Search results for 'mapping and comparing different causal scenarios' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Peter Fazekas & George Kampis, Turning Negative Causation Back to Positive.score: 1155.0
    In contemporary literature, the fact that there is negative causation is the primary motivation for rejecting the physical connection view, and arguing for alternative accounts of causation. In this paper we insist that such a conclusion is too fast. We present two frameworks, which help the proponent of the physical connection view to resist the anti-connectionist conclusion. According to the first framework, there are positive causal claims, which co-refer with at least some negative causal claims. According to the (...)
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  2. Petri Ylikoski (2013). Causal and Constitutive Explanation Compared. Erkenntnis 78 (2):277-297.score: 228.0
    This article compares causal and constitutive explanation. While scientific inquiry usually addresses both causal and constitutive questions, making the distinction is crucial for a detailed understanding of scientific questions and their interrelations. These explanations have different kinds of explananda and they track different sorts of dependencies. Constitutive explanations do not address events or behaviors, but causal capacities. While there are some interesting relations between building and causal manipulation, causation and constitution are not to be (...)
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  3. Rom Harré (2010). Causal Concepts in Chemical Vernaculars. Foundations of Chemistry 12 (2):101-115.score: 176.0
    Though causality seems to have a natural place in chemical thought, the analysis of the underlying causal concepts requires attention to two different research styles. In Part One I attempt a classification and critical analysis of several philosophical accounts of causal concepts which appear to be very diverse. I summarize this diversity which ranges from causality as displayed in regular concomitances of types of events to causality as the activity of agents. Part Two is concerned with the (...)
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  4. John R. Fairweather & Lesley M. Hunt (2011). Can Farmers Map Their Farm System? Causal Mapping and the Sustainability of Sheep/Beef Farms in New Zealand. Agriculture and Human Values 28 (1):55-66.score: 168.0
    It is generally accepted that farmers manage a complex farm system. In this article we seek answers to the following questions. How do farmers perceive and understand their farm system? Are they sufficiently aware of their farm system that they are able to represent it in the form of a map? The research reported describes how causal mapping was applied to sheep/beef farmers in New Zealand and shows that farmers can create maps of their farm systems in ways (...)
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  5. Ulf Lotzmann, Michael Möhring & Klaus G. Troitzsch (2013). Simulating the Emergence of Norms in Different Scenarios. Artificial Intelligence and Law 21 (1):109 - 138.score: 144.0
    This paper deals with EMIL-S, a software tool box which was designed during the EMIL project for the simulation of processes during which norms emerged in an agent society. This tool box implements the cognitive architecture of normative agents which was designed during the EMIL project which is also discussed in other papers in this issue. This implementation is described in necessary detail, and two examples of its application to several different scenarios are given, namely a scenario in (...)
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  6. David R. Mandel (2007). Differential Focus in Causal and Counterfactual Thinking: Different Possibilities or Different Functions? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (5-6):460-461.score: 144.0
    In The Rational Imagination, Byrne proposes a mental models account of why causal and counterfactual thinking often focus on different antecedents. This review critically examines the two central propositions of her account, finding both only weakly defensible. Byrne's account is contrasted with judgment dissociation theory, which offers a functional explanation for differences in the focus of causal and counterfactual thinking.
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  7. [deleted]K. Smets, T. Gebuis & B. Reynvoet (2012). Comparing the Neural Distance Effect Derived From the Non-Symbolic Comparison and the Same-Different Task. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:28-28.score: 144.0
    As a result of the representation of numerosities, more accurate and faster discrimination between two numerosities is observed when the distance between them increases. In previous studies, the comparison and same-different task were most frequently used to investigate this distance effect. Recently, it was questioned whether the non-symbolic distance effects derived from these tasks originate at the same level. In the current study, we examined the behavioral and neural distance effects of the comparison and same-different task to assess (...)
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  8. Elisabeth Camp (2007). Thinking with Maps. Philosophical Perspectives 21 (1):145–182.score: 138.0
    Most of us create and use a panoply of non-sentential representations throughout our ordinary lives: we regularly use maps to navigate, charts to keep track of complex patterns of data, and diagrams to visualize logical and causal relations among states of affairs. But philosophers typically pay little attention to such representations, focusing almost exclusively on language instead. In particular, when theorizing about the mind, many philosophers assume that there is a very tight mapping between language and thought. Some (...)
