Search results for 'meaning of life' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. John Danaher (forthcoming). Will Life Be Worth Living in a World Without Work? Technological Unemployment and the Meaning of Life. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-24.
    Suppose we are about to enter an era of increasing technological unemployment. What implications does this have for society? Two distinct ethical/social issues would seem to arise. The first is one of distributive justice: how will the (presumed) efficiency gains from automated labour be distributed through society? The second is one of personal fulfillment and meaning: if people no longer have to work, what will they do with their lives? In this article, I set aside the first issue and (...)
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  2. Jason Megill & Daniel Linford (2016). God, the Meaning of Life, and a New Argument for Atheism. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 79 (1):31-47.
    We raise various puzzles about the relationship between God and the meaning of life. These difficulties suggest that, even if we assume that God exists, and even if God’s existence would entail that our lives have meaning, God is not and could not be the source of the meaning of life. We conclude by discussing implications of our arguments: these claims can be used in a novel argument for atheism; these claims undermine (...)
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  3.  80
    Masahiro Morioka (2015). Is Meaning in Life Comparable?: From the Viewpoint of ‘The Heart of Meaning in Life’. Journal of Philosophy of Life 5 (3):50-65.
    The aim of this paper is to propose a new approach to the question of meaning in life by criticizing Thaddeus Metz’s objectivist theory in his book Meaning in Life: An Analytic Study. I propose the concept of “the heart of meaning in life,” which alone can answer the question, “Alas, does my life like this have any meaning at all?” and I demonstrate that “the heart of meaning in life (...)
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  4.  50
    Thaddeus Metz (2015). Précis of Meaning in Life: An Analytic Study. Journal of Philosophy of Life 5 (3):ii-vi.
    Brief summary of _Meaning in Life: An Analytic Study_ and of how contributors to a special issue of the _Journal of Philosophy of Life_ question it.
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  5.  16
    James Tartaglia (2016). Is Philosophy All About the Meaning of Life? Metaphilosophy 47 (2):283-303.
    This article defends a conception of philosophy popular outside the discipline but unpopular within it: that philosophy is unified by a concern with the meaning of life. First, it argues against exceptionalist theses according to which philosophy is unique among academic disciplines in not being united by a distinctive subject matter. It then presents a positive account, showing that the issue of the meaning of life is uniquely able to reveal unity between the practical (...)
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  6.  57
    Thaddeus Metz (2015). Assessing Lives, Giving Supernaturalism Its Due, and Capturing Naturalism: Reply to 13 Critics of Meaning in Life. Journal of Philosophy of Life 5 (3):228-278.
    A lengthy reply to several critical discussions of _Meaning in Life: An Analytic Study_ appearing in the _Journal of Philosophy of Life_. The contributors are from a variety of philosophical traditions, including the Anglo-American, Continental and East Asian (especially Buddhist and Japanese) ones.
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  7. Aaron Smuts (2013). The Good Cause Account of the Meaning of Life. Southern Journal of Philosophy 51 (4):536-562.
    I defend the theory that one's life is meaningful to the extent that one promotes the good. Call this the good cause account (GCA) of the meaning of life. It holds that the good effects that count towards the meaning of one's life need not be intentional. Nor must one be aware of the effects. Nor does it matter whether the same good would have resulted if one had not existed. What matters is that one (...)
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  8.  39
    Hasko von Kriegstein (2015). Source and Bearer: Metz on the Pure Part-Life View of Meaning. Journal of Philosophy of Life 5 (3):1-18.
    According to the pure part-life view the meaning in our lives is always borne by particular parts of our lives. The aim of this paper is to show that Thaddeus Metz’s rejection of this view is too quick. Given that meaning is a value that often depends on relational rather than intrinsic properties a pure part-life view can accommodate many of the intuitions that move Metz towards a mixed view. According to this mixed view some (...) is borne by parts of our lives and some by our lives as a whole. The arguments in this paper suggest, however, that even if a pure part-life view is to be rejected, a mixed view that incorporates a whole-life aspect is not going to be any more plausible. (shrink)
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  9.  10
    Mark Rowlands (2015). The Immortal, the Intrinsic and the Quasi Meaning of Life. Journal of Ethics 19 (3-4):379-408.
