Search results for 'mapping and comparing different causal scenarios' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Peter Fazekas & George Kampis, Turning Negative Causation Back to Positive.score: 231.0
    In contemporary literature, the fact that there is negative causation is the primary motivation for rejecting the physical connection view, and arguing for alternative accounts of causation. In this paper we insist that such a conclusion is too fast. We present two frameworks, which help the proponent of the physical connection view to resist the anti-connectionist conclusion. According to the first framework, there are positive causal claims, which co-refer with at least some negative causal claims. According to the (...)
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  2. John R. Fairweather & Lesley M. Hunt (2011). Can Farmers Map Their Farm System? Causal Mapping and the Sustainability of Sheep/Beef Farms in New Zealand. Agriculture and Human Values 28 (1):55-66.score: 60.0
    It is generally accepted that farmers manage a complex farm system. In this article we seek answers to the following questions. How do farmers perceive and understand their farm system? Are they sufficiently aware of their farm system that they are able to represent it in the form of a map? The research reported describes how causal mapping was applied to sheep/beef farmers in New Zealand and shows that farmers can create maps of their farm systems in ways (...)
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  3. Petri Ylikoski (2013). Causal and Constitutive Explanation Compared. Erkenntnis 78 (2):277-297.score: 52.0
    This article compares causal and constitutive explanation. While scientific inquiry usually addresses both causal and constitutive questions, making the distinction is crucial for a detailed understanding of scientific questions and their interrelations. These explanations have different kinds of explananda and they track different sorts of dependencies. Constitutive explanations do not address events or behaviors, but causal capacities. While there are some interesting relations between building and causal manipulation, causation and constitution are not to be (...)
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  4. Ulf Lotzmann, Michael Möhring & Klaus G. Troitzsch (2013). Simulating the Emergence of Norms in Different Scenarios. Artificial Intelligence and Law 21 (1):109 - 138.score: 48.0
    This paper deals with EMIL-S, a software tool box which was designed during the EMIL project for the simulation of processes during which norms emerged in an agent society. This tool box implements the cognitive architecture of normative agents which was designed during the EMIL project which is also discussed in other papers in this issue. This implementation is described in necessary detail, and two examples of its application to several different scenarios are given, namely a scenario in (...)
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  5. K. Smets, T. Gebuis & B. Reynvoet (2012). Comparing the Neural Distance Effect Derived From the Non-Symbolic Comparison and the Same-Different Task. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:28-28.score: 48.0
    As a result of the representation of numerosities, more accurate and faster discrimination between two numerosities is observed when the distance between them increases. In previous studies, the comparison and same-different task were most frequently used to investigate this distance effect. Recently, it was questioned whether the non-symbolic distance effects derived from these tasks originate at the same level. In the current study, we examined the behavioral and neural distance effects of the comparison and same-different task to assess (...)
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  6. David R. Mandel (2007). Differential Focus in Causal and Counterfactual Thinking: Different Possibilities or Different Functions? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (5-6):460-461.score: 48.0
    In The Rational Imagination, Byrne proposes a mental models account of why causal and counterfactual thinking often focus on different antecedents. This review critically examines the two central propositions of her account, finding both only weakly defensible. Byrne's account is contrasted with judgment dissociation theory, which offers a functional explanation for differences in the focus of causal and counterfactual thinking.
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  7. Rom Harré (2010). Causal Concepts in Chemical Vernaculars. Foundations of Chemistry 12 (2):101-115.score: 45.0
    Though causality seems to have a natural place in chemical thought, the analysis of the underlying causal concepts requires attention to two different research styles. In Part One I attempt a classification and critical analysis of several philosophical accounts of causal concepts which appear to be very diverse. I summarize this diversity which ranges from causality as displayed in regular concomitances of types of events to causality as the activity of agents. Part Two is concerned with the (...)
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  8. An Luo & Paul Sajda (2009). Comparing Neural Correlates of Visual Target Detection in Serial Visual Presentations Having Different Temporal Correlations. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 3:5.score: 40.0
    Most visual stimuli we experience on a day-to-day basis are continuous sequences, with spatial structure highly correlated in time. During rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), this correlation is absent. Here we study how subjects' target detection responses, both behavioral and electrophysiological, differ between continuous serial visual sequences (CSVP), flashed serial visual presentation (FSVP) and RSVP. Behavioral results show longer reaction times for CSVP compared to the FSVP and RSVP conditions, as well as a difference in miss-rate between RSVP and the (...)