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  9. Yi-hui Hung, Daisy L. Hung, Ovid J.-L. Tzeng & Denise H. Wu (2008). Flexible Spatial Mapping of Different Notations of Numbers in Chinese Readers. Cognition 106 (3):1441-1450.score: 132.0
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  10. Remigiusz Szczepanowski, Jakub Traczyk, Michał Wierzchoń & Axel Cleeremans (2013). The Perception of Visual Emotion: Comparing Different Measures of Awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):212-220.score: 132.0
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  11. Yi-hui Hung, Daisy L. Hung, Ovid J.-L. Tzeng & Denise H. Wu (2010). Corrigendum to “Flexible Spatial Mapping of Different Notations of Numbers in Chinese Readers” [Cognition 106 (3) (2008) 1441–1450]. [REVIEW] Cognition 116 (2):302-302.score: 132.0
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  12. Irwin P. Levin (1976). Comparing Different Models and Response Transformations in an Information Integration Task. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 7 (1):78-80.score: 132.0
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  13. Winston Chang Herrmann (2007). What We Imagine Versus How We Imagine, and a Problem for Explaining Counterfactual Thoughts with Causal Ones. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (5-6):455-456.score: 129.6
    Causal and counterfactual thoughts are bound together in Byrne's theory of human imagination. We think there are two issues in her theory that deserve clarification. First, Byrne describes which counterfactual possibilities we think of, but she leaves unexplained the mechanisms by which we generate these possibilities. Second, her exploration of and enablers gives two different predictions of which counterfactuals we think of in causal scenarios. On one account, we think of the counterfactuals which we have control (...)
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  14. [deleted]An Luo & Paul Sajda (2009). Comparing Neural Correlates of Visual Target Detection in Serial Visual Presentations Having Different Temporal Correlations. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 3:5.score: 128.0
    Most visual stimuli we experience on a day-to-day basis are continuous sequences, with spatial structure highly correlated in time. During rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), this correlation is absent. Here we study how subjects' target detection responses, both behavioral and electrophysiological, differ between continuous serial visual sequences (CSVP), flashed serial visual presentation (FSVP) and RSVP. Behavioral results show longer reaction times for CSVP compared to the FSVP and RSVP conditions, as well as a difference in miss-rate between RSVP and the (...)
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  15. David Danks, Thomas L. Griffiths & Joshua B. Tenenbaum, Dynamical Causal Learning.score: 126.0
    Current psychological theories of human causal learning and judgment focus primarily on long-run predictions: two by estimating parameters of a causal Bayes nets (though for different parameterizations), and a third through structural learning. This paper focuses on people’s short-run behavior by examining dynamical versions of these three theories, and comparing their predictions to a real-world dataset.
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  16. Greg Restall, Comparing Modal Sequent Systems.score: 126.0
    This is an exploratory and expository paper, comparing display logic formulations of normal modal logics with labelled sequent systems. We provide a translation from display sequents into labelled sequents. The comparison between different systems gives us a different way to understand the difference between display systems and other sequent calculi as a difference between local and global views of consequence. The mapping between display and labelled systems also gives us a way to understand labelled systems as (...)
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  17. Patricia C. Kelley, Bradley R. Agle & Jason DeMott (2005). Mapping Our Progress: Identifying, Categorizing and Comparing Universities' Ethics Infrastructures. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 3 (2-4):205-229.score: 122.0
    Ethics researchers have scrutinized ethical business problems, which have been demonstrated through the actions of managers at Enron, WorldCom, and Arthur Andersen, among others. In response to these business transgressions, the US government has implemented the Sarbanes–Oxley Act to shore up businesses’ ethics infrastructures. However, universities, too, struggle with ethics problems. These include NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) violations, discrimination issues, sexual harassment, endowment admits, plagiarism, and research funding manipulation. Despite these problems, we have little knowledge regarding universities’ ethics infrastructures (...)
