Search results for 'major transitions' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Michael A. Trestman (2013). Which Comes First in Major Transitions: The Behavioral Chicken, or the Evolutionary Egg? Biological Theory 7 (1):48 - 55.score: 90.0
    This paper takes a close look at the role of behavior in the “major transitions” in evolution—events during which inheritance and development, and therefore the process of adaptation by natural selection, are reorganized at a new level of compositional hierarchy—and at the requirements for sufficiently explaining these important events in the history of life. I argue that behavior played a crucial role in driving at least some of the major transitions. Because behavioral interactions can become stably (...)
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  2. Andrew F. G. Bourke (2014). The Gene's-Eye View, Major Transitions and the Formal Darwinism Project. Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):241-248.score: 74.0
    I argue that Grafen’s formal darwinism project could profitably incorporate a gene’s-eye view, as informed by the major transitions framework. In this, instead of the individual being assumed to maximise its inclusive fitness, genes are assumed to maximise their inclusive fitness. Maximisation of fitness at the individual level is not a straightforward concept because the major transitions framework shows that there are several kinds of biological individual. In addition, individuals have a definable fitness, exhibit individual-level adaptations (...)
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  3. Samir Okasha (2005). Multilevel Selection and the Major Transitions in Evolution. Philosophy of Science 72 (5):1013-1025.score: 60.0
    A number of recent biologists have used multi-level selection theory to help explain the major transitions in evolution. I argue that in doing so, they have shifted from a ‘synchronic’ to a ‘diachronic’ formulation of the levels of selection question. The implications of this shift in perspective are explored, in relation to an ambiguity in the meaning of multi-level selection. Though the ambiguity is well-known, it has never before been discussed in the context of the major (...). (shrink)
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  4. Robin Hanson, Must Early Life Be Easy? The Rhythm of Major Evolutionary Transitions.score: 48.0
    If we are not to conclude that most planets like Earth have evolved life as intelligent as we are, we must presume Earth is not random. This selection effect, however, also implies that the origin of life need not be as easy as the early appearance of life on Earth suggests. If a series of major evolutionary transitions were required to produce intelligent life, selection implies that a subset of these were “critical steps,” with durations that are similarly (...)
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  5. Brett Calcott & Kim Sterelny (eds.) (2011). The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. MIT Press.score: 45.0
    Drawing on recent advances in evolutionary biology, prominent scholars return to the question posed in a pathbreaking book: how evolution itself evolved.
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  6. Ludwig C. H. Chen (forthcoming). First Two Major Transitions in Rep. VII. Hermes.score: 45.0
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  7. Francis Heylighen (2000). Complexity and Evolution, by Max Pettersson, The Major Transitions in Evolution, by John Maynard Smith and E�Rs Szathm�Ry, The Origins of Life From the Birth of Life to the Origin of Language, by John Maynard Smith and E�Rs Szathm�Ry. Complexity 6 (1):53-57.score: 45.0
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  8. Arnold I. Miller (1997). The Major Transitions in Evolution. Complexity 2 (5):40-41.score: 45.0
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  9. Zaal Kikvidze & Ragan M. Callaway (2009). Ecological Facilitation May Drive Major Evolutionary Transitions. Bioscience 59 (5):399-404.score: 36.0
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  10. Massimo Pigliucci (2010). Okasha's Evolution and the Levels of Selection: Toward a Broader Conception of Theoretical Biology. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 25 (3):405-415.score: 30.0
    The debate about the levels of selection has been one of the most controversial both in evolutionary biology and in philosophy of science. Okasha’s book makes the sort of contribution that simply will not be able to be ignored by anyone interested in this field for many years to come. However, my interest here is in highlighting some examples of how Okasha goes about discussing his material to suggest that his book is part of an increasingly interesting trend that sees (...)