    Through the examination of the lives of several immortal beings, this paper defends a version of Moritz Schlick’s claim that the meaning of life is play. More precisely: a person’s life has meaning to the extent it there are things in it that the person values intrinsically rather than merely instrumentally and above a certain threshold of intensity. This is a subjectivist account of meaning in life. I defend subjectivism about (...) in life from common objections by understanding statements about life’s meaning in quasi-realist terms. (shrink)
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  10. Henk van den Belt (2009). Playing God in Frankenstein's Footsteps: Synthetic Biology and the Meaning of Life. [REVIEW] NanoEthics 3 (3):257-268.
    The emergent new science of synthetic biology is challenging entrenched distinctions between, amongst others, life and non-life, the natural and the artificial, the evolved and the designed, and even the material and the informational. Whenever such culturally sanctioned boundaries are breached, researchers are inevitably accused of playing God or treading in Frankenstein’s footsteps. Bioethicists, theologians and editors of scientific journals feel obliged to provide an authoritative answer to the ambiguous question of the ‘meaning’ of life, both (...)
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  11. Nikolay Milkov (2005). The Meaning of Life: A Topological Approach. Analecta Husserliana 84:217–34.
    In parts of his Notebooks, Tractatus and in “Lecture on Ethics”, Wittgenstein advanced a new approach to the problems of the meaning of life. It was developed as a reaction to the explorations on this theme by Bertrand Russell. Wittgenstein’s objective was to treat it with a higher degree of exactness. The present paper shows that he reached exactness by treating themes of philosophical anthropology using the formal method of topology.
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  12.  16
    Daan Evers & Gerlinde van Smeden (forthcoming). Meaning in Life: In Defence of the Hybrid View. Southern Journal of Philosophy.
    According to Susan Wolf's hybrid view about meaning in life, a life is meaningful in virtue of subjective attraction to objectively valuable pursuits. Recently, several philosophers have presented counterexamples to the subjective element in Wolf's view. We argue that these examples are not clearly successful and present a modified version which is even stronger in the face of them. Finally, we offer some positive reasons for accepting a subjective condition on a meaningful life.
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  13. Ulrich Diehl, Human Suffering as a Challenge for the Meaning of Life. Existenz. An International Journal in Philosophy, Religion, Politics, and the Arts.
    When people suffer they always suffer as a whole human being. The emotional, cognitive and spiritual suffering of human beings cannot be completely separated from all other kinds of suffering, such as from harmful natural, ecological, political, economic and social conditions. In reality they interact with each other and influence each other. Human beings do not only suffer from somatic illnesses, physical pain, and the lack of decent opportunities to satisfy their basic vital, social and emotional needs. They also suffer (...)
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  14. Roy W. Perrett (2010). Ineffability, Signification and the Meaning of Life. Philosophical Papers 39 (2):239-255.
    There is an apparent tension between two familiar platitudes about the meaning of life: (i) that 'meaning' in this context means 'value', and (ii) that such meaning might be ineffable. I suggest a way of trying to bring these two claims together by focusing on an ideal of a meaningful life that fuses both the axiological and semantic senses of 'significant'. This in turn allows for the possibility that the full significance of a life (...)
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  15.  91
    Aaron Smuts (2012). It's a Wonderful Life: Pottersville and the Meaning of Life. Film and Philosophy 16 (1):15-33.
    It’s a Wonderful Life (Capra, 1946) presents a plausible theory of the meaning of life: One's life is meaningful to the extent that it promotes the good. Although this theory is credible, the movie suggests a problematic refinement in the Pottersville sequence. George's waking nightmare asks us to compare the actual world with a world where he did not exist. It tells us that we are only responsible for the good that would not exist had (...)
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  16.  29
    Dan Weijers (2014). Optimistic Naturalism: Scientific Advancement and the Meaning of Life. Sophia 53 (1):1-18.
    Naturalist theories of the meaning of life are sometimes criticised for not setting the bar high enough for what counts as a meaningful life. Tolstoy’s version of this criticism is that Naturalist theories do not describe really meaningful lives because they do not require that we connect our finite lives with the infinite. Another criticism of Naturalist theories is that they cannot adequately resolve the Absurd—the vast difference between how meaningful our actions and lives appear from subjective (...)
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  17.  2
    Żaneta Stelter (forthcoming). The Perceived Meaning of Life in the Case of Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities. Diametros 46:92-110.