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  18. [deleted]Daniella Laureiro-Martínez, Nicola Canessa, Stefano Brusoni, Maurizio Zollo, Todd Hare, Federica Alemanno & Stefano F. Cappa (2014). Frontopolar Cortex and Decision-Making Efficiency: Comparing Brain Activity of Experts with Different Professional Background During an Exploration-Exploitation Task. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 120.0
  19. Emma Richards, Tania Signal & Nik Taylor (2013). A Different Cut? Comparing Attitudes Toward Animals and Propensity for Aggression Within Two Primary Industry Cohorts—Farmers and Meatworkers. Society and Animals 21 (4):395-413.score: 120.0
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  20. W. Ahn (1998). Why Are Different Features Central for Natural Kinds and Artifacts?: The Role of Causal Status in Determining Feature Centrality. Cognition 69 (2):135-178.score: 120.0
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  21. Murat Gunel, Brian Hand & Sevket Gunduz (2006). Comparing Student Understanding of Quantum Physics When Embedding Multimodal Representations Into Two Different Writing Formats: Presentation Format Versus Summary Report Format. Science Education 90 (6):1092-1112.score: 120.0
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  22. S. V. McCrary, J. W. Swanson, J. Coulehan, K. Faber-Langendoen, R. S. Olick & C. Belling (2006). Physicians' Legal Defensiveness in End-of-Life Treatment Decisions: Comparing Attitudes and Knowledge in States with Different Laws. Journal of Clinical Ethics 17 (1):15.score: 120.0
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  23. Nik Taylor, Emma Richards & Tania Signal (2013). A Different Cut? Comparing Attitudes Toward Animals and Propensity for Aggression Within Two Primary Industry Cohorts—Farmers and Meatworkers. Society and Animals 21 (4):395-413.score: 120.0
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  24. Lawrence Nolan & Alan Nelson (2006). To a Reader Voyaging Through the Meditations for the First Time, Descartes' Proofs for the Existence of God Can Seem Daunting, Especially the Argument of Meditation III, with its Appeal to Causal Principles That Seem Arcane, and to Medieval Doctrines About Different Modes of Being and Degrees of Reality. First-Time Readers Are Not Alone in Feeling Bewildered. Many Commentators Have Had the Same Reaction. In an Attempt at Charity, Some of Them Have Tried to Tame the Complexity of Descartes' Discussion by .. [REVIEW] In Stephen Gaukroger (ed.), Blackwell Guide to Descartes’ Meditations. Wiley-Blackwell. 2--104.score: 120.0
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  25. Jack Wassermann (1990). What's Alike? What's Different?: The Book of Comparing. Walker and Co..score: 120.0
     
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  26. Tammy Swenson-Lepper (2005). Ethical Sensitivity for Organizational Communication Issues: Examining Individual and Organizational Differences. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 59 (3):205 - 231.score: 116.0
    . This descriptive study discusses cognitive mapping as a technique for analyzing ethical sensitivity, examines whether the method allows comparisons between people, compares the ethical sensitivity levels of participants from three organizations, examines which indicators of ethical sensitivity are most salient to members of specific organizations, and examines whether education level or organizational membership is the best predictor of an individual’s ethical sensitivity level. Subjects from three organizations read background information, listened to two audiotaped scenarios containing multiple ethical (...)
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  27. H. Atmanspacher, Stabilization of Causally and Non-Causally Coupled Map Lattices.score: 103.0
    Two-dimensional coupled map lattices have global stability properties that depend on the coupling between individual maps and their neighborhood. The action of the neighborhood on individual maps can be implemented in terms of ‘‘causal’’ coupling (to spatially distant past states) or ‘‘non-causal’’ coupling (to spatially distant simultaneous states). In this contribution we show that globally stable behavior of coupled map lattices is facilitated by causal coupling, thus indicating a surprising relationship between stability and causality. The influence of (...)
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  28. Jos Hornikx (2008). Comparing the Actual and Expected Persuasiveness of Evidence Types: How Good Are Lay People at Selecting Persuasive Evidence? [REVIEW] Argumentation 22 (4):555-569.score: 96.0
    Whereas there are many publications in which argumentation quality has been defined by argumentation theorists, considerably less research attention has been paid to lay people’s considerations regarding argument quality. Considerations about strong and weak argumentation are relevant because they can be compared with actual persuasive success. Argumentation theorists’ conceptions have to some extent been shown to be compatible with actual effectiveness, but for lay people such compatibility has yet to be determined. This study experimentally investigated lay people’s expectations about the (...)
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  29. Andrea Kiesel Carola Haering (2012). Mine is Earlier Than Yours: Causal Beliefs Influence the Perceived Time of Action Effects. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 94.8
    When a key press causes a stimulus, the key press is perceived later and the stimulus earlier than key presses and stimuli presented independently. This bias in time perception has been linked to the intention to produce the effect and thus been called intentional binding. In recent studies it has been shown that the intentional binding effect is stronger when participants believed that they caused the effect stimulus compared to when they believed that another person caused the effect (Desantis, Roussel, (...)