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  9. Eyal Sagi, Dedre Gentner & Andrew Lovett (2012). What Difference Reveals About Similarity. Cognitive Science 36 (6):1019-1050.score: 39.8
    Detecting that two images are different is faster for highly dissimilar images than for highly similar images. Paradoxically, we showed that the reverse occurs when people are asked to describe how two images differ—that is, to state a difference between two images. Following structure-mapping theory, we propose that this disassociation arises from the multistage nature of the comparison process. Detecting that two images are different can be done in the initial (local-matching) stage, but only for pairs with (...)
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  10. Yi-hui Hung, Daisy L. Hung, Ovid J.-L. Tzeng & Denise H. Wu (2010). Corrigendum to “Flexible Spatial Mapping of Different Notations of Numbers in Chinese Readers” [Cognition 106 (3) (2008) 1441–1450]. [REVIEW] Cognition 116 (2):302-302.score: 39.6
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  11. Yi-hui Hung, Daisy L. Hung, Ovid J.-L. Tzeng & Denise H. Wu (2008). Flexible Spatial Mapping of Different Notations of Numbers in Chinese Readers. Cognition 106 (3):1441-1450.score: 39.6
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  12. Remigiusz Szczepanowski, Jakub Traczyk, Michał Wierzchoń & Axel Cleeremans (2013). The Perception of Visual Emotion: Comparing Different Measures of Awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):212-220.score: 39.6
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  13. Irwin P. Levin (1976). Comparing Different Models and Response Transformations in an Information Integration Task. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 7 (1):78-80.score: 39.6
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  14. Winston Chang Herrmann (2007). What We Imagine Versus How We Imagine, and a Problem for Explaining Counterfactual Thoughts with Causal Ones. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (5-6):455-456.score: 37.2
    Causal and counterfactual thoughts are bound together in Byrne's theory of human imagination. We think there are two issues in her theory that deserve clarification. First, Byrne describes which counterfactual possibilities we think of, but she leaves unexplained the mechanisms by which we generate these possibilities. Second, her exploration of and enablers gives two different predictions of which counterfactuals we think of in causal scenarios. On one account, we think of the counterfactuals which we have control (...)
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  15. Elisabeth Camp (2007). Thinking with Maps. Philosophical Perspectives 21 (1):145–182.score: 37.0
    Most of us create and use a panoply of non-sentential representations throughout our ordinary lives: we regularly use maps to navigate, charts to keep track of complex patterns of data, and diagrams to visualize logical and causal relations among states of affairs. But philosophers typically pay little attention to such representations, focusing almost exclusively on language instead. In particular, when theorizing about the mind, many philosophers assume that there is a very tight mapping between language and thought. Some (...)
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  16. Patricia C. Kelley, Bradley R. Agle & Jason DeMott (2005). Mapping Our Progress: Identifying, Categorizing and Comparing Universities' Ethics Infrastructures. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 3 (2-4):205-229.score: 37.0
    Ethics researchers have scrutinized ethical business problems, which have been demonstrated through the actions of managers at Enron, WorldCom, and Arthur Andersen, among others. In response to these business transgressions, the US government has implemented the Sarbanes–Oxley Act to shore up businesses’ ethics infrastructures. However, universities, too, struggle with ethics problems. These include NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) violations, discrimination issues, sexual harassment, endowment admits, plagiarism, and research funding manipulation. Despite these problems, we have little knowledge regarding universities’ ethics infrastructures (...)
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  17. Luke Glynn (2013). Causal Foundationalism, Physical Causation, and Difference-Making. Synthese 190 (6):1017-1037.score: 36.0
    An influential tradition in the philosophy of causation has it that all token causal facts are, or are reducible to, facts about difference-making. Challenges to this tradition have typically focused on pre-emption cases, in which a cause apparently fails to make a difference to its effect. However, a novel challenge to the difference-making approach has recently been issued by Alyssa Ney. Ney defends causal foundationalism, which she characterizes as the thesis that facts about difference-making depend upon facts about (...)