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  11. Joeri Witteveen (2009). Darwinism About Darwinism. [REVIEW] Biological Theory 4 (2):207-213.score: 30.0
  12. Jonathan Birch (2012). Collective Action in the Fraternal Transitions. Biology and Philosophy 27 (3):363-380.score: 24.0
    Inclusive fitness theory was not originally designed to explain the major transitions in evolution, but there is a growing consensus that it has the resources to do so. My aim in this paper is to highlight, in a constructive spirit, the puzzles and challenges that remain. I first consider the distinctive aspects of the cooperative interactions we see within the most complex social groups in nature: multicellular organisms and eusocial insect colonies. I then focus on one aspect in (...)
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  13. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2006). Local Interaction, Multilevel Selection, and Evolutionary Transitions. Biological Theory 1 (4):372-380.score: 24.0
    Group-structured and neighbor-structured populations are compared, especially in relation to multilevel selection theory and evolutionary transitions. I argue that purely neighborstructured populations, which can feature the evolution of altruism, are not properly described in multilevel terms. The ability to “gestalt switch” between individualist and multilevel frameworks is then linked to the investigation of “major transitions” in evolution. Some explanatory concepts are naturally linked to one framework or the other, but a full understanding is best achieved via the (...)
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  14. Eörs Szathmáry (2012). Transitions and Social Evolution. Philosophy and Theory in Biology 4 (20130604).score: 24.0
    This is a lovely and very useful book. It deals with the emergence of higher and higher level units of evolution, especially regarding what Queller (1997) called “fraternal major transitions.” These are evolutionary transitions where the lower-level units that gang up are genetically alike and, therefore, the initial advantage is likely to come from the economy of scale rather than the complementation of function, as in the case of “egalitarian transitions.” Simple division of labor may arise (...)
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  15. Deborah E. Shelton & Richard E. Michod (2014). Levels of Selection and the Formal Darwinism Project. Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):217-224.score: 24.0
    Understanding good design requires addressing the question of what units undergo natural selection, thereby becoming adapted. There is, therefore, a natural connection between the formal Darwinism project (which aims to connect population genetics with the evolution of design and fitness maximization) and levels of selection issues. We argue that the formal Darwinism project offers contradictory and confusing lines of thinking concerning level(s) of selection. The project favors multicellular organisms over both the lower (cell) and higher (social group) levels as the (...)
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  16. Richard E. Michod (2011). Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality: Multicellularity and Sex. In Brett Calcott & Kim Sterelny (eds.), The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. Mit Press. 169--198.score: 24.0
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  17. Carl Simpson (2011). 10How Many Levels Are There? How Insights From Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality Help Measure the Hierarchical Complexity of Life. In Brett Calcott & Kim Sterelny (eds.), The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. Mit Press.score: 24.0
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  18. Philippe Huneman (2008). Emergence and Adaptation. Minds and Machines 18 (4):493-520.score: 21.0
    I investigate the relationship between adaptation, as defined in evolutionary theory through natural selection, and the concept of emergence. I argue that there is an essential correlation between the former, and “emergence” defined in the field of algorithmic simulations. I first show that the computational concept of emergence (in terms of incompressible simulation) can be correlated with a causal criterion of emergence (in terms of the specificity of the explanation of global patterns). On this ground, I argue that emergence in (...)
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  19. P. Godfrey-Smith & B. Kerr (2013). Gestalt-Switching and the Evolutionary Transitions. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (1):205-222.score: 21.0
    Formal methods developed for modeling levels of selection problems have recently been applied to the investigation of major evolutionary transitions. We discuss two new tools of this kind. First, the ‘near-variant test’ can be used to compare the causal adequacy of predictively equivalent representations. Second, ‘state-variable gestalt-switching’ can be used to gain a useful dual perspective on evolutionary processes that involve both higher and lower level populations.
