Search results for 'major transitions' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  11
    Michael A. Trestman (2013). Which Comes First in Major Transitions: The Behavioral Chicken, or the Evolutionary Egg? Biological Theory 7 (1):48 - 55.
    This paper takes a close look at the role of behavior in the “major transitions” in evolution—events during which inheritance and development, and therefore the process of adaptation by natural selection, are reorganized at a new level of compositional hierarchy—and at the requirements for sufficiently explaining these important events in the history of life. I argue that behavior played a crucial role in driving at least some of the major transitions. Because behavioral interactions can become stably (...)
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  2.  6
    Maureen A. O’Malley & Russell Powell (2016). Major Problems in Evolutionary Transitions: How a Metabolic Perspective Can Enrich Our Understanding of Macroevolution. Biology and Philosophy 31 (2):159-189.
    The model of major transitions in evolution devised by Maynard Smith and Szathmáry has exerted tremendous influence over evolutionary theorists. Although MTE has been criticized for inconsistently combining different types of event, its ongoing appeal lies in depicting hierarchical increases in complexity by means of evolutionary transitions in individuality. In this paper, we consider the implications of major evolutionary events overlooked by MTE and its ETI-oriented successors, specifically the biological oxygenation of Earth, and the acquisitions of (...)
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  3.  14
    Andrew F. G. Bourke (2014). The Gene’s-Eye View, Major Transitions and the Formal Darwinism Project. Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):241-248.
    I argue that Grafen’s formal darwinism project could profitably incorporate a gene’s-eye view, as informed by the major transitions framework. In this, instead of the individual being assumed to maximise its inclusive fitness, genes are assumed to maximise their inclusive fitness. Maximisation of fitness at the individual level is not a straightforward concept because the major transitions framework shows that there are several kinds of biological individual. In addition, individuals have a definable fitness, exhibit individual-level adaptations (...)
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  4.  43
    Samir Okasha (2005). Multilevel Selection and the Major Transitions in Evolution. Philosophy of Science 72 (5):1013-1025.
    A number of recent biologists have used multi-level selection theory to help explain the major transitions in evolution. I argue that in doing so, they have shifted from a ‘synchronic’ to a ‘diachronic’ formulation of the levels of selection question. The implications of this shift in perspective are explored, in relation to an ambiguity in the meaning of multi-level selection. Though the ambiguity is well-known, it has never before been discussed in the context of the major (...). (shrink)
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  5. John Maynard Smith & Eors Szathmary (1996). The Major Transitions in Evolution. Journal of the History of Biology 29 (1):151-152.
     
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  6.  19
    Brett Calcott & Kim Sterelny (eds.) (2011). The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. MIT Press.
    Drawing on recent advances in evolutionary biology, prominent scholars return to the question posed in a pathbreaking book: how evolution itself evolved.
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  7.  6
    Francis Heylighen (2000). Complexity and Evolution, by Max Pettersson, The Major Transitions in Evolution, by John Maynard Smith and E�Rs Szathm�Ry, The Origins of Life From the Birth of Life to the Origin of Language, by John Maynard Smith and E�Rs Szathm�Ry. Complexity 6 (1):53-57.
  8.  12
    Daniel W. McShea (2015). Bernd Rosslenbroich: On the Origin of Autonomy: A New Look at the Major Transitions in Evolution. Biology and Philosophy 30 (3):439-446.
    What would a Grand Unified Theory of big-scale evolution look like? Here is one answer. It would unify the various trends that have been documented and suspected, the features of life that have been said to increase over its history—body size, fitness, intelligence, versatility, evolvability, energy intensiveness, energy rate density, and complexity-in-the-sense-of-part-types, and complexity-in-the-sense-of-hierarchy. It would show us how these putative trends are related to each other, how they are all the product of some single simple principle or some small (...)
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  9.  3
    Arnold I. Miller (1997). The Major Transitions in Evolution. Complexity 2 (5):40-41.
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  10.  2
    Ludwig Chen (1989). First Two Major Transitions in Rep. VII. Hermes 117 (4):446-454.
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  11. Martin Lockley (2014). Bernd Rosslenbroich: On the Origin of Autonomy: A New Look at the Major Transitions in Evolution. Acta Biotheoretica 62 (4):537-541.
