Search results for 'military technology' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  12
    P. W. Singer (2010). The Ethics of Killer Applications: Why Is It So Hard To Talk About Morality When It Comes to New Military Technology? Journal of Military Ethics 9 (4):299-312.
    We live in a world of rapidly advancing, revolutionary technologies that are not just reshaping our world and wars, but also creating a host of ethical questions that must be dealt with. But in trying to answer them, we must also explore why exactly is it so hard to have effective discussions about ethics, technology, and war in the first place? This article delves into the all-too-rarely discussed underlying issues that challenge the field of ethics when it comes to (...)
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  2.  4
    David Lorge Parnas & Danny Cohen (1997). Ethics and Military Technology: Star Wars. In Kristin Shrader-Frechette & Laura Westra (eds.), Technology and Values. Rowman & Littlefield
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  3.  3
    Martin Van Creveld (1994). The Rise and Fall of Military Technology. Science in Context 7 (2).
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  4.  10
    Karl Lautenschläger (1985). Controlling Military Technology. Ethics 95 (3):692-711.
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  5.  1
    John France (2013). Kelly DeVries and Robert Douglas Smith, Medieval Military Technology, 2nd Ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2012. Paper. Pp. Xviii, 356; 53 Figs. $34.95. ISBN: 9781442604971. [REVIEW] Speculum 88 (1):278-279.
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  6. A. Hall (1988). Science and Civilisation in China. Vol. 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology. Part 7, Military Technology. The Gunpowder Epic. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 21 (2):249-252.
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  7. Charles Peterson (1996). Science and Civilisation in China. Volume 5: Chemistry and Chemical Technology. Part 6: Military Technology: Missiles and Sieges by Joseph Needham; Robin D. S. Yates. [REVIEW] Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 87:536-538.
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  8. Vernon W. Ruttan (2006). Is War Necessary for Economic Growth?: Military Procurement and Technology Development. Oxford University Press Usa.
    Military and defense-related procurement has been an important source of technology development across a broad spectrum of industries that account for an important share of United States industrial production. In this book, the author focuses on six general-purpose technologies: interchangeable parts and mass production; military and commercial aircraft; nuclear energy and electric power; computers and semiconductors; the INTERNET; and the space industries. In each of these industries, technology development would have occurred more slowly, and in some (...)
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  9. P. Forman, J. M. Sanchez Ron & W. G. Scaife (1997). National Military Establishments and the Advancement of Science and Technology. Annals of Science 54 (5):526-527.
     
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  10. Paul K. Hoch (1990). Science as Power: Discourse and Ideology in Modern Society, by Stanley Aronowitz; Science, Technology and the Military, Ed. By E. Mendelsohn, M. Roe-Smith and P. Weingart; and Scient~ Flc Knowledge Socialized, Ed. By I. Hronsky, M. Fehér and B. Dajka. [REVIEW] History of Science 28:193-202.
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  11. H. Kragh (1996). Telephone Technology and its Interactions with Sciences and the Military, CA. 1900-1930. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 180:37-67.
     
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  12.  3
    Douglas D. Noble (1989). Cockpit Cognition: Education, the Military and Cognitive Engineering. [REVIEW] AI and Society 3 (4):271-296.
    The goals of public education, as well as conceptions of human intelligence and learning, are undergoing a transformation through the application of military-sponsored information technologies and information processing models of human thought. Recent emphases in education on thinking skills, learning strategies, and computer-based technologies are the latest episodes in the postwar military agenda to engineer intelligent components, human and artificial, for the optimal performance of complex technological systems. Public education serves increasingly as a “human factors” laboratory and production (...)
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  13.  44
    Mark Coeckelbergh (2013). Drones, Information Technology, and Distance: Mapping the Moral Epistemology of Remote Fighting. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 15 (2):87-98.