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  20. Ludwig C. H. Chen (forthcoming). Third Major Transition: Propaedeutic and Dialectic in Rep. VII. Hermes.score: 21.0
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  21. Eörs Szathmáry (2003). Cultural Processes: The Latest Major Transition in Evolution. In L. Nadel (ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Nature Publishing Group.score: 21.0
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  22. Dwight Read (2010). 10 From Experiential-Based to Relational-Based Forms of Social Organization: A Major Transition in the Evolution of Homo Sapiens. Proceedings of the British Academy 158:199.score: 21.0
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  23. Kepa Ruiz-Mirazo & Alvaro Moreno (2012). Autonomy in Evolution: From Minimal to Complex Life. Synthese 185 (1):21-52.score: 18.0
    Our aim in the present paper is to approach the nature of life from the perspective of autonomy, showing that this perspective can be helpful for overcoming the traditional Cartesian gap between the physical and cognitive domains. We first argue that, although the phenomenon of life manifests itself as highly complex and multidimensional, requiring various levels of description, individual organisms constitute the core of this multifarious phenomenology. Thereafter, our discussion focuses on the nature of the organization of individual living entities, (...)
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  24. Thomas Li-Ping Tang & Yuh-Jia Chen (2008). Intelligence Vs. Wisdom: The Love of Money, Machiavellianism, and Unethical Behavior Across College Major and Gender. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 82 (1):1 - 26.score: 18.0
    This research investigates the efficacy of business ethics intervention, tests a theoretical model that the love of money is directly or indirectly related to propensity to engage in unethical behavior (PUB), and treats college major (business vs. psychology) and gender (male vs. female) as moderators in multi-group analyses. Results suggested that business students who received business ethics intervention significantly changed their conceptions of unethical behavior and reduced their propensity to engage in theft; while psychology students without intervention had no (...)
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  25. Samir Okasha (2005). Maynard Smith on the Levels of Selection Question. Biology and Philosophy 20 (5):989-1010.score: 18.0
    The levels of selection problem was central to Maynard Smith’s work throughout his career. This paper traces Maynard Smith’s views on the levels of selection, from his objections to group selection in the 1960s to his concern with the major evolutionary transitions in the 1990s. The relations between Maynard Smith’s position and those of Hamilton and G.C. Williams are explored, as is Maynard Smith’s dislike of the Price equation approach to multi-level selection. Maynard Smith’s account of the ‘core (...)
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  26. Erik Paredis (2011). Sustainability Transitions and the Nature of Technology. Foundations of Science 16 (2):195-225.score: 18.0
    For more than 20 years, sustainable development has been advocated as a way of tackling growing global environmental and social problems. The sustainable development discourse has always had a strong technological component and the literature boasts an enormous amount of debate on which technologies should be developed and employed and how this can most efficiently be done. The mainstream discourse in sustainable development argues for an eco-efficiency approach in which a technology push strategy boosts efficiency levels by a factor 10 (...)
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  27. Linzhi Du & Thomas Li-Ping Tang (2005). Measurement Invariance Across Gender and Major: The Love of Money Among University Students in People's Republic of China. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 59 (3):281 - 293.score: 18.0
    This study investigates measurement invariance of the 17-item-4-factor Love of Money Scale (LOMS) (Rich, Motivator, Success, and Important) across gender and college major among university students in People’s Republic of China. Results revealed configural (factor structures) invariance across gender. Metric (factor loadings) invariance across gender was not achieved based on chi-square change, but achieved based on fit indices change between unconstrained and constrained multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA). Both configural invariance and metric invariance (chi-square change and fit indices (...)
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  28. Yuh-Jia Chen & Thomas Li-Ping Tang (2013). The Bright and Dark Sides of Religiosity Among University Students: Do Gender, College Major, and Income Matter? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 115 (3):531-553.score: 18.0
    We develop a theoretical model involving religiosity [intrinsic (I), extrinsic-social (E s), and extrinsic-personal (E p), Time 1], Machiavellianism (Time 2), and propensity to engage in unethical behavior (Time 2) to investigate direct and indirect paths. We collected two-wave panel data from 359 students who had some work experiences. For the whole sample, intrinsic religiosity (I) indirectly curbed unethical intentions through the absence of Machiavellianism, the bright side of religiosity. Both extrinsic-social (E s) and extrinsic-personal (E p) directly, while extrinsic-social (...)