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  12. Peter Schuster (2016). Major Transitions in Evolution and in Technology:What They Have in Common and Where They Differ. Complexity 21 (4):7-13.
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  13.  21
    Robin Hanson, Must Early Life Be Easy? The Rhythm of Major Evolutionary Transitions.
    If we are not to conclude that most planets like Earth have evolved life as intelligent as we are, we must presume Earth is not random. This selection effect, however, also implies that the origin of life need not be as easy as the early appearance of life on Earth suggests. If a series of major evolutionary transitions were required to produce intelligent life, selection implies that a subset of these were “critical steps,” with durations that are similarly (...)
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  14.  4
    Leonore Fleming & Robert Brandon (2015). Why Flying Dogs Are Rare: A General Theory of Luck in Evolutionary Transitions. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 49:24-31.
    There is a worry that the ‘major transitions in evolution’ represent an arbitrary group of events. This worry is warranted, and we show why. We argue that the transition to a new level of hierarchy necessarily involves a nonselectionist chance process. Thus any unified theory of evolutionary transitions must be more like a general theory of fortuitous luck, rather than a rigid formulation of expected events. We provide a systematic account of evolutionary transitions based on a (...)
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  15.  8
    P. A. Ryan, S. T. Powers & R. A. Watson (2016). Social Niche Construction and Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality. Biology and Philosophy 31 (1):59-79.
    Social evolution theory conventionally takes an externalist explanatory stance, treating observed cooperation as explanandum and the positive assortment of cooperative behaviour as explanans. We ask how the circumstances bringing about this positive assortment arose in the first place. Rather than merely push the explanatory problem back a step, we move from an externalist to an interactionist explanatory stance, in the spirit of Lewontin and the Niche Construction theorists. We develop a theory of ‘social niche construction’ in which we consider biological (...)
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  16.  10
    Carl Simpson (2011). 10How Many Levels Are There? How Insights From Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality Help Measure the Hierarchical Complexity of Life. In Brett Calcott & Kim Sterelny (eds.), The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. MIT Press
    This chapter argues that the multilevel selection -1 to MLS-2 model of a major transition is incomplete because it overlooks a crucial component of fitness. It addresses that the evolution of individuality literature has failed to account for expansive fitness and that expansive fitness differences play an important role in the transition to regimes sensitive to the fitness of the corporate agent. It discusses multilevel evolution during the three phases of transitions in individuality: the aggregate phase, the group (...)
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  17.  25
    Austin Booth & W. Ford Doolittle (2015). Eukaryogenesis: How Special, Really? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America:1-8.
    Eukaryogenesis is widely viewed as an improbable evolutionary transition uniquely affecting the evolution of life on this planet. However, scientific and popular rhetoric extolling this event as a singularity lacks rigorous evidential and statistical support. Here, we question several of the usual claims about the specialness of eukaryogenesis, focusing on both eukaryogenesis as a process and its outcome, the eukaryotic cell. We argue in favor of four ideas. First, the criteria by which we judge eukaryogenesis to have required a genuinely (...)
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  18.  4
    Richard E. Michod (2011). Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality: Multicellularity and Sex. In Brett Calcott & Kim Sterelny (eds.), The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. MIT Press 169--198.
    This chapter combines formal models of how the fitness of a collective can become decoupled from the fitness with more empirical work on the volvocine algae. It uses the Volvox clade as a model system. It describes the evolution of altruism in the volvocine green algae. This chapter suggests that altruism may evolve from genes involved in life-history trade-offs. It shows the several cooperation, conflict, and conflict mediation cycles in the volvocine green algae. This cycle of cooperation, conflict, and conflict (...)
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  19. Massimo Pigliucci (2010). Okasha's Evolution and the Levels of Selection: Toward a Broader Conception of Theoretical Biology. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 25 (3):405-415.
    The debate about the levels of selection has been one of the most controversial both in evolutionary biology and in philosophy of science. Okasha’s book makes the sort of contribution that simply will not be able to be ignored by anyone interested in this field for many years to come. However, my interest here is in highlighting some examples of how Okasha goes about discussing his material to suggest that his book is part of an increasingly interesting trend that sees (...)