    The perceived meaning of life significantly affects the quality of human life. It is of particular significance in borderline situations. One of such situations is the birth of an intellectually disabled child. The article presents the results of the study concerning the perceived meaning of life in the case of parents who bring up a child with limited intellectual abilities. The study included 87 mothers and 65 fathers bringing up an intellectually disabled child. In the (...)
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  18.  38
    Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). The Meaning of Life and the Afterlife. In Benjamin Matheson & Yujin Nagasawa (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook on the Afterlife. Palgrave Macmillan Ch. 16.
    This chapter critically explores contemporary philosophical understandings of whether meaning in life might depend on the presence or absence of an afterlife. After distinguishing various kinds of afterlife, it focuses most on the potential relevance of an eternal one, and considers at length the extreme but common views amongst philosophers that an eternal afterlife would be either necessary for a meaningful life or, conversely, sufficient for a meaningless one. It concludes by considering the plausibility of a more (...)
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  19.  2
    Joshua W. Seachris (ed.) (2012). Exploring the Meaning of Life: An Anthology and Guide. Wiley-Blackwell.
    Much more than just an anthology, this survey of humanity's search for the meaning of life includes the latest contributions to the debate, a judicious selection of key canonical essays, and insightful commentary by internationally respected philosophers. Cutting-edge viewpoint features the most recent contributions to the debate Extensive general introduction offers unprecedented context Leading contemporary philosophers provide insightful introductions to each section.
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  20.  27
    Thaddeus Metz (2016). Further Explorations of Supernaturalism About Meaning in Life: Reply to Cottingham, Goetz, Goldschmidt, Jech and Wielenberg. European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 8 (2).
    A reply to five critical discussions of _Meaning in Life: An Analytic Study_.
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  21. Julian Young (2003). The Death of God and the Meaning of Life. Routledge.
    What is the meaning of life? In the post-modern, post-religious scientific world, this question is becoming a preoccupation. But it also has a long history: many major figures in philosophy had something to say on the subject. This book begins with an historical overview of philosophers from Plato to Hegel and Marx who have believed in some sort of meaning of life, either in some supposed "other" world or in the future of this world. (...)
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  22.  4
    Mikael Lindfelt (forthcoming). Meaning of Life in Fragile Witnessing: On Experiencing Radical Uniqueness as Gift and Grace. Foundations of Science:1-5.
    In this comment-response Mikael Lindfelt makes some suggestions to how one could develop the argument for witnessing as experiencing meaningfulness in life as put forward by Nicole Note and Emilie Van Deale. While being positive to the main phenomenological approach, and especially the dialectical relational aspect of the phenomenological argument, Lindfelt uses Alain Badiou’s talk of Event in trying both to develop the phenomenological argument and to point out some idealistic tendencies in the line of the argument. Lindfelt suggests (...)
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  23.  17
    Iddo Landau (2014). Standards, Perspectives, and the Meaning of Life: A Reply to Seachris. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (3):457-468.
    IntroductionIn a recent article in this journal, Joshua W. Seachris (2012) argues that the distinction I make between perspectives and standards in sub specie aeternitatis arguments for the meaninglessness of life does not hold for a salient component of the sub specie aeternitatis perspective: the ontological-normative component. In this article I suggest that Seachris’s argument is problematic in a number of ways and ought to be rejected.BackgroundVarious authors, such as Albert Camus (1969, p. 78), Nicholas Rescher (1990, p. 153) (...)
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  24. John Cottingham (2003). On the Meaning of Life. Routledge.
    The question "What is the meaning of life?" is one of the most fascinating, oldest and most difficult questions human beings have ever posed themselves. Often linked to the religious issue of whether we are part of a larger, divine scheme, even in an increasingly secularized culture it remains a question to which we are ineluctably and powerfully drawn. In this acute and thoughtful book, John Cottingham asks why the question vexes us so much and assesses some of (...)
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  25.  55
    Roy W. Perrett (1985). Tolstoy, Death and the Meaning of Life. Philosophy 60 (232):231-245.
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  26. Thaddeus Metz (2015). Assessing Lives, Giving Supernaturalism Its Due, and Capturing Naturalism: Reply to 13 Critics of Meaning in Life. In Masahiro Morioka (ed.), Reconsidering Meaning in Life: A Philosophical Dialogue with Thaddeus Metz. Waseda University 228-278.