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  30. Jan Lemeire & Dominik Janzing (2013). Replacing Causal Faithfulness with Algorithmic Independence of Conditionals. Minds and Machines 23 (2):227-249.score: 92.0
    Independence of Conditionals (IC) has recently been proposed as a basic rule for causal structure learning. If a Bayesian network represents the causal structure, its Conditional Probability Distributions (CPDs) should be algorithmically independent. In this paper we compare IC with causal faithfulness (FF), stating that only those conditional independences that are implied by the causal Markov condition hold true. The latter is a basic postulate in common approaches to causal structure learning. The common spirit of (...)
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  31. Kevin MacDonald (1999). What About Sex Differences? An Adaptationist Perspective on “the Lines of Causal Influence” of Personality Systems. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):530-531.score: 87.0
    The evolutionary theory of sex implies a theoretically principled account of the causal mechanisms underlying personality systems in which males pursue a relatively high-risk strategy compared to females and are thus higher on traits linked to sensation seeking and social dominance. Females are expected to be lower on these traits but higher on traits related to nurturance and attraction to long-term relationships. The data confirm this pattern of sex differences. It is thus likely that these traits (...)
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  32. Karen J. Maher & Jeffrey J. Bailey (1999). The Effects of Transgressor Sex on Judgments of Unethical Behavior. Journal of Business Ethics 18 (2):157 - 171.score: 84.6
    This study investigated the effect of gender stereotypes on evaluator judgments of unethical behavior. Subjects were working adults who completed a mailed survey in which they evaluated unethical behavior depicted in written scenarios. Sex of the transgressor in the scenarios was manipulated. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses indicated that there are no stable differences in evaluations of men and women across scenarios. These results suggest that evaluators do not hold different standards of ethical behavior for men (...)
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  33. Christian A. Kell Johannes Gehrig, Michael Wibral, Christiane Arnold (2012). Setting Up the Speech Production Network: How Oscillations Contribute to Lateralized Information Routing. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 84.6
    Speech production involves widely distributed brain regions. This study focuses on the spectro-temporal dynamics that contribute to the setup of this network. 26 participants performed a cue-target reading paradigm during MEG. We analyzed local oscillations during preparation for overt and covert reading in the time-frequency domain and localized sources using beamforming. Network dynamics were studied by comparing different dynamic causal models of beta phase coupling. While a broadband low frequency effect was found for any task preparation in (...)
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  34. Gina Rippon Fiona McNab, Arjan Hillebrand, Stephen J. Swithenby (2012). Combining Temporal and Spectral Information with Spatial Mapping to Identify Differences Between Phonological and Semantic Networks: A Magnetoencephalographic Approach. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 84.0
    Early, lesion-based models of language processing suggested that semantic and phonological processes are associated with distinct temporal and parietal regions respectively, with frontal areas more indirectly involved. Contemporary spatial brain mapping techniques have not supported such clear-cut segregation, with strong evidence of activation in left temporal areas by both processes and disputed evidence of involvement of frontal areas in both processes. We suggest that combining spatial information with temporal and spectral data may allow a closer scrutiny of the differential (...)
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  35. Eyal Sagi, Dedre Gentner & Andrew Lovett (2012). What Difference Reveals About Similarity. Cognitive Science 36 (6):1019-1050.score: 83.6
    Detecting that two images are different is faster for highly dissimilar images than for highly similar images. Paradoxically, we showed that the reverse occurs when people are asked to describe how two images differ—that is, to state a difference between two images. Following structure-mapping theory, we propose that this disassociation arises from the multistage nature of the comparison process. Detecting that two images are different can be done in the initial (local-matching) stage, but only for pairs with (...)
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  36. Andreas Hüttemann & Alan C. Love (2011). COMPARING PART-WHOLE REDUCTIVE EXPLANATIONS IN BIOLOGY AND PHYSICS. In Dennis Dieks, Wenceslao Gonzalo, Thomas Uebel, Stephan Hartmann & Marcel Weber (eds.), Explanation, Prediction, and Confirmation. Springer. 183--202.score: 81.0
    Many biologists and philosophers have worried that importing models of reasoning from the physical sciences obscures our understanding of reasoning in the life sciences. In this paper we discuss one example that partially validates this concern: part-whole reductive explanations. Biology and physics tend to incorporate different models of temporality in part-whole reductive explanations. This results from differential emphases on compositional and causal facets of reductive explanations, which have not been distinguished reliably in prior philosophical analyses. Keeping these two (...)