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  18. David Danks, Thomas L. Griffiths & Joshua B. Tenenbaum, Dynamical Causal Learning.score: 36.0
    Current psychological theories of human causal learning and judgment focus primarily on long-run predictions: two by estimating parameters of a causal Bayes nets (though for different parameterizations), and a third through structural learning. This paper focuses on people’s short-run behavior by examining dynamical versions of these three theories, and comparing their predictions to a real-world dataset.
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  19. Ahmet Ekici & Sule Onsel (2013). How Ethical Behavior of Firms is Influenced by the Legal and Political Environments: A Bayesian Causal Map Analysis Based on Stages of Development. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 115 (2):271-290.score: 36.0
    Even though potential impacts of political and legal environments of business on ethical behavior of firms (EBOF) have been conceptually recognized, not much evidence (i.e., empirical work) has been produced to clarify their role. In this paper, using Bayesian causal maps (BCMs) methodology, relationships between legal and political environments of business and EBOF are investigated. The unique design of our study allows us to analyze these relationships based on the stages of development in 92 countries around the world. The (...)
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  20. Greg Restall, Comparing Modal Sequent Systems.score: 36.0
    This is an exploratory and expository paper, comparing display logic formulations of normal modal logics with labelled sequent systems. We provide a translation from display sequents into labelled sequents. The comparison between different systems gives us a different way to understand the difference between display systems and other sequent calculi as a difference between local and global views of consequence. The mapping between display and labelled systems also gives us a way to understand labelled systems as (...)
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  21. Daniella Laureiro-Martínez, Nicola Canessa, Stefano Brusoni, Maurizio Zollo, Todd Hare, Federica Alemanno & Stefano F. Cappa (2014). Frontopolar Cortex and Decision-Making Efficiency: Comparing Brain Activity of Experts with Different Professional Background During an Exploration-Exploitation Task. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 36.0
  22. S. V. McCrary, J. W. Swanson, J. Coulehan, K. Faber-Langendoen, R. S. Olick & C. Belling (2006). Physicians' Legal Defensiveness in End-of-Life Treatment Decisions: Comparing Attitudes and Knowledge in States with Different Laws. Journal of Clinical Ethics 17 (1):15.score: 36.0
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  23. W. Ahn (1998). Why Are Different Features Central for Natural Kinds and Artifacts?: The Role of Causal Status in Determining Feature Centrality. Cognition 69 (2):135-178.score: 36.0
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  24. Murat Gunel, Brian Hand & Sevket Gunduz (2006). Comparing Student Understanding of Quantum Physics When Embedding Multimodal Representations Into Two Different Writing Formats: Presentation Format Versus Summary Report Format. Science Education 90 (6):1092-1112.score: 36.0
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  25. Lawrence Nolan & Alan Nelson (2006). To a Reader Voyaging Through the Meditations for the First Time, Descartes' Proofs for the Existence of God Can Seem Daunting, Especially the Argument of Meditation III, with its Appeal to Causal Principles That Seem Arcane, and to Medieval Doctrines About Different Modes of Being and Degrees of Reality. First-Time Readers Are Not Alone in Feeling Bewildered. Many Commentators Have Had the Same Reaction. In an Attempt at Charity, Some of Them Have Tried to Tame the Complexity of Descartes' Discussion by ... [REVIEW] In Stephen Gaukroger (ed.), Blackwell Guide to Descartes’ Meditations. Wiley-Blackwell. 2--104.score: 36.0
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  26. Emma Richards, Tania Signal & Nik Taylor (2013). A Different Cut? Comparing Attitudes Toward Animals and Propensity for Aggression Within Two Primary Industry Cohorts—Farmers and Meatworkers. Society and Animals 21 (4):395-413.score: 36.0
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  27. Nik Taylor, Emma Richards & Tania Signal (2013). A Different Cut? Comparing Attitudes Toward Animals and Propensity for Aggression Within Two Primary Industry Cohorts—Farmers and Meatworkers. Society and Animals 21 (4):395-413.score: 36.0
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  28. Jack Wassermann (1990). What's Alike? What's Different?: The Book of Comparing. Walker and Co..score: 36.0
     
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  29. Andrea Kiesel Carola Haering (2012). Mine is Earlier Than Yours: Causal Beliefs Influence the Perceived Time of Action Effects. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 33.2
    When a key press causes a stimulus, the key press is perceived later and the stimulus earlier than key presses and stimuli presented independently. This bias in time perception has been linked to the intention to produce the effect and thus been called intentional binding. In recent studies it has been shown that the intentional binding effect is stronger when participants believed that they caused the effect stimulus compared to when they believed that another person caused the effect (Desantis, Roussel, (...)