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  20.  13
    Samir Okasha (2011). Biological Ontology and Hierarchical Organization: A Defence of Rank Freedom. In Brett Calcott & Kim Sterelny (eds.), The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. MIT Press 53--64.
    This chapter presents a displacement of the organism as a privileged level of analysis in evolutionary biology. It is concerned with the ontology of biology systems, with particular reference to hierarchical organization. It argues that the concept of a rank-free hierarchy can be transposed to the major transitions hierarchy, with interesting consequences. This chapter shows that the idea of rank freedom makes good sense of a number of facets of the recent discussion of evolutionary transitions and multilevel (...)
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  21.  52
    Jonathan Birch (2012). Collective Action in the Fraternal Transitions. Biology and Philosophy 27 (3):363-380.
    Inclusive fitness theory was not originally designed to explain the major transitions in evolution, but there is a growing consensus that it has the resources to do so. My aim in this paper is to highlight, in a constructive spirit, the puzzles and challenges that remain. I first consider the distinctive aspects of the cooperative interactions we see within the most complex social groups in nature: multicellular organisms and eusocial insect colonies. I then focus on one aspect in (...)
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  22. Brett Calcottt & Kim Sterelny (2011). Introduction: A Dynamic View of Evolution. In Brett Calcott & Kim Sterelny (eds.), The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. MIT Press 1--14.
    This book reviews some of life’s history. It suggests that one crucial feature of John Maynard Smith and Eörs Szathmáry’s The Major Transitions in Evolution is that it has a dynamic approach. In The Major Transitions in Evolution, Maynard Smith and Szathmáry bought a much more dynamic model to debates about the history of life. This book also shows that in the decade and more that has followed, the legacy of Maynard Smith and Szathmáry has been (...)
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  23. P. Godfrey-Smith & B. Kerr (2013). Gestalt-Switching and the Evolutionary Transitions. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (1):205-222.
    Formal methods developed for modeling levels of selection problems have recently been applied to the investigation of major evolutionary transitions. We discuss two new tools of this kind. First, the ‘near-variant test’ can be used to compare the causal adequacy of predictively equivalent representations. Second, ‘state-variable gestalt-switching’ can be used to gain a useful dual perspective on evolutionary processes that involve both higher and lower level populations.
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  24.  21
    Peter Godfrey-Smith (2006). Local Interaction, Multilevel Selection, and Evolutionary Transitions. Biological Theory 1 (4):372-380.
    Group-structured and neighbor-structured populations are compared, especially in relation to multilevel selection theory and evolutionary transitions. I argue that purely neighborstructured populations, which can feature the evolution of altruism, are not properly described in multilevel terms. The ability to “gestalt switch” between individualist and multilevel frameworks is then linked to the investigation of “major transitions” in evolution. Some explanatory concepts are naturally linked to one framework or the other, but a full understanding is best achieved via the (...)
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  25.  13
    Pamela Lyon (2011). 6To Be or Not To Be: Where Is Self-Preservation in Evolutionary Theory? In Brett Calcott & Kim Sterelny (eds.), The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. MIT Press
    This chapter highlights Carl Woese’s message about cellular complexity. It addresses the phenotypic distance between a putative, hypothetical ur-replicator or ur-chromosome and anything that can function as a cell that can effectively respond to its environment in ways that maintain its metabolic and physiological integrity. It describes what self-preserving and self-extending behavior in a chemical system minimally involves. This chapter shows that The Major Transitions in Evolution assumes that the emergence of a replicating molecular complex coincides with the (...)
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  26.  19
    Eörs Szathmáry (2012). Transitions and Social Evolution. Philosophy and Theory in Biology 4 (20130604).
    This is a lovely and very useful book. It deals with the emergence of higher and higher level units of evolution, especially regarding what Queller (1997) called “fraternal major transitions.” These are evolutionary transitions where the lower-level units that gang up are genetically alike and, therefore, the initial advantage is likely to come from the economy of scale rather than the complementation of function, as in the case of “egalitarian transitions.” Simple division of labor may arise (...)
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  27.  26
    Joeri Witteveen (2009). Darwinism About Darwinism. [REVIEW] Biological Theory 4 (2):207-213.