    A lengthy reply to 13 critical discussions of _Meaning in Life: An Analytic Study_ collected in an e-book. The contributors are from a variety of philosophical traditions, including the Anglo-American, Continental and East Asian (especially Buddhist and Japanese) ones.
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  27.  90
    Terry Eagleton (2007). The Meaning of Life. Oxford University Press.
    The phrase "the meaning of life" for many seems a quaint notion fit for satirical mauling by Monty Python or Douglas Adams. But in this spirited, stimulating, and quirky enquiry, famed critic Terry Eagleton takes a serious if often amusing look at the question and offers his own surprising answer. Eagleton first examines how centuries of thinkers and writers--from Marx and Schopenhauer to Shakespeare, Sartre, and Beckett--have responded to the ultimate question of meaning. He suggests, however, that (...)
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  28.  96
    Gregg Caruso (2014). Précis of Derk Pereboom’s Free Will, Agency, and Meaning in Life. Science, Religion and Culture 1 (3):178-201.
    Derk Pereboom’s Free Will, Agency, and Meaning in Life provides the most lively and comprehensive defense of free will skepticism in the literature. It contains a reworked and expanded version of the view he first developed in Living without Free Will. Important objections to the early book are answered, some slight modifications are introduced, and the overall account is significantly embellished—for example, Pereboom proposes a new account of rational deliberation consistent with the belief that one’s actions are causally (...)
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  29. Owen J. Flanagan (1996). Self Expressions: Mind, Morals, and the Meaning of Life. Oxford University Press.
    Human beings have the unique ability to consciously reflect on the nature of the self. But reflection has its costs. We can ask what the self is, but as David Hume pointed out, the self, once reflected upon, may be nowhere to be found. The favored view is that we are material beings living in the material world. But if so, a host of destabilizing questions surface. If persons are just a sophisticated sort of animal, then what sense is there (...)
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  30. Julian Baggini (2005). What's It All About?: Philosophy and the Meaning of Life. Oxford University Press.
    What is the meaning of life? It is a question that has intrigued the great philosophers--and has been hilariously lampooned by Monty Python. Indeed, the whole idea strikes many of us as vaguely pompous, a little absurd. Is there one profound and mysterious meaning to life, a single ultimate purpose behind human existence? In What's It All About?, Julian Baggini says no, there is no single meaning. Instead, Baggini argues meaning can be (...)
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  31.  4
    Johan von Essen (forthcoming). On the Meaning of Volunteering: A Study of Worldviews in Everyday Life. Foundations of Science:1-19.
    This article is intended to contribute to the discussion on the meaning of volunteering by investigating voluntary work from the viewpoint of volunteers active in Swedish civil society organizations.Meaning refers both to the cognitive meaning of concepts and to the perceived meaning in life. The aim to uncover the predicates that people attribute to the concept is an attempt to anatomize volunteering as a social construct. Five predicates emerged and they make up the phenomenological structure (...)
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  32.  90
    Terry Eagleton (2008). The Meaning of Life: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press.
    The phrase "the meaning of life" for many seems a quaint notion fit for satirical mauling by Monty Python or Douglas Adams. But in this spirited Very Short Introduction, famed critic Terry Eagleton takes a serious if often amusing look at the question and offers his own surprising answer. Eagleton first examines how centuries of thinkers and writers--from Marx and Schopenhauer to Shakespeare, Sartre, and Beckett--have responded to the ultimate question of meaning. He suggests, however, that it (...)
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  33.  53
    Thaddeus Metz (2013). Meaning in Life as the Aim of Psychotherapy: A Hypothesis. In Joshua Hicks & Clay Routledge (eds.), The Experience of Meaning in Life: Classical Perspectives, Emerging Themes, and Controversies. Springer 405-17.
    The point of psychotherapy has occasionally been associated with talk of ‘life’s meaning’. However, the literature on meaning in life written by contemporary philosophers has yet to be systematically applied to literature on the point of psychotherapy. My broad aim in this chapter is to indicate some plausible ways to merge these two tracks of material that have run in parallel up to now. More specifically, my hunch is that the connection between meaning as philosophers (...)