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  37. Gloria Ayob (2008). Space and Sense: The Role of Location in Understanding Demonstrative Concepts. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 108 (1pt3):347-354.score: 81.0
    My aim in this paper is to critically evaluate John Campbell's (2002) characterization of the sense of demonstrative terms and his account of why an object's location matters in our understanding of perceptually-based demonstrative terms. Campbell thinks that the senses of a demonstrative term are the different ways of consciously attending to an object. I will evaluate Campbell's account of sense by exploring and comparing two scenarios in which the actual location of a seen object is (...) from its perceived location. I do this in order to motivate the following point: Campbell's characterization of the sense of a demonstrative term turns sense into a psychologistic notion. As a consequence of this, it is difficult to see how sense could underwrite reference. In short, I shall be arguing that Campbell's account of the ways of perceiving an object is simply inadequate as an account of the Fregean notion of sense, according to which the senses of a demonstrative term are the different ways of thinking about an object. (shrink)
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  38. Carolina Sartorio (2008). Moral Inertia. Philosophical Studies 140 (1):117 - 133.score: 81.0
    I argue that, according to ordinary morality, there is moral inertia, that is, moral pressure to fail to intervene in certain circumstances. Moral inertia is manifested in scenarios with a particular causal structure: deflection scenarios, where a threatening or benefiting process is diverted from a group of people to another. I explain why the deflection structure is essential for moral inertia to be manifested. I argue that there are two different manifestations of moral inertia: strict prohibitions (...)
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  39. Roberta L. Millstein (forthcoming). Probability in Biology: The Case of Fitness. In A. Hájek & C. R. Hitchcock (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Probability and Philosophy. Oxford University Press.score: 81.0
    I argue that the propensity interpretation of fitness, properly understood, not only solves the explanatory circularity problem and the mismatch problem, but can also withstand the Pandora’s box full of problems that have been thrown at it. Fitness is the propensity (i.e., probabilistic ability, based on heritable physical traits) for organisms or types of organisms to survive and reproduce in particular environments and in particular populations for a specified number of generations; if greater than one generation, “reproduction” includes descendants of (...)
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  40. Broder Breckling & Hauke Reuter (2004). Analysing Biodiversity: The Necessity of Interdisciplinary Trends in the Development of Ecological Theory. Poiesis and Praxis 3 (s 1-2):83-105.score: 81.0
    Technological advancement has an ambivalent character concerning the impact on biodiversity. It accounts for major detrimental environmental impacts and aggravates threads to biodiversity. On the other hand, from an application perspective of environmental science, there are technical advancements, which increase the potential of analysis, detection and monitoring of environmental changes and open a wider spectrum of sustainable use strategies.The concept of biodiversity emerged in the last two decades as a political issue to protect the structural and functional basis of (...)
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  41. Natalie Gold, Briony Pulford & Andrew Colman (2013). Your Money Or Your Life: Comparing Judgements In Trolley Problems Involving Economic And Emotional Harms, Injury And Death. Economics and Philosophy 29 (02):213-233.score: 81.0
    There is a long-standing debate in philosophy about whether it is morally permissible to harm one person in order to prevent a greater harm to others and, if not, what is the moral principle underlying the prohibition. Hypothetical moral dilemmas are used in order to probe moral intuitions. Philosophers use them to achieve a reflective equilibrium between intuitions and principles, psychologists to investigate moral decision-making processes. In the dilemmas, the harms that are traded off are almost always deaths. However, the (...)
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  42. Terri L. Rittenburg & Sean R. Valentine (2002). Spanish and American Executives' Ethical Judgments and Intentions. Journal of Business Ethics 38 (4):291 - 306.score: 81.0
    This study explores differences between executives in the U.S. and Spain in their perceptions of ethical issues in pricing, specifically comparing a domestic firm's actions affecting a foreign market versus a foreign firm's actions affecting the domestic market. Overall, Spanish and American executives provided somewhat different responses to the scenarios. Findings indicate that ethical judgments and intentions among Spanish executives did not vary based on which country was harmed. U.S. executives generally perceived that a morally questionable act (...)
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  43. Nick Chater (2014). Cognitive Science as an Interface Between Rational and Mechanistic Explanation. Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (1):331-337.score: 81.0
    Cognitive science views thought as computation; and computation, by its very nature, can be understood in both rational and mechanistic terms. In rational terms, a computation solves some information processing problem (e.g., mapping sensory information into a description of the external world; parsing a sentence; selecting among a set of possible actions). In mechanistic terms, a computation corresponds to causal chain of events in a physical device (in engineering context, a silicon chip; in biological context, the nervous system). (...)