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  29. Thomas Kieselbach & Sabine Mader (2002). Occupational Transitions and Corporate Responsibility in Layoffs: A European Research Project (SOCOSE). [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 39 (1-2):13 - 20.score: 18.0
    One of the most prominent aspects of the present labour markets is an increase in occupational transitions. Employees experience insecurity to a much larger degree than ever before. Under these circumstances, the questions of blame and responsibility – for job-loss or unemployment –, so far much too readily focused on the individual, have to be re-considered. Transitions will also have to be framed by company based or labour administration interventions.This situation forms the entrance to the scientific evaluation that (...)
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  30. B. W. Dunlop & J. Banja (2009). A Renewed, Ethical Defense of Placebo-Controlled Trials of New Treatments for Major Depression and Anxiety Disorders. Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (6):384-389.score: 18.0
    The use of placebo as a control condition in clinical trials of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders continues to be an area of ethical concern. Typically, opponents of placebo controls argue that they violate the beneficent-based, “best proven diagnostic and therapeutic method” that the original Helsinki Declaration of 1964 famously asserted participants are owed. A more consequentialist, oppositional argument is that participants receiving placebo might suffer enormously by being deprived of their usual medication(s). Nevertheless, recent findings of potential (...)
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  31. Deborah E. Shelton & Richard E. Michod (forthcoming). Group Selection and Group Adaptation During a Major Evolutionary Transition: Insights From the Evolution of Multicellularity in the Volvocine Algae. Biological Theory.score: 18.0
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  32. Luigi De Gennaro Maria Concetta Pellicciari, Susanna Cordone, Cristina Marzano, Stefano Bignotti, Anna Gazzoli, Carlo Miniussi (2013). Dorsolateral Prefrontal Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Patients with Major Depression Locally Affects Alpha Power of REM Sleep. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    Sleep alterations are among the most important disabling manifestation symptoms of Major Depression Disorder (MDD). A critical role of sleep importance is also underlined by the fact that its adjustment has been proposed as an objective marker of clinical remission in MDD. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) represents a relatively novel therapeutic tool for the treatment of drug-resistant depression. Nevertheless besides clinical evaluation of the mood improvement after rTMS, we have no clear understanding of what are the neurophysiological correlates (...)
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  33. Andrew Francis Leuchter, Ian A. Cook, Yi Jin & Bill Phillips (2013). The Relationship Between Brain Oscillatory Activity and Therapeutic Effectiveness of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is marked by disturbances in brain functional connectivity. This connectivity is modulated by rhythmic oscillations of brain electrical activity, which enable coordinated functions across brain regions. Oscillatory activity plays a central role in regulating thinking and memory, mood, cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter levels, and restoration of normal oscillatory patterns is associated with effective treatment of MDD. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) is a robust treatment for MDD, but the mechanism of action (MOA) of its (...)
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  34. Michael C. Neale Paul W. Andrews, Susan G. Kornstein, Lisa J. Halberstadt, Charles O. Gardner (2011). Blue Again: Perturbational Effects of Antidepressants Suggest Monoaminergic Homeostasis in Major Depression. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 18.0
    Some evolutionary researchers have argued that current diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) may not accurately distinguish true instances of disorder from a normal, adaptive stress response. According to disorder advocates, neurochemicals like the monoamine neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine) are dysregulated in major depression. Monoamines are normally under homeostatic control, so the monoamine disorder hypothesis implies a breakdown in homeostatic mechanisms. In contrast, adaptationist hypotheses propose that homeostatic mechanisms are properly functioning in most patients meeting current (...)
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  35. J. F. Cavanagh, A. J. Bismark, M. J. Frank & J. J. Allen (2010). Larger Error Signals in Major Depression Are Associated with Better Avoidance Learning. Frontiers in Psychology 2:331-331.score: 18.0
    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is particularly reactive to signals of error, punishment, and conflict in the service of behavioral adaptation and it is consistently implicated in the etiology of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). This association makes conceptual sense, given that MDD has been associated with hyper-reactivity in neural systems associated with punishment processing. Yet in practice, depression-related variance in measures of mPFC functioning often fails to relate to performance. For example, neuroelectric reflections of mediofrontal error signals are often (...)