  28.  8
    Kim Sterelny (2011). Evolvability Reconsidered. In Brett Calcott & Kim Sterelny (eds.), The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. MIT Press 83--100.
    This chapter connects the major transitions to evolvability and its evolution. It reviews a three-pulse model of the conditions that make the evolution of complexity possible. It specifically outlines the life up to the evolution of fully equipped prokaryote cells, the phase of microbial evolution, and the third phase that sees the evolution of complex development. It compares the prokaryote and multicellular evolvability. The deeply obscure problem of precellular evolution is also evaluated. This chapter shows that individual properties (...)
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  29. Rosi Braidotti (2010). After Poststructuralism: Transitions and Transformations. In Alan D. Schrift (ed.), The History of Continental Philosophy. The University of Chicago Press
    The end of the Cold War revitalised continental philosophy and, more particularly, interest in it from outside philosophy. "After Poststructuralism: Transitions and Transformations" analyses the main developments in continental philosophy between 1980-1995, a time of great upheaval and profound social change. The volume ranges across the birth of postmodernism, the differing traditions of France, Germany and Italy, third generation critical theory, radical democracy, postcolonial philosophy, the turn to ethics, feminist philosophies, the increasing engagement with religion, and the rise of (...)
     
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  30. Rosi Braidotti (2013). After Poststructuralism: Transitions and Transformations. Routledge.
    The end of the Cold War revitalised continental philosophy and, more particularly, interest in it from outside philosophy. "After Poststructuralism: Transitions and Transformations" analyses the main developments in continental philosophy between 1980-1995, a time of great upheaval and profound social change. The volume ranges across the birth of postmodernism, the differing traditions of France, Germany and Italy, third generation critical theory, radical democracy, postcolonial philosophy, the turn to ethics, feminist philosophies, the increasing engagement with religion, and the rise of (...)
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  31.  11
    Deborah E. Shelton & Richard E. Michod (2014). Levels of Selection and the Formal Darwinism Project. Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):217-224.
    Understanding good design requires addressing the question of what units undergo natural selection, thereby becoming adapted. There is, therefore, a natural connection between the formal Darwinism project (which aims to connect population genetics with the evolution of design and fitness maximization) and levels of selection issues. We argue that the formal Darwinism project offers contradictory and confusing lines of thinking concerning level(s) of selection. The project favors multicellular organisms over both the lower (cell) and higher (social group) levels as the (...)
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  32.  48
    Philippe Huneman (2008). Emergence and Adaptation. Minds and Machines 18 (4):493-520.
    I investigate the relationship between adaptation, as defined in evolutionary theory through natural selection, and the concept of emergence. I argue that there is an essential correlation between the former, and “emergence” defined in the field of algorithmic simulations. I first show that the computational concept of emergence (in terms of incompressible simulation) can be correlated with a causal criterion of emergence (in terms of the specificity of the explanation of global patterns). On this ground, I argue that emergence in (...)
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  33.  68
    Kepa Ruiz-Mirazo & Alvaro Moreno (2012). Autonomy in Evolution: From Minimal to Complex Life. Synthese 185 (1):21-52.
    Our aim in the present paper is to approach the nature of life from the perspective of autonomy, showing that this perspective can be helpful for overcoming the traditional Cartesian gap between the physical and cognitive domains. We first argue that, although the phenomenon of life manifests itself as highly complex and multidimensional, requiring various levels of description, individual organisms constitute the core of this multifarious phenomenology. Thereafter, our discussion focuses on the nature of the organization of individual living entities, (...)
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  34. Ellen Clarke (2011). Plant Individuality and Multilevel Selection Theory. In Kim Sterelny & Brett Calcott (eds.), The Major Transitions Revisited. MIT Press 227--250.
    This chapter develops the idea that the germ-soma split and the suppression of individual fitness differences within the corporate entity are not always essential steps in the evolution of corporate individuals. It illustrates some consequences for multilevel selection theory. It presents evidence that genetic heterogeneity may not always be a barrier to successful functioning as a higher-level individual. This chapter shows that levels-of-selection theorists are wrong to assume that the central problem in transitions is always that of minimizing within-group (...)