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  30. Tammy Swenson-Lepper (2005). Ethical Sensitivity for Organizational Communication Issues: Examining Individual and Organizational Differences. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 59 (3):205 - 231.score: 33.0
    . This descriptive study discusses cognitive mapping as a technique for analyzing ethical sensitivity, examines whether the method allows comparisons between people, compares the ethical sensitivity levels of participants from three organizations, examines which indicators of ethical sensitivity are most salient to members of specific organizations, and examines whether education level or organizational membership is the best predictor of an individual’s ethical sensitivity level. Subjects from three organizations read background information, listened to two audiotaped scenarios containing multiple ethical (...)
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  31. Jan Lemeire & Dominik Janzing (2013). Replacing Causal Faithfulness with Algorithmic Independence of Conditionals. Minds and Machines 23 (2):227-249.score: 32.0
    Independence of Conditionals (IC) has recently been proposed as a basic rule for causal structure learning. If a Bayesian network represents the causal structure, its Conditional Probability Distributions (CPDs) should be algorithmically independent. In this paper we compare IC with causal faithfulness (FF), stating that only those conditional independences that are implied by the causal Markov condition hold true. The latter is a basic postulate in common approaches to causal structure learning. The common spirit of (...)
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  32. Gina Rippon Fiona McNab, Arjan Hillebrand, Stephen J. Swithenby (2012). Combining Temporal and Spectral Information with Spatial Mapping to Identify Differences Between Phonological and Semantic Networks: A Magnetoencephalographic Approach. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 30.0
    Early, lesion-based models of language processing suggested that semantic and phonological processes are associated with distinct temporal and parietal regions respectively, with frontal areas more indirectly involved. Contemporary spatial brain mapping techniques have not supported such clear-cut segregation, with strong evidence of activation in left temporal areas by both processes and disputed evidence of involvement of frontal areas in both processes. We suggest that combining spatial information with temporal and spectral data may allow a closer scrutiny of the differential (...)
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  33. Caren A. Frosch, Teresa McCormack, David A. Lagnado & Patrick Burns (2012). Are Causal Structure and Intervention Judgments Inextricably Linked? A Developmental Study. Cognitive Science 36 (2):261-285.score: 28.2
    The application of the formal framework of causal Bayesian Networks to children’s causal learning provides the motivation to examine the link between judgments about the causal structure of a system, and the ability to make inferences about interventions on components of the system. Three experiments examined whether children are able to make correct inferences about interventions on different causal structures. The first two experiments examined whether children’s causal structure and intervention judgments were consistent with (...)
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  34. Bartolomé Coll, Joan Josep Ferrando & Juan Antonio Morales-Lladosa (2009). Four Causal Classes of Newtonian Frames. Foundations of Physics 39 (11):1280-1295.score: 28.2
    The causal characters (spacelike, lightlike, timelike) of the coordinate lines, coordinate surfaces and coordinate hypersurfaces of a coordinate system in Relativity define what is called its causal class. It is known that, in any relativistic space-time, there exist one hundred and ninety nine such causal classes. But in Newtonian physics (where only spacelike and timelike characters exist) the corresponding causal classes have not been discussed until recently. Here it is shown that, in sharp contrast with the (...)
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  35. Karen J. Maher & Jeffrey J. Bailey (1999). The Effects of Transgressor Sex on Judgments of Unethical Behavior. Journal of Business Ethics 18 (2):157 - 171.score: 28.2
    This study investigated the effect of gender stereotypes on evaluator judgments of unethical behavior. Subjects were working adults who completed a mailed survey in which they evaluated unethical behavior depicted in written scenarios. Sex of the transgressor in the scenarios was manipulated. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses indicated that there are no stable differences in evaluations of men and women across scenarios. These results suggest that evaluators do not hold different standards of ethical behavior for men (...)
