Search results for 'mathematics' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  48
    Stewart Shapiro (1997). Philosophy of Mathematics: Structure and Ontology. Oxford University Press.
    Do numbers, sets, and so forth, exist? What do mathematical statements mean? Are they literally true or false, or do they lack truth values altogether? Addressing questions that have attracted lively debate in recent years, Stewart Shapiro contends that standard realist and antirealist accounts of mathematics are both problematic. As Benacerraf first noted, we are confronted with the following powerful dilemma. The desired continuity between mathematical and, say, scientific language suggests realism, but realism in this context suggests seemingly intractable (...)
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  2.  92
    Michael D. Resnik (1997). Mathematics as a Science of Patterns. New York ;Oxford University Press.
    This book expounds a system of ideas about the nature of mathematics which Michael Resnik has been elaborating for a number of years. In calling mathematics a science he implies that it has a factual subject-matter and that mathematical knowledge is on a par with other scientific knowledge; in calling it a science of patterns he expresses his commitment to a structuralist philosophy of mathematics. He links this to a defense of realism about the metaphysics of (...)--the view that mathematics is about things that really exist. (shrink)
  3.  55
    Bob Hale (ed.) (2001). The Reason's Proper Study: Essays Towards a Neo-Fregean Philosophy of Mathematics. Oxford University Press.
    Here, Bob Hale and Crispin Wright assemble the key writings that lead to their distinctive neo-Fregean approach to the philosophy of mathematics. In addition to fourteen previously published papers, the volume features a new paper on the Julius Caesar problem; a substantial new introduction mapping out the program and the contributions made to it by the various papers; a section explaining which issues most require further attention; and bibliographies of references and further useful sources. It will be recognized as (...)
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  4.  72
    Penelope Maddy (1997). Naturalism in Mathematics. Oxford University Press.
    Naturalism in Mathematics investigates how the most fundamental assumptions of mathematics can be justified. One prevalent philosophical approach to the problem--realism--is examined and rejected in favor of another approach--naturalism. Penelope Maddy defines this naturalism, explains the motivation for it, and shows how it can be successfully applied in set theory. Her clear, original treatment of this fundamental issue is informed by current work in both philosophy and mathematics, and will be accessible and enlightening to readers from both (...)
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  5. William Bragg Ewald (ed.) (1996). From Kant to Hilbert: A Source Book in the Foundations of Mathematics. Oxford University Press.
    This massive two-volume reference presents a comprehensive selection of the most important works on the foundations of mathematics. While the volumes include important forerunners like Berkeley, MacLaurin, and D'Alembert, as well as such followers as Hilbert and Bourbaki, their emphasis is on the mathematical and philosophical developments of the nineteenth century. Besides reproducing reliable English translations of classics works by Bolzano, Riemann, Hamilton, Dedekind, and Poincare, William Ewald also includes selections from Gauss, Cantor, Kronecker, and Zermelo, all translated here (...)
     
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  6. Frank Plumpton Ramsey (1960). The Foundations of Mathematics and Other Logical Essays. Paterson, N.J.,Littlefield, Adams.
    THE FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS () PREFACE The object of this paper is to give a satisfactory account of the Foundations of Mathematics in accordance with ...
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  7. John P. Burgess & Gideon A. Rosen (1997). A Subject with No Object: Strategies for Nominalistic Interpretation of Mathematics. Oxford University Press.
    Numbers and other mathematical objects are exceptional in having no locations in space or time or relations of cause and effect. This makes it difficult to account for the possibility of the knowledge of such objects, leading many philosophers to embrace nominalism, the doctrine that there are no such objects, and to embark on ambitious projects for interpreting mathematics so as to preserve the subject while eliminating its objects. This book cuts through a host of technicalities that have obscured (...)
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  8.  81
    Penelope Maddy (1990). Realism in Mathematics. Oxford University Prress.
    Mathematicians tend to think of themselves as scientists investigating the features of real mathematical things, and the wildly successful application of mathematics in the physical sciences reinforces this picture of mathematics as an objective study. For philosophers, however, this realism about mathematics raises serious questions: What are mathematical things? Where are they? How do we know about them? Offering a scrupulously fair treatment of both mathematical and philosophical concerns, Penelope Maddy here delineates and defends a novel version (...)
