Search results for 'major transitions' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Michael A. Trestman (2013). Which Comes First in Major Transitions: The Behavioral Chicken, or the Evolutionary Egg? Biological Theory 7 (1):48 - 55.score: 240.0
    This paper takes a close look at the role of behavior in the “major transitions” in evolution—events during which inheritance and development, and therefore the process of adaptation by natural selection, are reorganized at a new level of compositional hierarchy—and at the requirements for sufficiently explaining these important events in the history of life. I argue that behavior played a crucial role in driving at least some of the major transitions. Because behavioral interactions can become stably (...)
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  2. Andrew F. G. Bourke (2014). The Gene's-Eye View, Major Transitions and the Formal Darwinism Project. Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):241-248.score: 208.0
    I argue that Grafen’s formal darwinism project could profitably incorporate a gene’s-eye view, as informed by the major transitions framework. In this, instead of the individual being assumed to maximise its inclusive fitness, genes are assumed to maximise their inclusive fitness. Maximisation of fitness at the individual level is not a straightforward concept because the major transitions framework shows that there are several kinds of biological individual. In addition, individuals have a definable fitness, exhibit individual-level adaptations (...)
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  3. Samir Okasha (2005). Multilevel Selection and the Major Transitions in Evolution. Philosophy of Science 72 (5):1013-1025.score: 180.0
    A number of recent biologists have used multi-level selection theory to help explain the major transitions in evolution. I argue that in doing so, they have shifted from a ‘synchronic’ to a ‘diachronic’ formulation of the levels of selection question. The implications of this shift in perspective are explored, in relation to an ambiguity in the meaning of multi-level selection. Though the ambiguity is well-known, it has never before been discussed in the context of the major (...). (shrink)
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  4. Brett Calcott & Kim Sterelny (eds.) (2011). The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. MIT Press.score: 150.0
    Drawing on recent advances in evolutionary biology, prominent scholars return to the question posed in a pathbreaking book: how evolution itself evolved.
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  5. Francis Heylighen (2000). Complexity and Evolution, by Max Pettersson, The Major Transitions in Evolution, by John Maynard Smith and E�Rs Szathm�Ry, The Origins of Life From the Birth of Life to the Origin of Language, by John Maynard Smith and E�Rs Szathm�Ry. Complexity 6 (1):53-57.score: 150.0
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  6. Ludwig C. H. Chen (forthcoming). First Two Major Transitions in Rep. VII. Hermes.score: 150.0
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  7. Arnold I. Miller (1997). The Major Transitions in Evolution. Complexity 2 (5):40-41.score: 150.0
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  8. Robin Hanson, Must Early Life Be Easy? The Rhythm of Major Evolutionary Transitions.score: 144.0
    If we are not to conclude that most planets like Earth have evolved life as intelligent as we are, we must presume Earth is not random. This selection effect, however, also implies that the origin of life need not be as easy as the early appearance of life on Earth suggests. If a series of major evolutionary transitions were required to produce intelligent life, selection implies that a subset of these were “critical steps,” with durations that are similarly (...)
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  9. Zaal Kikvidze & Ragan M. Callaway (2009). Ecological Facilitation May Drive Major Evolutionary Transitions. Bioscience 59 (5):399-404.score: 120.0
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  10. Massimo Pigliucci (2010). Okasha's Evolution and the Levels of Selection: Toward a Broader Conception of Theoretical Biology. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 25 (3):405-415.score: 60.0
    The debate about the levels of selection has been one of the most controversial both in evolutionary biology and in philosophy of science. Okasha’s book makes the sort of contribution that simply will not be able to be ignored by anyone interested in this field for many years to come. However, my interest here is in highlighting some examples of how Okasha goes about discussing his material to suggest that his book is part of an increasingly interesting trend that sees (...)
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  11. Jonathan Birch (2012). Collective Action in the Fraternal Transitions. Biology and Philosophy 27 (3):363-380.score: 60.0
    Inclusive fitness theory was not originally designed to explain the major transitions in evolution, but there is a growing consensus that it has the resources to do so. My aim in this paper is to highlight, in a constructive spirit, the puzzles and challenges that remain. I first consider the distinctive aspects of the cooperative interactions we see within the most complex social groups in nature: multicellular organisms and eusocial insect colonies. I then focus on one aspect in (...)