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  35.  3
    Lindell Bromham (2011). The Small Picture Approach to the Big Picture: Using DNA Sequences to Investigate the Diversification of Animal Body Plans. In Brett Calcott & Kim Sterelny (eds.), The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. MIT Press
    This chapter is concerned with the Cambrian explosion. It considers only one particular kind of explanation for the Cambrian radiation: that major innovations in animal body plan were produced from relatively few genetic changes of large phenotypic effect. It investigates the developmental genetic hypothesis of the origin and maintenance of body plans. This chapter suggests that the genetic architecture underlying body plans was not set during the Cambrian and has been immutable since. It shows that the link between body (...)
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  36.  42
    Samir Okasha (2005). Maynard Smith on the Levels of Selection Question. Biology and Philosophy 20 (5):989-1010.
    The levels of selection problem was central to Maynard Smith’s work throughout his career. This paper traces Maynard Smith’s views on the levels of selection, from his objections to group selection in the 1960s to his concern with the major evolutionary transitions in the 1990s. The relations between Maynard Smith’s position and those of Hamilton and G.C. Williams are explored, as is Maynard Smith’s dislike of the Price equation approach to multi-level selection. Maynard Smith’s account of the ‘core (...)
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  37. Andrew Hurrell (2013). Power Transitions, Global Justice, and the Virtues of Pluralism. Ethics and International Affairs 27 (2):189-205.
    Broad comparisons of international relations across time—of the prospects for peace and of the possibilities for a new ethics for a connected world—typically focus on two dimensions: economic globalization and integration on the one hand, and the character of major interstate relations on the other. One of the most striking features of the pre-1914 world was precisely the coincidence of intensified globalization with a dramatic deterioration in major power relations, the downfall of concert-style approaches to international order, and (...)
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  38.  9
    Kim Sterelny (2016). Cooperation, Culture, and Conflict. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (1):31-58.
    In this article I develop a big picture of the evolution of human cooperation, and contrast it to an alternative based on group selection. The crucial claim is that hominin history has seen two major transitions in cooperation, and hence poses two deep puzzles about the origins and stability of cooperation. The first is the transition from great ape social lives to the lives of Pleistocene cooperative foragers; the second is the stability of the social contract through the (...)
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  39.  26
    Kim Sterelny (2014). Cooperation, Culture, and Conflict. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (1):axu024.
    In this article I develop a big picture of the evolution of human cooperation, and contrast it to an alternative based on group selection. The crucial claim is that hominin history has seen two major transitions in cooperation, and hence poses two deep puzzles about the origins and stability of cooperation. The first is the transition from great ape social lives to the lives of Pleistocene cooperative foragers; the second is the stability of the social contract through the (...)
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  40.  71
    Gérard Battail (2014). Barbieri’s Organic Codes Enable Error Correction of Genomes. Biosemiotics 7 (2):259-277.
    Barbieri introduced and developed the concept of organic codes. The most basic of them is the genetic code, a set of correspondence rules between otherwise unrelated sequences: strings of nucleotides on the one hand, polypeptidic chains on the other hand. Barbieri noticed that it implies ‘coding by convention’ as arbitrary as the semantic relations a language establishes between words and outer objects. Moreover, the major transitions in life evolution originated in new organic codes similarly involving conventional rules. Independently, (...)
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  41.  13
    Anne Showstack Sassoon (2000). Gramsci and Contemporary Politics: Beyond Pessimism of the Intellect. Routledge.
    Gramsci and Contemporary Politics is a collection of Anne Showstack Sassoon's writing which spans the major transitions from Thatcher and Reagan to Clinton and ...
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  42.  51
    Steven L. Peck (2013). Life as Emergent Agential Systems: Tendencies Without Teleology in an Open Universe. Zygon 48 (4):984-1000.
    Life is a relationship among various kinds of agents interacting at different scales in ways that are multifarious, complex, and emergent. Life is always a part of an ecological embedding in communities of interaction, which in turn structure and influence how life evolves. Evolution is essential for understanding life and biodiversity. Henri Bergson's Creative Evolution suggests a way of examining “tendencies” without “teleology.” In this paper I reexamine that work in light of recent concepts in evolutionary ecology, and explore how (...)