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  9.  7
    Ludwig Wittgenstein (1978). Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics. B. Blackwell.
  10. John Bigelow (1988). The Reality of Numbers: A Physicalist's Philosophy of Mathematics. Oxford University Press.
    Challenging the myth that mathematical objects can be defined into existence, Bigelow here employs Armstrong's metaphysical materialism to cast new light on mathematics. He identifies natural, real, and imaginary numbers and sets with specified physical properties and relations and, by so doing, draws mathematics back from its sterile, abstract exile into the midst of the physical world.
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  11.  22
    Bertrand Russell (1903). Principles of Mathematics. Routledge.
    In addition to these, mathematics uses a notion which is not a constituent of the propositions which it considers, namely the notion of truth. 2. ...
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  12.  60
    M. Giaquinto (2007). Visual Thinking in Mathematics: An Epistemological Study. Oxford University Press.
    Visual thinking -- visual imagination or perception of diagrams and symbol arrays, and mental operations on them -- is omnipresent in mathematics. Is this visual thinking merely a psychological aid, facilitating grasp of what is gathered by other means? Or does it also have epistemological functions, as a means of discovery, understanding, and even proof? By examining the many kinds of visual representation in mathematics and the diverse ways in which they are used, Marcus Giaquinto argues that visual (...)
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  13. Mary Leng (2010). Mathematics and Reality. OUP Oxford.
    Mary Leng defends a philosophical account of the nature of mathematics which views it as a kind of fiction . On this view, the claims of our ordinary mathematical theories are more closely analogous to utterances made in the context of storytelling than to utterances whose aim is to assert literal truths.
     
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  14.  45
    Paolo Mancosu (1996). Philosophy of Mathematics and Mathematical Practice in the Seventeenth Century. Oxford University Press.
    The seventeenth century saw dramatic advances in mathematical theory and practice. With the recovery of many of the classical Greek mathematical texts, new techniques were introduced, and within 100 years, the rules of analytic geometry, geometry of indivisibles, arithmatic of infinites, and calculus were developed. Although many technical studies have been devoted to these innovations, Mancosu provides the first comprehensive account of the relationship between mathematical advances of the seventeenth century and the philosophy of mathematics of the period. Starting (...)
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  15.  77
    Stewart Shapiro (2000). Thinking About Mathematics: The Philosophy of Mathematics. Oxford University Press.
    This unique book by Stewart Shapiro looks at a range of philosophical issues and positions concerning mathematics in four comprehensive sections. Part I describes questions and issues about mathematics that have motivated philosophers since the beginning of intellectual history. Part II is an historical survey, discussing the role of mathematics in the thought of such philosophers as Plato, Aristotle, Kant, and Mill. Part III covers the three major positions held throughout the twentieth century: the idea that (...) is logic (logicism), the view that the essence of mathematics is the rule-governed manipulation of characters (formalism), and a revisionist philosophy that focuses on the mental activity of mathematics (intuitionism). Finally, Part IV brings the reader up-to-date with a look at contemporary developments within the discipline. This sweeping introductory guide to the philosophy of mathematics makes these fascinating concepts accessible to those with little background in either mathematics or philosophy. (shrink)
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  16.  2
    Daria Spescha & Thomas Strahm (2011). Realisability in Weak Systems of Explicit Mathematics. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 57 (6):551-565.
    This paper is a direct successor to 12. Its aim is to introduce a new realisability interpretation for weak systems of explicit mathematics and use it in order to analyze extensions of the theory PET in 12 by the so-called join axiom of explicit mathematics.
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  17.  22
    Jaakko Hintikka (1996). The Principles of Mathematics Revisited. Cambridge University Press.
    This book, written by one of philosophy's pre-eminent logicians, argues that many of the basic assumptions common to logic, philosophy of mathematics and metaphysics are in need of change. It is therefore a book of critical importance to logical theory. Jaakko Hintikka proposes a new basic first-order logic and uses it to explore the foundations of mathematics. This new logic enables logicians to express on the first-order level such concepts as equicardinality, infinity, and truth in the same language. (...)