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  12. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2006). Local Interaction, Multilevel Selection, and Evolutionary Transitions. Biological Theory 1 (4):372-380.score: 60.0
    Group-structured and neighbor-structured populations are compared, especially in relation to multilevel selection theory and evolutionary transitions. I argue that purely neighborstructured populations, which can feature the evolution of altruism, are not properly described in multilevel terms. The ability to “gestalt switch” between individualist and multilevel frameworks is then linked to the investigation of “major transitions” in evolution. Some explanatory concepts are naturally linked to one framework or the other, but a full understanding is best achieved via the (...)
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  13. Joeri Witteveen (2009). Darwinism About Darwinism. [REVIEW] Biological Theory 4 (2):207-213.score: 60.0
  14. Eörs Szathmáry (2012). Transitions and Social Evolution. Philosophy and Theory in Biology 4 (20130604).score: 60.0
    This is a lovely and very useful book. It deals with the emergence of higher and higher level units of evolution, especially regarding what Queller (1997) called “fraternal major transitions.” These are evolutionary transitions where the lower-level units that gang up are genetically alike and, therefore, the initial advantage is likely to come from the economy of scale rather than the complementation of function, as in the case of “egalitarian transitions.” Simple division of labor may arise (...)
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  15. Ludwig C. H. Chen (forthcoming). Third Major Transition: Propaedeutic and Dialectic in Rep. VII. Hermes.score: 60.0
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  16. Richard E. Michod (2011). Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality: Multicellularity and Sex. In Brett Calcott & Kim Sterelny (eds.), The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. Mit Press. 169--198.score: 60.0
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  17. Eörs Szathmáry (2003). Cultural Processes: The Latest Major Transition in Evolution. In L. Nadel (ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Nature Publishing Group.score: 60.0
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  18. Dwight Read (2010). 10 From Experiential-Based to Relational-Based Forms of Social Organization: A Major Transition in the Evolution of Homo Sapiens. Proceedings of the British Academy 158:199.score: 60.0
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  19. Carl Simpson (2011). 10How Many Levels Are There? How Insights From Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality Help Measure the Hierarchical Complexity of Life. In Brett Calcott & Kim Sterelny (eds.), The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. Mit Press.score: 60.0
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  20. P. Godfrey-Smith & B. Kerr (2013). Gestalt-Switching and the Evolutionary Transitions. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (1):205-222.score: 54.0
    Formal methods developed for modeling levels of selection problems have recently been applied to the investigation of major evolutionary transitions. We discuss two new tools of this kind. First, the ‘near-variant test’ can be used to compare the causal adequacy of predictively equivalent representations. Second, ‘state-variable gestalt-switching’ can be used to gain a useful dual perspective on evolutionary processes that involve both higher and lower level populations.
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  21. Deborah E. Shelton & Richard E. Michod (forthcoming). Group Selection and Group Adaptation During a Major Evolutionary Transition: Insights From the Evolution of Multicellularity in the Volvocine Algae. Biological Theory.score: 50.0
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  22. Deborah E. Shelton & Richard E. Michod (2014). Levels of Selection and the Formal Darwinism Project. Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):217-224.score: 48.0
    Understanding good design requires addressing the question of what units undergo natural selection, thereby becoming adapted. There is, therefore, a natural connection between the formal Darwinism project (which aims to connect population genetics with the evolution of design and fitness maximization) and levels of selection issues. We argue that the formal Darwinism project offers contradictory and confusing lines of thinking concerning level(s) of selection. The project favors multicellular organisms over both the lower (cell) and higher (social group) levels as the (...)
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  23. Philippe Huneman (2008). Emergence and Adaptation. Minds and Machines 18 (4):493-520.score: 42.0
    I investigate the relationship between adaptation, as defined in evolutionary theory through natural selection, and the concept of emergence. I argue that there is an essential correlation between the former, and “emergence” defined in the field of algorithmic simulations. I first show that the computational concept of emergence (in terms of incompressible simulation) can be correlated with a causal criterion of emergence (in terms of the specificity of the explanation of global patterns). On this ground, I argue that emergence in (...)
