlinguistic capacities to extract information and form generalizations on the basis of statistical regularities in the input. These considerations (...)
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  45. Kristian Tylén, Riccardo Fusaroli, Peer Bundgaard & Svend Østergaard (2013). Making Sense Together: A Dynamical Account of Linguistic Meaning Making. Semiotica 194 (194):39-62.score: 34.0
    How is linguistic communication possible? How do we come to share the same meanings of words and utterances? One classical position holds that human beings share a transcendental “platonic” ideality independent of individual cognition and language use (Frege 1948). Another stresses immanent linguistic relations (Saussure 1959), and yet another basic embodied structures as the ground for invariant aspects of meaning (Lakoff and Johnson 1999). Here we propose an alternative account in which the possibility for sharing meaning is motivated (...)
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  46. Ullin T. Place (1992). The Role of the Ethnomethodological Experiment in the Empirical Investigation of Social Norms and its Application to Conceptual Analysis. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 22 (4):461-474.score: 34.0
    It is argued that conceptual analysis as practiced by the philosophers of ordinary language, is an empirical procedure that relies on a version of Garfinkel's ethnomethodological experiment. The ethnomethodological experiment is presented as a procedure in which the existence and nature of a social norm is demonstrated by flouting the putative convention and observing what reaction that produces in the social group within which the convention is assumed to operate. Examples are given of the use of ethnomethodological experiments, both (...)
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  47. Nicole Y. Y. Wicha Ryan J. Giuliano, Peter Q. Pfordresher, Emily M. Stanley, Shalini Narayana (2011). Native Experience with a Tone Language Enhances Pitch Discrimination and the Timing of Neural Responses to Pitch Change. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 34.0
    Native tone language experience has been linked with alterations in the production and perception of pitch in language, as well as with the brain response to linguistic and non-linguistic tones. Here we use two experiments to address whether these changes apply to the discrimination of simple pitch changes and pitch intervals. ERPs were recorded from native Mandarin speakers and a control group during a same/different task with pairs of pure tones differing only in pitch height, and with (...)
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  48. Marc D. Hauser, Liane Young & Fiery Cushman (2008). Reviving Rawls's Linguistic Analogy: Operative Principles and the Causal Structure of Moral Actions. In Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (ed.), Moral Psychology, Volume 2. MIT Press.score: 30.0
    The thesis we develop in this essay is that all humans are endowed with a moral faculty. The moral faculty enables us to produce moral judgments on the basis of the causes and consequences of actions. As an empirical research program, we follow the framework of modern linguistics.1 The spirit of the argument dates back at least to the economist Adam Smith (1759/1976) who argued for something akin to a moral grammar, and more recently, to the political philosopher John Rawls (...)
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  49. Anna Wierzbicka (1999). “Universals of Colour” From a Linguistic Point of View. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (4):724-725.score: 30.0
    Saunders and van Brakel's observation that “linguistic evidence provides no grounds for the universality of basic color categories” also applies to the concept of “colour” itself. The language of “seeing” is rooted in human experience, and its basic frame of reference is provided by the universal rhythm of “light” days and “dark” nights and by the fundamental and visually salient features of human environment: the sky, the sun, vegetation, fire, the sea, the naked earth.
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  50. Stephen Crain & Paul M. Pietroski (2002). Why Language Acquisition is a Snap. Linguistic Review.score: 30.0
    Nativists inspired by Chomsky are apt to provide arguments with the following general form: languages exhibit interesting generalizations that are not suggested by casual (or even intensive) examination of what people actually say; correspondingly, adults (i.e., just about anyone above the age of four) know much more about language than they could plausibly have learned on the basis of their experience; so absent an alternative account of the relevant generalizations and speakers' (tacit) knowledge of them, one should conclude that there (...)
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