  18.  73
    Hilary Putnam (1979). Mathematics, Matter, and Method. Cambridge University Press.
    Professor Hilary Putnam has been one of the most influential and sharply original of recent American philosophers in a whole range of fields. His most important published work is collected here, together with several new and substantial studies, in two volumes. The first deals with the philosophy of mathematics and of science and the nature of philosophical and scientific enquiry; the second deals with the philosophy of language and mind. Volume one is now issued in a new edition, including (...)
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  19. Hartry Field (1989). Realism, Mathematics & Modality. Basil Blackwell.
  20.  3
    Sam Sanders & Keita Yokoyama (2012). The Dirac Delta Function in Two Settings of Reverse Mathematics. Archive for Mathematical Logic 51 (1-2):99-121.
    The program of Reverse Mathematics (Simpson 2009) has provided us with the insight that most theorems of ordinary mathematics are either equivalent to one of a select few logical principles, or provable in a weak base theory. In this paper, we study the properties of the Dirac delta function (Dirac 1927; Schwartz 1951) in two settings of Reverse Mathematics. In particular, we consider the Dirac Delta Theorem, which formalizes the well-known property ${\int_\mathbb{R}f(x)\delta(x)\,dx=f(0)}$ of the Dirac delta function. (...)
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  21.  74
    Richard L. Tieszen (2005). Phenomenology, Logic, and the Philosophy of Mathematics. Cambridge University Press.
    Offering a collection of fifteen essays that deal with issues at the intersection of phenomenology, logic, and the philosophy of mathematics, this book is divided into three parts. Part I, Reason, Science, and Mathematics contains a general essay on Husserl's conception of science and logic, an essay of mathematics and transcendental phenomenology, and an essay oN phenomenology and modern pure geometry. Part II is focused on Kurt Godel's interest in phenomenology. It explores Godel's ideas and also some (...)
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  22.  21
    Paolo Mancosu (ed.) (1998). From Brouwer to Hilbert: The Debate on the Foundations of Mathematics in the 1920s. Oxford University Press.
    From Brouwer To Hilbert: The Debate on the Foundations of Mathematics in the 1920s offers the first comprehensive introduction to the most exciting period in the foundation of mathematics in the twentieth century. The 1920s witnessed the seminal foundational work of Hilbert and Bernays in proof theory, Brouwer's refinement of intuitionistic mathematics, and Weyl's predicativist approach to the foundations of analysis. This impressive collection makes available the first English translations of twenty-five central articles by these important contributors (...)
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  23. Justin Clarke-Doane (2012). Morality and Mathematics: The Evolutionary Challenge. Ethics 122 (2):313-340.
    It is commonly suggested that evolutionary considerations generate an epistemological challenge for moral realism. At first approximation, the challenge for the moral realist is to explain our having many true moral beliefs, given that those beliefs are the products of evolutionary forces that would be indifferent to the moral truth. An important question surrounding this challenge is the extent to which it generalizes. In particular, it is of interest whether the Evolutionary Challenge for moral realism is equally a challenge for (...)
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  24.  2
    Mohammad Ardeshir & Rasoul Ramezanian (2009). Decidability and Specker Sequences in Intuitionistic Mathematics. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 55 (6):637-648.
    A bounded monotone sequence of reals without a limit is called a Specker sequence. In Russian constructive analysis, Church's Thesis permits the existence of a Specker sequence. In intuitionistic mathematics, Brouwer's Continuity Principle implies it is false that every bounded monotone sequence of real numbers has a limit. We claim that the existence of Specker sequences crucially depends on the properties of intuitionistic decidable sets. We propose a schema about intuitionistic decidability that asserts “there exists an intuitionistic enumerable set (...)
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  25.  98
    Simon B. Duffy (ed.) (2006). Virtual Mathematics: The Logic of Difference. Clinamen.