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  24. Kepa Ruiz-Mirazo & Alvaro Moreno (2012). Autonomy in Evolution: From Minimal to Complex Life. Synthese 185 (1):21-52.score: 36.0
    Our aim in the present paper is to approach the nature of life from the perspective of autonomy, showing that this perspective can be helpful for overcoming the traditional Cartesian gap between the physical and cognitive domains. We first argue that, although the phenomenon of life manifests itself as highly complex and multidimensional, requiring various levels of description, individual organisms constitute the core of this multifarious phenomenology. Thereafter, our discussion focuses on the nature of the organization of individual living entities, (...)
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  25. Samir Okasha (2005). Maynard Smith on the Levels of Selection Question. Biology and Philosophy 20 (5):989-1010.score: 36.0
    The levels of selection problem was central to Maynard Smith’s work throughout his career. This paper traces Maynard Smith’s views on the levels of selection, from his objections to group selection in the 1960s to his concern with the major evolutionary transitions in the 1990s. The relations between Maynard Smith’s position and those of Hamilton and G.C. Williams are explored, as is Maynard Smith’s dislike of the Price equation approach to multi-level selection. Maynard Smith’s account of the ‘core (...)
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  26. J. Beach (2003). The Transition to Civilization and Symbolically Stored Genomes. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 34 (1):109-141.score: 34.0
    The study of culture and cultural selection from a biological perspective has been hampered by the lack of any firm theoretical basis for how the information for cultural traits is stored and transmitted. In addition, the study of any living system with a decentralized or multi-level information structure has been somewhat restricted due to the focus in genetics on the gene and the particular hereditary structure of multicellular organisms. Here a different perspective is used, one which regards living systems as (...)
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  27. Ellen Clarke (2011). Plant Individuality and Multilevel Selection Theory. In Kim Sterelny & Brett Calcott (eds.), The Major Transitions Revisited. MIT Press. 227--250.score: 30.0
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  28. Jonathan Birch (2012). Social Revolution. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 27 (4):571-581.score: 30.0
    Andrew Bourke’s Principles of Social Evolution identifies three stages that characterize an evolutionary transition in individuality and deploys inclusive fitness theory to explain each stage. The third stage, social group transformation, has hitherto received relatively little attention from inclusive fitness theorists. In this review, I first discuss Bourke’s “virtual dominance” hypothesis for the evolution of the germ line. I then contrast Bourke’s inclusive fitness approach to the major transitions with the multi-level approach developed by Richard Michod, Samir Okasha (...)
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  29. Ellen Clarke (2009). Noah and the Spaceship: Evolution for Twenty-First Century Christians. Biology and Philosophy 24 (5):725-734.score: 30.0
    Evolution has increasingly become a topic of conflict between scientists and Christians, but Alexandre Meinesz’s recent book How Life Began aims to provide a reconciliation between the two. Here I review his somewhat unorthodox perspective on major transitions, alien origins and the meaning of life, with a critical focus on his account of the generation of multicellularity.
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  30. Dan Dennett (2004). Obituary. Biology and Philosophy 19 (3):307-309.score: 30.0
    He once recalled his delighted discovery as a schoolboy at Eton of J.B.S. Haldane’s book of essays, Possible Worlds; it changed his life, and after working as an aeronautical engineer designing aircraft during the war, he studied with Haldane and then went on to write his own series of career- inspiring books and essays for generations of students and professors around the world. The 1993 Introduction to the last edition of his 1958 classic, The Theory of Evolution, is an elegant (...)
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  31. Anne Showstack Sassoon (2000). Gramsci and Contemporary Politics: Beyond Pessimism of the Intellect. Routledge.score: 30.0
    Gramsci and Contemporary Politics is a collection of Anne Showstack Sassoon's writing which spans the major transitions from Thatcher and Reagan to Clinton and ...