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  44. Scott Clifton (2014). Non-Branching Moderate Moralism. Philosophia 42 (1):95-111.score: 81.0
    Noël Carroll’s (“Moderate Moralism”) conceptual framework includes four positions: radical autonomism, moderate autonomism, moderate moralism, and radical moralism. Alessandro Giovanelli (“The Ethical Criticism of Art: A New Mapping of the Territory”) argues that the radical positions, as Carroll defines them, have no modern day adherents. Therefore, the framework should be adapted such that we can see interestingly new distinctions. On Giovanelli’s new framework Carroll’s account is a moderate autonomist view. In this paper I adopt Giovanelli’s framework and raise a (...)
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  45. N. Jansen (1999). The Idea of a Lost Chance. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 19 (2):271-296.score: 81.0
    The idea that a lost chance could be a harm generating recovery is relevant for cases of unclear causation. This article examines that idea explaining it as being conceptually based on the common linguistic separation between changes and final events. The idea of a lost change establishes changes as legal rights which constitute limits against tracing hypothetical consequences, where it is principally impossible to establish a causal connection between a damaging event and a finally suffered injury or loss. This (...)
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  46. S. Goldman, Regional Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Akinetic Catatonia and After Remission.score: 81.0
    K L Kahlbaum published in 1874 the first recorded description of catatonia. Akinetic catatonia is now defined as a neuropsychiatric syndrome principally characterised by akinesia, mutism, stupor, and catalepsy. 1 Even if some advances have been made in the recognition of catatonia, in particular by the development of different rating scales, 1 the pathophysiology of this syndrome is not clearly established. A right handed 14 year old girl presented with akinetic catatonia during an episode of depression in the context (...)
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  47. Luke Glynn (2013). Causal Foundationalism, Physical Causation, and Difference-Making. Synthese 190 (6):1017-1037.score: 80.0
    An influential tradition in the philosophy of causation has it that all token causal facts are, or are reducible to, facts about difference-making. Challenges to this tradition have typically focused on pre-emption cases, in which a cause apparently fails to make a difference to its effect. However, a novel challenge to the difference-making approach has recently been issued by Alyssa Ney. Ney defends causal foundationalism, which she characterizes as the thesis that facts about difference-making depend upon facts about (...)
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  48. Ahmet Ekici & Sule Onsel (2013). How Ethical Behavior of Firms is Influenced by the Legal and Political Environments: A Bayesian Causal Map Analysis Based on Stages of Development. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 115 (2):271-290.score: 80.0
    Even though potential impacts of political and legal environments of business on ethical behavior of firms (EBOF) have been conceptually recognized, not much evidence (i.e., empirical work) has been produced to clarify their role. In this paper, using Bayesian causal maps (BCMs) methodology, relationships between legal and political environments of business and EBOF are investigated. The unique design of our study allows us to analyze these relationships based on the stages of development in 92 countries around the world. The (...)
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  49. Clare R. Walsh & Steven A. Sloman (2011). The Meaning of Cause and Prevent: The Role of Causal Mechanism. Mind and Language 26 (1):21-52.score: 78.0
    How do people understand questions about cause and prevent? Some theories propose that people affirm that A causes B if A's occurrence makes a difference to B's occurrence in one way or another. Other theories propose that A causes B if some quantity or symbol gets passed in some way from A to B. The aim of our studies is to compare these theories' ability to explain judgements of causation and prevention. We describe six experiments that compare judgements for (...) paths that involve a mechanism, i.e. a continuous process of transmission or exchange from cause to effect, against paths that involve no mechanism yet a change in the cause nevertheless brings about a change in the effect. Our results show that people prefer to attribute cause when a mechanism links cause to effect. In contrast, prevention is sensitive both to the presence of an interruption to a causal mechanism and to a change in the outcome in the absence of a mechanism. In this sense, ‘prevent’ means something different than ‘cause not'. We discuss the implications of our results for existing theories of causation. (shrink)
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  50. Clark Glymour, Causal Mechanism and Probability: A Normative Approach.score: 78.0
    & Carnegie Mellon University Abstract The rationality of human causal judgments has been the focus of a great deal of recent research. We argue against two major trends in this research, and for a quite different way of thinking about causal mechanisms and probabilistic data. Our position rejects a false dichotomy between "mechanistic" and "probabilistic" analyses of causal inference -- a dichotomy that both overlooks the nature of the evidence that supports the induction of mechanisms and (...)
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