    Of all twentieth century philosophers, it is Gilles Deleuze whose work agitates most forcefully for a worldview privileging becoming over being, difference over sameness; the world as a complex, open set of multiplicities. Nevertheless, Deleuze remains singular in enlisting mathematical resources to underpin and inform such a position, refusing the hackneyed opposition between ‘static’ mathematical logic versus ‘dynamic’ physical world. This is an international collection of work commissioned from foremost philosophers, mathematicians and philosophers of science, to address the wide range (...)
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  26.  85
    Mark Colyvan, Indispensability Arguments in the Philosophy of Mathematics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    One of the most intriguing features of mathematics is its applicability to empirical science. Every branch of science draws upon large and often diverse portions of mathematics, from the use of Hilbert spaces in quantum mechanics to the use of differential geometry in general relativity. It's not just the physical sciences that avail themselves of the services of mathematics either. Biology, for instance, makes extensive use of difference equations and statistics. The roles mathematics plays in these (...)
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  27. Lisa Shabel (2003). Mathematics in Kant's Critical Philosophy: Reflections on Mathematical Practice. Routledge.
    Mathematics in Kant's Critical Philosophy provides a much needed reading (and re-reading) of Kant's theory of the construction of mathematical concepts through a fully contextualized analysis. In this work Lisa Shabel convincingly argues that it is only through an understanding of the relevant eighteenth century mathematics textbooks, and the related mathematical practice, can the material and context necessary for a successful interpretation of Kant's philosophy be provided. This is borne out through sustained readings of Euclid and Woolf in (...)
     
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  28.  39
    Mark Steiner (1998). The Applicability of Mathematics as a Philosophical Problem. Harvard University Press.
    This book analyzes the different ways mathematics is applicable in the physical sciences, and presents a startling thesis--the success of mathematical physics ...
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  29.  32
    David Corfield (2003). Towards a Philosophy of Real Mathematics. Cambridge University Press.
    In this ambitious study, David Corfield attacks the widely held view that it is the nature of mathematical knowledge which has shaped the way in which mathematics is treated philosophically, and claims that contingent factors have brought us to the present thematically limited discipline. Illustrating his discussion with a wealth of examples, he sets out a variety of approaches to new thinking about the philosophy of mathematics, ranging from an exploration of whether computers producing mathematical proofs or conjectures (...)
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  30.  9
    William Gasarch & Jeffry L. Hirst (1998). Reverse Mathematics and Recursive Graph Theory. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 44 (4):465-473.
    We examine a number of results of infinite combinatorics using the techniques of reverse mathematics. Our results are inspired by similar results in recursive combinatorics. Theorems included concern colorings of graphs and bounded graphs, Euler paths, and Hamilton paths.
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  31.  3
    Peter Cholak, David Galvin & Reed Solomon (2012). Reverse Mathematics and Infinite Traceable Graphs. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 58 (1‐2):18-28.
    We analyze three applications of Ramsey’s Theorem for 4-tuples to infinite traceable graphs and finitely generated infinite lattices using the tools of reverse mathematics. The applications in graph theory are shown to be equivalent to Ramsey’s Theorem while the application in lattice theory is shown to be provable in the weaker system RCA0.
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  32.  3
    Jakob G. Simonsen (2006). On Local Non‐Compactness in Recursive Mathematics. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 52 (4):323-330.
    A metric space is said to be locally non-compact if every neighborhood contains a sequence that is eventually bounded away from every element of the space, hence contains no accumulation point. We show within recursive mathematics that a nonvoid complete metric space is locally non-compact iff it is without isolated points.The result has an interesting consequence in computable analysis: If a complete metric space has a computable witness that it is without isolated points, then every neighborhood contains a computable (...)
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  33.  2
    Jeffry L. Hirst (1999). Reverse Mathematics of Prime Factorization of Ordinals. Archive for Mathematical Logic 38 (3):195-201.
    One of the earliest applications of Cantor's Normal Form Theorem is Jacobstahl's proof of the existence of prime factorizations of ordinals. Applying the techniques of reverse mathematics, we show that the full strength of the Normal Form Theorem is used in this proof.