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  36. Keith A. Markus (2014). An Incremental Approach to Causal Inference in the Behavioral Sciences. Synthese 191 (10):2089-2113.score: 28.2
    Causal inference plays a central role in behavioral science. Historically, behavioral science methodologies have typically sought to infer a single causal relation. Each of the major approaches to causal inference in the behavioral sciences follows this pattern. Nonetheless, such approaches sometimes differ in the causal relation that they infer. Incremental causal inference offers an alternative to this conceptualization of causal inference that divides the inference into a series of incremental steps. Different steps infer (...)
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  37. Christian A. Kell Johannes Gehrig, Michael Wibral, Christiane Arnold (2012). Setting Up the Speech Production Network: How Oscillations Contribute to Lateralized Information Routing. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 28.2
    Speech production involves widely distributed brain regions. This study focuses on the spectro-temporal dynamics that contribute to the setup of this network. 26 participants performed a cue-target reading paradigm during MEG. We analyzed local oscillations during preparation for overt and covert reading in the time-frequency domain and localized sources using beamforming. Network dynamics were studied by comparing different dynamic causal models of beta phase coupling. While a broadband low frequency effect was found for any task preparation in (...)
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  38. David Yates (2012). Functionalism and the Metaphysics of Causal Exclusion. Philosophers' Imprint 12 (13).score: 27.0
    Given their physical realization, what causal work is left for functional properties to do? Humean solutions to the exclusion problem (e.g. overdetermination and difference-making) typically appeal to counterfactual and/or nomic relations between functional property-instances and behavioural effects, tacitly assuming that such relations suffice for causal work. Clarification of the notion of causal work, I argue, shows not only that such solutions don't work, but also reveals a novel solution to the exclusion problem based on the relations between (...)
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  39. Massimo Pigliucci (2010). Genotype–Phenotype Mapping and the End of the ‘Genes as Blueprint’ Metaphor. Philosophical Transactions Royal Society B 365:557–566.score: 27.0
    In a now classic paper published in 1991, Alberch introduced the concept of genotype–phenotype (G!P) mapping to provide a framework for a more sophisticated discussion of the integration between genetics and developmental biology that was then available. The advent of evo-devo first and of the genomic era later would seem to have superseded talk of transitions in phenotypic space and the like, central to Alberch’s approach. On the contrary, this paper shows that recent empirical and theoretical advances have only (...)
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  40. U. Meyer (2012). Explaining Causal Loops. Analysis 72 (2):259-264.score: 27.0
    This article argues that the causal loops that occur in some time-travel scenarios and in certain solutions of the theory of relativity are no more mysterious than the infinitely descending causal chains familiar from Newtonian mechanics.
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  41. J. Barrett (1995). Causal Relevance and Nonreductive Physicalism. Erkenntnis 42 (3):339-62.score: 27.0
    It has been argued that nonreductive physicalism leads to epiphenominalism about mental properties: the view that mental events cannot cause behavioral effects by virtue of their mental properties. Recently, attempts have been made to develop accounts of causal relevance for irreducible properties to show that mental properties need not be epiphenomenal. In this paper, I primarily discuss the account of Frank Jackson and Philip Pettit. I show how it can be developed to meet several obvious objections and to capture (...)
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  42. John Cantwell (2010). On an Alleged Counter-Example to Causal Decision Theory. Synthese 173 (2):127 - 152.score: 27.0
    An alleged counterexample to causal decision theory, put forward by Andy Egan, is studied in some detail. It is argued that Egan rejects the evaluation of causal decision theory on the basis of a description of the decision situation that is different from—indeed inconsistent with—the description on which causal decision theory makes its evaluation. So the example is not a counterexample to causal decision theory. Nevertheless, the example shows that causal decision theory can recommend (...)
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  43. Erik Weber, Jeroen Van Bouwel & Robrecht Vanderbeeken (2005). Forms of Causal Explanation. Foundations of Science 10 (4):437-454.score: 27.0
    In the literature on scientific explanation two types of pluralism are very common. The first concerns the distinction between explanations of singular facts and explanations of laws: there is a consensus that they have a different structure. The second concerns the distinction between causal explanations and uni.cation explanations: most people agree that both are useful and that their structure is different. In this article we argue for pluralism within the area of causal explanations: we claim that (...)