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  32. Steven L. Peck (2013). Life as Emergent Agential Systems: Tendencies Without Teleology in an Open Universe. Zygon 48 (4):984-1000.score: 30.0
    Life is a relationship among various kinds of agents interacting at different scales in ways that are multifarious, complex, and emergent. Life is always a part of an ecological embedding in communities of interaction, which in turn structure and influence how life evolves. Evolution is essential for understanding life and biodiversity. Henri Bergson's Creative Evolution suggests a way of examining “tendencies” without “teleology.” In this paper I reexamine that work in light of recent concepts in evolutionary ecology, and explore how (...)
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  33. Ronald de Sousa (2010). Existentialism as Biology. Emotion Review 2 (1):76-83.score: 30.0
    Existentialism is compatible with a broadly biological vision of who we are. This thesis is grounded in an analysis of “concrete” or “individual” possibility, which differs from standard conceptions of possibility in that it allows for possibilities to come into being or disappear through time. Concrete possibilities are introduced both in individual life and by major transitions in evolution. In particular, the advent of ultrasociality and of language has enabled human goals to be formulated in partial independence from (...)
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  34. Christoph E. Schreiner (1998). Input Limitations for Cortical Combination-Sensitive Neurons Coding Stop-Consonants? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (2):284-284.score: 30.0
    A tendency of auditory cortical neurons to respond at the beginning of major transitions in sounds rather than providing a continuously updated spectral-temporal profile may impede the generation of combination-sensitivity for certain classes of stimuli. Potential consequences of the cortical encoding of voiced stop-consonants on representational principles derived from orderly output constraints are discussed.
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  35. Lindell Bromham (2011). The Small Picture Approach to the Big Picture: Using DNA Sequences to Investigate the Diversification of Animal Body Plans. In Brett Calcott & Kim Sterelny (eds.), The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. Mit Press.score: 30.0
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  36. Andrew H. Knoll & David Hewitt (2011). Phylogenetic, Functional and Geological Perspectives on Complex Multicellularity. In Brett Calcott & Kim Sterelny (eds.), The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. Mit Press. 251--270.score: 30.0
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  37. Pamela Lyon (2011). 6To Be or Not To Be: Where Is Self-Preservation in Evolutionary Theory? In Brett Calcott & Kim Sterelny (eds.), The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. Mit Press.score: 30.0
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  38. Kim Sterelny (2011). Evolvability Reconsidered. In Brett Calcott & Kim Sterelny (eds.), The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. Mit Press. 83--100.score: 30.0
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  39. Brett Calcottt & Kim Sterelny (2011). Introduction: A Dynamic View of Evolution. In Brett Calcott & Kim Sterelny (eds.), The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. Mit Press. 1--14.score: 30.0
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  40. Brett Calcott & Kim Sterelny (2011). Iiicomplexity and the Developmental Cycle. In Brett Calcott & Kim Sterelny (eds.), The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. Mit Press.score: 30.0
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  41. Samir Okasha (2011). Biological Ontology and Hierarchical Organization: A Defence of Rank Freedom. In Brett Calcott & Kim Sterelny (eds.), The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. Mit Press. 53--64.score: 30.0
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  42. T. Shanahan (1997). Kitcher's Compromise: A Critical Examination of the Compromise Model of Scientific Closure, and its Implications for the Relationship Between History and Philosophy of Science. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 28 (2):319-338.score: 26.0
    In The Advancement of Science (1993) Philip Kitcher develops what he calls the 'Compromise Model' of the closure of scientific debates. The model is designed to acknowledge significant elements from 'Rationalist' and 'Antirationalist' accounts of science, without succumbing to the one-sidedness of either. As part of an ambitious naturalistic account of scientific progress, Kitcher's model succeeds to the extent that transitions in the history of science satisfy its several conditions. I critically evaluate the Compromise Model by identifying its crucial (...)
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  43. Steven Ravett Brown (2004). Structural Phenomenology: An Empirically-Based Model of Consciousness. Dissertation, University of Oregonscore: 24.0
    In this dissertation I develop a structural model of phenomenal consciousness that integrates contemporary experimental and theoretical work in philosophy and cognitive science. I argue that phenomenology must be “naturalized” and that it should be acknowledged as a major component of empirical research. I use this model to describe important phenomenal structures, and I then employ it to provide a detailed explication of tip-of-tongue phenomena. The primary aim of “structural phenomenology” is the creation of a general framework within which (...)