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  36. Gottfried Schweiger (2012). Income Justice in Professional Sports Leagues: The Case of the Major League Baseball. Revista Portugueasa de Ciencias Do Desporto [Portuguese Journal of Sport Science] 12 (Supl.):160--164.score: 18.0
    The issue of income justice in professional sports, while a topic of high ethical and social interest, is nevertheless not at the forefront of research. The differences between team and individual sports are significant, and this article will focus on team sports, where income is generally set by fixed contracts rather than bonuses or money prizes. First, I will illustrate the overall problem by presenting some figures on the relation of athletes' salaries from Major League Baseball (MLB) to the (...)
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  37. Ayna Baladi Nejad, Philippe Fossati & Cédric Lemogne (2013). Self-Referential Processing, Rumination, and Cortical Midline Structures in Major Depression. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    Major depression is associated with a bias towards negative emotional processing and increased self-focus, i.e. the process by which one engages in self-referential processing. The increased self-focus in depression is suggested to be of a persistent, repetitive and self-critical nature and is conceptualised as ruminative brooding. The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in self-referential processing has been previously emphasised in acute major depression. There is increasing evidence that self-referential processing as well as the cortical midline structures play (...)
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  38. S. Barry Cooper & Angsheng Li (2008). On Lachlan's Major Sub-Degree Problem. Archive for Mathematical Logic 47 (4):341-434.score: 18.0
    The Major Sub-degree Problem of A. H. Lachlan (first posed in 1967) has become a long-standing open question concerning the structure of the computably enumerable (c.e.) degrees. Its solution has important implications for Turing definability and for the ongoing programme of fully characterising the theory of the c.e. Turing degrees. A c.e. degree a is a major subdegree of a c.e. degree b > a if for any c.e. degree x, ${{\bf 0' = b \lor x}}$ if and (...)
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  39. Elizabeth Finnis (2007). The Political Ecology of Dietary Transitions: Changing Production and Consumption Patterns in the Kolli Hills, India. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 24 (3):343-353.score: 18.0
    Using a case study from the Kolli Hills, India, I suggest that political ecology provides a useful theoretical basis for considering localized dietary transitions in rural, agricultural communities in developing countries. By examining the reasons for the near-disappearance of local minor millets as staple foods in three small-farmer communities, I argue that an explicit, actor-oriented analysis allows for an integration of food issues with considerations of environmental circumstances, local aspirations, and labor concerns. That is, an agricultural shift that abandons (...)
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  40. Alexandra M. Freund Jana Nikitin, Lea C. Burgermeister (2012). The Role of Age and Social Motivation in Developmental Transitions in Young and Old Adulthood. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 18.0
    Two diary studies investigated the role of social approach and avoidance motivation in important developmental transitions in young and old adulthood. Study 1 comprised a sample of young adults (N = 93, M = 21.5 years) who moved out of their parental homes. The sample of Study 2 consisted of older adults (N = 69, M = 76.95 years) who moved into senior housing. In both studies, participants reported their habitual social approach and avoidance motives as well as their (...)
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  41. Christian Sorg Masoud Tahmasian, David C. Knight, Andrei Manoliu, Dirk Schwerthöffer, Martin Scherr, Chun Meng, Junming Shao, Henning Peters, Anselm Doll, Habibolah Khazaie, Alexander Drzezga, Josef Bäuml, Claus Zimmer, Hans Förstl, Afra M. Wohlschläger, Valentin Riedl (2013). Aberrant Intrinsic Connectivity of Hippocampus and Amygdala Overlap in the Fronto-Insular and Dorsomedial-Prefrontal Cortex in Major Depressive Disorder. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    Neuroimaging studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) have consistently observed functional and structural changes of the hippocampus (HP) and amygdale (AY). Thus, these brain regions appear to be critical elements of the pathophysiology of MDD. The HP and AY directly interact and show broad and overlapping intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) to other brain regions. Therefore, we hypothesized the HP and AY would show a corresponding pattern of aberrant intrinsic connectivity in MDD. Resting-state functional MRI was acquired from 21 patients (...)