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  44. Gloria Ayob (2008). Space and Sense: The Role of Location in Understanding Demonstrative Concepts. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 108 (1pt3):347-354.score: 27.0
    My aim in this paper is to critically evaluate John Campbell's (2002) characterization of the sense of demonstrative terms and his account of why an object's location matters in our understanding of perceptually-based demonstrative terms. Campbell thinks that the senses of a demonstrative term are the different ways of consciously attending to an object. I will evaluate Campbell's account of sense by exploring and comparing two scenarios in which the actual location of a seen object is (...) from its perceived location. I do this in order to motivate the following point: Campbell's characterization of the sense of a demonstrative term turns sense into a psychologistic notion. As a consequence of this, it is difficult to see how sense could underwrite reference. In short, I shall be arguing that Campbell's account of the ways of perceiving an object is simply inadequate as an account of the Fregean notion of sense, according to which the senses of a demonstrative term are the different ways of thinking about an object. (shrink)
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  45. Elizabeth Valentine (1988). Teleological Explanations and Their Relation to Causal Explanation in Psychology. Philosophical Psychology 1 (1):61-68.score: 27.0
    The relation of teleological to causal explanations in psychology is examined. Nagel's claim that they are logically equivalent is rejected. Two arguments for their non-equivalence are considered: (i) the impossibility of specifying initial conditions in the case of teleological explanations and (ii) the claim that different kinds of logic are involved. The view that causal explanations provide only necessary conditions whereas teleological explanations provide sufficient conditions is rejected: causal explanations can provide sufficient conditions, typically being unable (...)
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  46. Jiji Zhang (2013). A Lewisian Logic of Causal Counterfactuals. Minds and Machines 23 (1):77-93.score: 27.0
    In the artificial intelligence literature a promising approach to counterfactual reasoning is to interpret counterfactual conditionals based on causal models. Different logics of such causal counterfactuals have been developed with respect to different classes of causal models. In this paper I characterize the class of causal models that are Lewisian in the sense that they validate the principles in Lewis’s well-known logic of counterfactuals. I then develop a system sound and complete with respect to (...)
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  47. Carolina Sartorio (2008). Moral Inertia. Philosophical Studies 140 (1):117 - 133.score: 27.0
    I argue that, according to ordinary morality, there is moral inertia, that is, moral pressure to fail to intervene in certain circumstances. Moral inertia is manifested in scenarios with a particular causal structure: deflection scenarios, where a threatening or benefiting process is diverted from a group of people to another. I explain why the deflection structure is essential for moral inertia to be manifested. I argue that there are two different manifestations of moral inertia: strict prohibitions (...)
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  48. D. Schutter, J. van Honk & Jaak Panksepp (2004). Introducing Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and its Property of Causal Inference in Investigating Brain-Function Relationships. Synthese 141 (2):155-73.score: 27.0
    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a method capable of transiently modulating neural excitability. Depending on the stimulation parameters information processing in the brain can be either enhanced or disrupted. This way the contribution of different brain areas involved in mental processes can be studied, allowing a functional decomposition of cognitive behavior both in the temporal and spatial domain, hence providing a functional resolution of brain/mind processes. The aim of the present paper is to argue that TMS with its ability (...)
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  49. Eugen Zeleňák (2009). On Explanatory Relata in Singular Causal Explanation. Theoria 75 (3):179-195.score: 27.0
    Explanation is usually taken to be a relation between certain entities. The aim of this paper is to discuss what entities are suitable as explanatory relata of singular causal explanations, i.e., explanations concerning singular causality relating particular events or other appropriate entities. I outline three different positions. The purely causal approach stipulates that the same entities that are related in the singular causal relation are also linked by the explanatory relation. This position, however, has a problem (...)
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  50. Roberta L. Millstein (forthcoming). Probability in Biology: The Case of Fitness. In A. Hájek & C. R. Hitchcock (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Probability and Philosophy. Oxford University Press.score: 27.0
    I argue that the propensity interpretation of fitness, properly understood, not only solves the explanatory circularity problem and the mismatch problem, but can also withstand the Pandora’s box full of problems that have been thrown at it. Fitness is the propensity (i.e., probabilistic ability, based on heritable physical traits) for organisms or types of organisms to survive and reproduce in particular environments and in particular populations for a specified number of generations; if greater than one generation, “reproduction” includes descendants of (...)
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