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  34.  96
    Roberto Franzini Tibaldeo (2015). The Meaning of Life. Can Hans Jonas’ "Philosophical Biology" Effectively Act Against Reductionism in the Contemporary Life Sciences? Humaniora. Czasopismo Internetowe 1 (9):13-24.
    <span class='Hi'>Hans</span> Jonas’ “philosophical biology,” although developed several decades ago, is still fundamental to the contemporary reflection upon the meaning of life in a systems thinking perspective. Jonas, in fact, closely examines the reasons of modern science, and especially of Wiener’s Cybernetics and Bertalanffy’s General System Theory, and at the same time points out their basic limits, such as their having a reductionistic attitude to knowledge and ontology. In particular, the philosopher highlights the problematic consequences of scientific reductionism (...)
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  35.  1
    Irving Singer (2009). Meaning in Life: The Creation of Value. The MIT Press.
    With a new preface by the authorWhat is meaning in life? Does anything really matter? How can a life achieve lasting significance? How can we explain the human propensity to struggle for ideals? How is meaning related to contentment, happiness, joy? Is meaning something we discover, or do we create it? What is the nature of value, and what are its sources in human experience? Can there be a meaning in life without religious (...)
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  36. Gianluca Di Muzio (2006). Theism and the Meaning of Life. Ars Disputandi 6:1566-5399.
    Theists are inclined to assert that human life would be meaningless if there was no personal immortality and God did not exist. The present paper aims to evaluate the truth of this claim. The author first explores the conception of meaning that is at the roots of the theistic position. After pointing out some difficulties with it, the author shows that, on a plausible alternative interpretation of what it is for an activity to have meaning, human (...) would fully qualify as meaningful even if it were not inscribed in a universal divine plan. (shrink)
     
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  37.  18
    Lai Chen (2007). “After-Sage” Life Pursuits: The Ethical Meaning of Feng Youlan's Xin Shixun. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 2 (3):363-378.
    Feng Youlan’s Xin Shixun 新世训 (New Treatise on the Way of Life) written in the late 1930s differed from traditional moral teachings because it focused on nonmoral life lessons and how to virtuously pursue success. It advanced an interpretation of traditional virtues as life lessons for young people, so that these virtues could transform an individual life in modern society. Thereby the morals of ancient sages could transfer to the modern, individual, and morality. The problem is (...)
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  38.  31
    Xize Deng (2011). On the Problem of the Meaning of Life in “Chinese Philosophy”. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 6 (4):609-627.
    The goal of “(modern) Chinese Philosophy” established during the period of the May 4th Movement is to reestablish the meaning of life for Chinese people. However, because it takes the approach of interpreting Chinese thinking through a Western lens, thus forming a discourse pattern of “Chinese A is Western B,” which is only capable of manifesting Western culture, “Chinese Philosophy” is made logically impossible as the ideological source from which modern Chinese thinkers could construct the meaning of (...)
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  39. Robert C. Solomon (1993). The Passions Emotions and the Meaning of Life. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  40. E. D. Klemke & Steven M. Cahn (eds.) (2008). The Meaning of Life: A Reader. Oxford University Press.
    Featuring nine new articles chosen by coeditor Steven M. Cahn, the third edition of E. D. Klemke's The Meaning of Life offers twenty-two insightful selections that explore this fascinating topic. The essays are primarily by philosophers but also include materials from literary figures and religious thinkers. As in previous editions, the readings are organized around three themes. In Part I the articles defend the view that without faith in God, life has no meaning or purpose. In (...)
     
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  41. E. D. Klemke (ed.) (2000). The Meaning of Life. Oxford University Press.
    Many writers in various fields--philosophy, religion, literature, and psychology--believe that the question of the meaning of life is one of the most significant problems that an individual faces. In The Meaning of Life, Second Edition, E.D. Klemke collects some of the best writings on this topic, primarily works by philosophers but also selections from literary figures and religious thinkers. The twenty-seven cogent, readable essays are organized around three different perspectives on the meaning of life. (...)
     
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  42.  97
    Iddo Landau (2011). The Meaning of Life Sub Specie Aeternitatis. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 89 (4):727 - 734.
    Several philosophers have argued that if we examine our lives in context of the cosmos at large, sub specie aeternitatis, we cannot escape life's meaninglessness. To see our lives as meaningful, we have to shun the point of view of the cosmos and consider our lives only in the narrower context of the here and now. I argue that this view is incorrect: life can be seen as meaningful also sub specie aeternitatis. While criticizing arguments by, among others, (...)