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  34.  4
    Jeffry L. Hirst (2006). Reverse Mathematics of Separably Closed Sets. Archive for Mathematical Logic 45 (1):1-2.
    This paper contains a corrected proof that the statement “every non-empty closed subset of a compact complete separable metric space is separably closed” implies the arithmetical comprehension axiom of reverse mathematics.
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  35.  5
    James H. Schmerl (2010). Reverse Mathematics and Grundy Colorings of Graphs. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 56 (5):541-548.
    The relationship of Grundy and chromatic numbers of graphs in the context of Reverse Mathematics is investi-gated.
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  36.  3
    Emanuele Frittaion & Alberto Marcone (2012). Linear Extensions of Partial Orders and Reverse Mathematics. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 58 (6):417-423.
    We introduce the notion of τ-like partial order, where τ is one of the linear order types ω, ω*, ω + ω*, and ζ. For example, being ω-like means that every element has finitely many predecessors, while being ζ-like means that every interval is finite. We consider statements of the form “any τ-like partial order has a τ-like linear extension” and “any τ-like partial order is embeddable into τ” . Working in the framework of reverse mathematics, we show that (...)
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  37.  3
    Rudolf Taschner (2010). The Swap of Integral and Limit in Constructive Mathematics. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 56 (5):533-540.
    Integration within constructive, especially intuitionistic mathematics in the sense of L. E. J. Brouwer, slightly differs from formal integration theories: Some classical results, especially Lebesgue's dominated convergence theorem, have tobe substituted by appropriate alternatives. Although there exist sophisticated, but rather laborious proposals, e.g. by E. Bishop and D. S. Bridges , the reference to partitions and the Riemann-integral, also with regard to the results obtained by R. Henstock and J. Kurzweil , seems to give a better direction. Especially, convergence (...)
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  38.  2
    Jeffry L. Hirst (1998). Reverse Mathematics and Ordinal Multiplication. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 44 (4):459-464.
    This paper uses the framework of reverse mathematics to analyze the proof theoretic content of several statements concerning multiplication of countable well-orderings. In particular, a division algorithm for ordinal arithmetic is shown to be equivalent to the subsystem ATR0.
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  39.  46
    André Bazzoni (forthcoming). Hintikka on the Foundations of Mathematics: IF Logic and Uniformity Concepts. Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-10.
    The initial goal of the present paper is to reveal a mistake committed by Hintikka in a recent paper on the foundations of mathematics. His claim that independence-friendly logic (IFL) is the real logic of mathematics is supported in that article by an argument relying on uniformity concepts taken from real analysis. I show that the central point of his argument is a simple logical mistake. Second and more generally, I conclude, based on the previous remarks and on (...)
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  40. Paola Cantù (2010). Aristotle's Prohibition Rule on Kind-Crossing and the Definition of Mathematics as a Science of Quantities. Synthese 174 (2):225 - 235.
    The article evaluates the Domain Postulate of the Classical Model of Science and the related Aristotelian prohibition rule on kind-crossing as interpretative tools in the history of the development of mathematics into a general science of quantities. Special reference is made to Proclus’ commentary to Euclid’s first book of Elements , to the sixteenth century translations of Euclid’s work into Latin and to the works of Stevin, Wallis, Viète and Descartes. The prohibition rule on kind-crossing formulated by Aristotle in (...)
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  41.  29
    Charles Chihara (2004). A Structural Account of Mathematics. Clarendon Press.
    A Structural Account of Mathematics will be required reading for anyone working in this field.
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  42. Mark Balaguer (1998). Platonism and Anti-Platonism in Mathematics. Oxford University Press.
    In this book, Balaguer demonstrates that there are no good arguments for or against mathematical platonism. He does this by establishing that both platonism and anti-platonism are defensible views. Introducing a form of platonism ("full-blooded platonism") that solves all problems traditionally associated with the view, he proceeds to defend anti-platonism (in particular, mathematical fictionalism) against various attacks, most notably the Quine-Putnam indispensability attack. He concludes by arguing that it is not simply that we do not currently have any good argument (...)