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  43.  3
    Andrew H. Knoll & David Hewitt (2011). Phylogenetic, Functional and Geological Perspectives on Complex Multicellularity. In Brett Calcott & Kim Sterelny (eds.), The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. MIT Press 251--270.
    This chapter develops a subtle model that integrates environmental and internal factors. It describes the phylogenetic distribution of multicellular organisms in general and complex multicellular life in particular, clarifying the important distinction between the two. This chapter shows that the long apparent lag between the appearance of simple multicellularity in eukaryotes and the radiation of groups with complex multicellular organization has an environmental component that can be associated back to the consequences of life with interior and exterior cells. It suggests (...)
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  44.  76
    Jonathan Birch (2012). Social Revolution. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 27 (4):571-581.
    Andrew Bourke’s Principles of Social Evolution identifies three stages that characterize an evolutionary transition in individuality and deploys inclusive fitness theory to explain each stage. The third stage, social group transformation, has hitherto received relatively little attention from inclusive fitness theorists. In this review, I first discuss Bourke’s “virtual dominance” hypothesis for the evolution of the germ line. I then contrast Bourke’s inclusive fitness approach to the major transitions with the multi-level approach developed by Richard Michod, Samir Okasha (...)
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  45.  41
    Dan Dennett (2004). Obituary. Biology and Philosophy 19 (3):307-309.
    He once recalled his delighted discovery as a schoolboy at Eton of J.B.S. Haldane’s book of essays, Possible Worlds; it changed his life, and after working as an aeronautical engineer designing aircraft during the war, he studied with Haldane and then went on to write his own series of career- inspiring books and essays for generations of students and professors around the world. The 1993 Introduction to the last edition of his 1958 classic, The Theory of Evolution, is an elegant (...)
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  46.  10
    Ronald de Sousa (2010). Existentialism as Biology. Emotion Review 2 (1):76-83.
    Existentialism is compatible with a broadly biological vision of who we are. This thesis is grounded in an analysis of “concrete” or “individual” possibility, which differs from standard conceptions of possibility in that it allows for possibilities to come into being or disappear through time. Concrete possibilities are introduced both in individual life and by major transitions in evolution. In particular, the advent of ultrasociality and of language has enabled human goals to be formulated in partial independence from (...)
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  47.  27
    Ellen Clarke (2009). Noah and the Spaceship: Evolution for Twenty-First Century Christians. Biology and Philosophy 24 (5):725-734.
    Evolution has increasingly become a topic of conflict between scientists and Christians, but Alexandre Meinesz’s recent book How Life Began aims to provide a reconciliation between the two. Here I review his somewhat unorthodox perspective on major transitions, alien origins and the meaning of life, with a critical focus on his account of the generation of multicellularity.
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  48.  3
    Christoph E. Schreiner (1998). Input Limitations for Cortical Combination-Sensitive Neurons Coding Stop-Consonants? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (2):284-284.
    A tendency of auditory cortical neurons to respond at the beginning of major transitions in sounds rather than providing a continuously updated spectral-temporal profile may impede the generation of combination-sensitivity for certain classes of stimuli. Potential consequences of the cortical encoding of voiced stop-consonants on representational principles derived from orderly output constraints are discussed.
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  49.  5
    Guo Jianning (1999). Chinese Philosophy in the Past Two Decades. Contemporary Chinese Thought 30 (4):81-91.
    Since 1978, contemporary Chinese philosophy has entered a new stage of development. The last two decades have witnessed three hot topics: "practice," "man," and "Cultural Heritage Studies." They reflect the following major transitions: from practice as a standard to practical materialism, from humanism to the Study of Man, and from Culture mania to [Chinese] Cultural Heritage Studies mania. The first topic is an expression of the reflection and innovation going on in Marxist philosophy; the issues of the Study (...)
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  50. Howard Kainz (ed.) (1994). Selections From Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit. Penn State University Press.
    Hegel's _Phenomenology of Spirit_, his first major work, is one of the classics of Western philosophy. Although previous translations, in whole or in part, have made the text available in English, they are for various reasons not fully adequate, especially for use in teaching undergraduates. Howard Kainz has therefore undertaken to provide his own translation of major selections from the work, which are tied together by summaries of the parts not translated so as to provide the reader with (...)
     
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