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  43.  75
    Jeffrey Gordon (1997). Kurosawa's Existential Masterpiece: A Mediation on the Meaning of Life. [REVIEW] Human Studies 20 (2):137-151.
    In the first part of the paper, I try to clarify the cluster of moods and questions we refer to generically as the problem of the meaning of life. I propose that the question of meaning emerges when we perform a spontaneous transcendental reduction on the phenomenon my life, a reduction that leaves us confronting an unjustified and unjustifiable curiosity. In Part 2, I turn to the film ikiru, Kurosawa''s masterpiece of 1952, for an (...)
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  44.  58
    Luc Ferry (2002). Man Made God: The Meaning of Life. University of Chicago Press.
    What happens when the meaning of life based on a divine revelation no longer makes sense? Does the quest for transcendence end in the pursuit of material success and self-absorption? Luc Ferry argues that modernity and the emergence of secular humanism in Europe since the eighteenth century have not killed the search for meaning and the sacred, or even the idea of God, but rather have transformed both through a dual process: the humanization of the divine and (...)
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  45.  6
    Jacques Quintin (2013). Organ Transplantation and Meaning of Life: The Quest for Self Fulfilment. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (3):565-574.
    Today, the frequency and the rate of success resulting from advances in medicine have made organ transplantations an everyday occurrence. Still, organ transplantations and donations modify the subjective experience of human beings as regards the image they have of themselves, of body, of life and of death. If the concern of the quality of life and the survival of the patients is a completely human phenomenon, the fact remains that the possibility of organ transplantation and its justification depend (...)
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  46. Richard Kinnier (ed.) (2010). "The Meaning of Life": According to the Great and the Good. Palazzo Editions.
    Life is to be enjoyed -- We are here to serve God -- We are here to seek wisdom and self-actualization -- The meaning of life is a mystery -- Life is meaningless -- We are here to help others -- Life is a struggle -- We are here to contribute to society -- We must create meaning for ourselves -- Life is absurd.
     
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  47.  72
    Lisa Bortolotti (2010). Agency, Life Extension, and the Meaning of Life. The Monist 93 (1):38-56.
    Contemporary philosophers and bioethicists argue that life extension is bad for the individual. According to the agency objection to life extension, being constrained as an agent adds to the meaningfulness of human life. Life extension removes constraints, and thus it deprives life of meaning. In the paper, I concede that constrained agency contributes to the meaningfulness of human life, but reject the agency objection to life extension in its current form. Even in (...)
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  48. Brendan Shea (2009). To Bite or Not to Bite: Twilight, Immortality, and the Meaning of Life. In Rebecca Housel & J. Jeremy Wisnewski (eds.), Twilight and Philosophy: Vampires, Vegetarians, and the Pursuit of Immortality. Wiley Blackwell 79-93.
    Over the course of the Twilight series, Bella strives to and eventually succeeds in convincing Edward to turn her into a vampire. Her stated reason for this is that it will allow her to be with Edward forever. In this essay, I consider whether this type of immortality is something that would be good for Bella, or indeed for any of us. I begin by suggesting that Bella's own viewpoint is consonant with that of Leo Tolstoy, who contends that one (...)
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  49.  57
    Lisa Bortolotti (2010). Agency, Life Extension, and the Meaning of Life. The Monist 93 (1):38-56.
    Contemporary philosophers and bioethicists argue that life extension is bad for the individual. According to the agency objection to life extension, being constrained as an agent adds to the meaningfulness of human life. Life extension removes constraints, and thus it deprives life of meaning. In the paper, I concede that constrained agency contributes to the meaningfulness of human life, but reject the agency objection to life extension in its current form. Even in (...)
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  50. Thaddeus Metz (2007). The Meaning of Life. In Edward Zalta (ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Many major historical figures in philosophy have provided an answer to the question of what, if anything, makes life meaningful, although they typically have not put it in these terms. Consider, for instance, Aristotle on the human function, Aquinas on the beatific vision, and Kant on the highest good. While these concepts have some bearing on happiness and morality, they are straightforwardly construed as accounts of which final ends a person ought to realize in order to have a significant (...)
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