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  43.  13
    Paul Benacerraf (1964). Philosophy of Mathematics. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.,Prentice-Hall.
    The present collection brings together in a convenient form the seminal articles in the philosophy of mathematics by these and other major thinkers.
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  44.  47
    Nathan U. Salmon (2005). Metaphysics, Mathematics, and Meaning. Oxford University Press.
    Metaphysics, Mathematics, and Meaning brings together Nathan Salmon's influential papers on topics in the metaphysics of existence, non-existence, and fiction; modality and its logic; strict identity, including personal identity; numbers and numerical quantifiers; the philosophical significance of Godel's Incompleteness theorems; and semantic content and designation. Including a previously unpublished essay and a helpful new introduction to orient the reader, the volume offers rich and varied sustenance for philosophers and logicians.
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  45.  48
    Stewart Shapiro (ed.) (2005). The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic. Oxford University Press.
    Mathematics and logic have been central topics of concern since the dawn of philosophy. Since logic is the study of correct reasoning, it is a fundamental branch of epistemology and a priority in any philosophical system. Philosophers have focused on mathematics as a case study for general philosophical issues and for its role in overall knowledge- gathering. Today, philosophy of mathematics and logic remain central disciplines in contemporary philosophy, as evidenced by the regular appearance of articles on (...)
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  46. Paul Benacerraf & Hilary Putnam (eds.) (1983). Philosophy of Mathematics: Selected Readings. Cambridge University Press.
    The twentieth century has witnessed an unprecedented 'crisis in the foundations of mathematics', featuring a world-famous paradox (Russell's Paradox), a challenge to 'classical' mathematics from a world-famous mathematician (the 'mathematical intuitionism' of Brouwer), a new foundational school (Hilbert's Formalism), and the profound incompleteness results of Kurt Gödel. In the same period, the cross-fertilization of mathematics and philosophy resulted in a new sort of 'mathematical philosophy', associated most notably (but in different ways) with Bertrand Russell, W. V. Quine, (...)
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  47.  25
    D. S. Bridges (1987). Varieties of Constructive Mathematics. Cambridge University Press.
    This is an introduction to, and survey of, the constructive approaches to pure mathematics. The authors emphasise the viewpoint of Errett Bishop's school, but intuitionism. Russian constructivism and recursive analysis are also treated, with comparisons between the various approaches included where appropriate. Constructive mathematics is now enjoying a revival, with interest from not only logicans but also category theorists, recursive function theorists and theoretical computer scientists. This account for non-specialists in these and other disciplines.
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  48. Paola Cantù, Bolzano Versus Kant: Mathematics as a Scientia Universalis. Philosophical Papers Dedicated to Kevin Mulligan.
    The paper discusses some changes in Bolzano's definition of mathematics attested in several quotations from the Beyträge, Wissenschaftslehre and Grössenlehre: is mathematics a theory of forms or a theory of quantities? Several issues that are maintained throughout Bolzano's works are distinguished from others that were accepted in the Beyträge and abandoned in the Grössenlehre. Changes are interpreted as a consequence of the new logical theory of truth introduced in the Wissenschaftslehre, but also as a consequence of the overcome (...)
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  49. Alison Pease & Andrew Aberdein (2011). Five Theories of Reasoning: Interconnections and Applications to Mathematics. Logic and Logical Philosophy 20 (1-2):7-57.
    The last century has seen many disciplines place a greater priority on understanding how people reason in a particular domain, and several illuminating theories of informal logic and argumentation have been developed. Perhaps owing to their diverse backgrounds, there are several connections and overlapping ideas between the theories, which appear to have been overlooked. We focus on Peirce’s development of abductive reasoning [39], Toulmin’s argumentation layout [52], Lakatos’s theory of reasoning in mathematics [23], Pollock’s notions of counterexample [44], and (...)
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  50.  14
    Stefania Centrone (2010). Logic and Philosophy of Mathematics in the Early Husserl. Springer.
    This volume will be of particular interest to researchers working in the history, and in the philosophy, of logic and mathematics, and more generally, to ...
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