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  42. John-Henry Morgan (2010). Ethical Naturalism in the Thought of Edward O. Wilson A Critical Review of His Major Works. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 9 (27):175-202.score: 18.0
    Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} One of the most celebrated biologists of the past century, Edward O. Wilson has received virtually every scientific award and recognition for his provocative and innovative enquiry into the nature of the relationship between moral behavior and biology which the scientific community can offer. For over twenty-five years, (...)
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  43. Jana Nikitin, Lea C. Burgermeister & Alexandra M. Freund (2012). The Role of Age and Social Motivation in Developmental Transitions in Young and Old Adulthood. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 18.0
    Two diary studies investigated the role of social approach and avoidance motivation in important developmental transitions in young and old adulthood. Study 1 comprised a sample of young adults (N = 93, M = 21.5 years) who moved out of their parental homes. The sample of Study 2 consisted of older adults (N = 69, M = 76.95 years) who moved into senior housing. In both studies, participants reported their habitual social approach and avoidance motives as well as their (...)
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  44. Guro Årdal Åsa Hammar (2009). Cognitive Functioning in Major Depression – A Summary. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 3.score: 18.0
    The aim of the present paper is to summarize the research during the past decade regarding cognitive functioning in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Cognitive impairment in the acute phase of illness has been frequently reported. The findings are shown in different cognitive domains, such as executive functions (EF), attention, memory and psychomotor speed. Fewer reports have investigated cognitive functioning in MDD in longitudinal studies. Some longitudinal reports show that the impairment observed in the acute phase of illness may be (...)
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  45. Ellen Clarke (2011). Plant Individuality and Multilevel Selection Theory. In Kim Sterelny & Brett Calcott (eds.), The Major Transitions Revisited. MIT Press. 227--250.score: 15.0
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  46. Jonathan Birch (2012). Social Revolution. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 27 (4):571-581.score: 15.0
    Andrew Bourke’s Principles of Social Evolution identifies three stages that characterize an evolutionary transition in individuality and deploys inclusive fitness theory to explain each stage. The third stage, social group transformation, has hitherto received relatively little attention from inclusive fitness theorists. In this review, I first discuss Bourke’s “virtual dominance” hypothesis for the evolution of the germ line. I then contrast Bourke’s inclusive fitness approach to the major transitions with the multi-level approach developed by Richard Michod, Samir Okasha (...)
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  47. Ellen Clarke (2009). Noah and the Spaceship: Evolution for Twenty-First Century Christians. Biology and Philosophy 24 (5):725-734.score: 15.0
    Evolution has increasingly become a topic of conflict between scientists and Christians, but Alexandre Meinesz’s recent book How Life Began aims to provide a reconciliation between the two. Here I review his somewhat unorthodox perspective on major transitions, alien origins and the meaning of life, with a critical focus on his account of the generation of multicellularity.
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  48. Dan Dennett (2004). Obituary. Biology and Philosophy 19 (3):307-309.score: 15.0
    He once recalled his delighted discovery as a schoolboy at Eton of J.B.S. Haldane’s book of essays, Possible Worlds; it changed his life, and after working as an aeronautical engineer designing aircraft during the war, he studied with Haldane and then went on to write his own series of career- inspiring books and essays for generations of students and professors around the world. The 1993 Introduction to the last edition of his 1958 classic, The Theory of Evolution, is an elegant (...)
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  49. Anne Showstack Sassoon (2000). Gramsci and Contemporary Politics: Beyond Pessimism of the Intellect. Routledge.score: 15.0
    Gramsci and Contemporary Politics is a collection of Anne Showstack Sassoon's writing which spans the major transitions from Thatcher and Reagan to Clinton and ...
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  50. Steven L. Peck (2013). Life as Emergent Agential Systems: Tendencies Without Teleology in an Open Universe. Zygon 48 (4):984-1000.score: 15.0
    Life is a relationship among various kinds of agents interacting at different scales in ways that are multifarious, complex, and emergent. Life is always a part of an ecological embedding in communities of interaction, which in turn structure and influence how life evolves. Evolution is essential for understanding life and biodiversity. Henri Bergson's Creative Evolution suggests a way of examining “tendencies” without “teleology.” In this paper I reexamine that work in light of recent concepts in evolutionary ecology, and explore how (...)
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