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  44. Michael Harré, Terry Bossomaier & Allan Snyder (2011). The Development of Human Expertise in a Complex Environment. Minds and Machines 21 (3):449-464.score: 24.0
    We introduce an innovative technique that quantifies human expertise development in such a way that humans and artificial systems can be directly compared. Using this technique we are able to highlight certain fundamental difficulties associated with the learning of a complex task that humans are still exceptionally better at than their computer counterparts. We demonstrate that expertise goes through significant developmental transitions that have previously been predicted but never explicated. The first signals the onset of a steady increase in (...)
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  45. Deborah E. Shelton & Richard E. Michod (2010). Philosophical Foundations for the Hierarchy of Life. Biology and Philosophy 25 (3):391-403.score: 24.0
    We review Evolution and the Levels of Selection by Samir Okasha. This important book provides a cohesive philosophical framework for understanding levels-of-selections problems in biology. Concerning evolutionary transitions, Okasha proposes that three stages characterize the shift from a lower level of selection to a higher one. We discuss the application of Okasha’s three-stage concept to the evolutionary transition from unicellularity to multicellularity in the volvocine green algae. Okasha’s concepts are a provocative step towards a more general understanding of the (...)
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  46. Thomas Li-Ping Tang & Yuh-Jia Chen (2008). Intelligence Vs. Wisdom: The Love of Money, Machiavellianism, and Unethical Behavior Across College Major and Gender. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 82 (1):1 - 26.score: 24.0
    This research investigates the efficacy of business ethics intervention, tests a theoretical model that the love of money is directly or indirectly related to propensity to engage in unethical behavior (PUB), and treats college major (business vs. psychology) and gender (male vs. female) as moderators in multi-group analyses. Results suggested that business students who received business ethics intervention significantly changed their conceptions of unethical behavior and reduced their propensity to engage in theft; while psychology students without intervention had no (...)
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  47. Bernd Rosslenbroich (2009). The Theory of Increasing Autonomy in Evolution: A Proposal for Understanding Macroevolutionary Innovations. Biology and Philosophy 24 (5):623-644.score: 24.0
    Attempts to explain the origin of macroevolutionary innovations have been only partially successful. Here it is proposed that the patterns of major evolutionary transitions have to be understood first, before it is possible to further analyse the forces behind the process. The hypothesis is that major evolutionary innovations are characterized by an increase in organismal autonomy, in the sense of emancipation from the environment. After a brief overview of the literature on this subject, increasing autonomy is defined (...)
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  48. Erik Paredis (2011). Sustainability Transitions and the Nature of Technology. Foundations of Science 16 (2):195-225.score: 24.0
    For more than 20 years, sustainable development has been advocated as a way of tackling growing global environmental and social problems. The sustainable development discourse has always had a strong technological component and the literature boasts an enormous amount of debate on which technologies should be developed and employed and how this can most efficiently be done. The mainstream discourse in sustainable development argues for an eco-efficiency approach in which a technology push strategy boosts efficiency levels by a factor 10 (...)
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  49. Vincent G. Potter (ed.) (1988). Doctrine and Experience: Essays in American Philosophy. Fordham University Press.score: 24.0
    This collection of thirteen essays, when viewed together, offers a unique perspective on the history of American philosophy. It illuminates for the first time in book form, how thirteen major American philosophical thinkers viewed a problem of special interest in the American philosophical tradition: the relationship between experience and reflection. Written by well-known authorities on the figure about which he or she writes, the essays are arranged chronologically to highlight the changes and developments in thought from Puritanism to Pragmatism (...)
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  50. Henry L. Zaltsman (2009). Toward a Theory of Progressive Evolution (Large-Scale Stages of Evolutionary Progress). World Futures 65 (3):145 – 165.score: 24.0
    Here I discuss the basic elements, major stages, and completion of progressive evolution. The cosmic world of self-realization is based on extensive self-development within a closed contour: temporal counter-transitions of spatial counter-elements (energy bonds and media and, basically, substance structures) form of local worlds within it through evolution of informational structures. The organic world of reproduction develops through the open informational path: the initial substance, through energy exchange and metabolism, reproduces similar substance; the latter interacts with the environment (...)
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