    Ethical reflection on drone fighting suggests that this practice does not only create physical distance, but also moral distance: far removed from one’s opponent, it becomes easier to kill. This paper discusses this thesis, frames it as a moral-epistemological problem, and explores the role of information technology in bridging and creating distance. Inspired by a broad range of conceptual and empirical resources including ethics of robotics, psychology, phenomenology, and media reports, it is first argued that drone fighting, (...)
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  14.  5
    Jürgen Altmann (2008). Military Uses of Nanotechnology—Too Much Complexity for International Security? Complexity 14 (1):62-70.
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  15.  99
    Peter Morosoff, Ron Rudnicki, Jason Bryant, Robert Farrell & Barry Smith (2015). Joint Doctrine Ontology: A Benchmark for Military Information Systems Interoperability. In Semantic Technology for Intelligence, Defense and Security (STIDS). CEUR Vol. 1325 2-9.
    When the U.S. conducts warfare, elements of a force are drawn from different Services and work together as a single team to accomplish an assigned mission on the basis of joint doctrine. To achieve such unified action, it is necessary that specific Service doctrines be both consistent with and subservient to joint doctrine. But there are two further requirements that flow from the ways in which unified action increasingly involves not only live forces but also automated systems. First, the information (...)
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  16.  35
    Mark Coeckelbergh (2011). From Killer Machines to Doctrines and Swarms, or Why Ethics of Military Robotics Is Not (Necessarily) About Robots. Philosophy and Technology 24 (3):269-278.
    Ethical reflections on military robotics can be enriched by a better understanding of the nature and role of these technologies and by putting robotics into context in various ways. Discussing a range of ethical questions, this paper challenges the prevalent assumptions that military robotics is about military technology as a mere means to an end, about single killer machines, and about “military” developments. It recommends that ethics of robotics attend to how military technology (...)
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  17.  5
    Paul N. Edwards (1988). The Closed World: Systems Discourse, Military Strategy and Post WWII American Historical Consciousness. [REVIEW] AI and Society 2 (3):245-255.
    This essay proposes a cultural and historical explanation for the American Military's fascination with computing. Three key elements of post-WWII US political culture — apocalyptic struggle with the USSR, subsuming all other conflicts: a long history of antimilitarist sentiment in American politics; and the rise of science-based military power — contributed to a sense of the world as a closed system accessible to American technological control. A developing scientific systems discourse, centrally including computer science and AI, was adopted (...)
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  18.  6
    Chris Hables Gray (1988). The Strategic Computing Program at Four Years: Implications and Intimations. [REVIEW] AI and Society 2 (2):141-149.
    Examining the Strategic Computing Program after four years, in the context of the crucial recognition that it is only a small part of the whole range of military artificial intelligence applications, suggests a number of clear implications and intimations about such crucial questions as: 1) the current roles of industry and the universities in developing high technology war; 2) the effects on political and military policy of high-tech weapons systems; and 3) the importance of advanced military (...)
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  19.  3
    Professor Takeshi Hayashi (1993). Ecology of Technology: A Perspective. [REVIEW] AI and Society 7 (2):109-116.
    Science and technology are on trial due to the rapid changes — neither university nor science lead developments in technology, the most advanced military technology has lost linkages with industries, the widened North-South gaps — they are all sources of crisis in the global ecological balance. The Euro-centric universalism is useless to solve the global technology problems.
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  20. Robert Sparrow (2009). Predators or Ploughshares? Arms Control of Robotic Weapons. IEEE Technology and Society 28 (1):25-29.
  21.  18
    Fabiana Bekerman (2013). The Scientific Field During Argentina's Latest Military Dictatorship (1976–1983): Contraction of Public Universities and Expansion of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Research (CONICET). [REVIEW] Minerva 51 (2):253-269.
    This study looks at some of the traits that characterized Argentina’s scientific and university policies under the military regime that spanned from 1976 through 1983. To this end, it delves into a rarely explored empirical observation: financial resource transfers from national universities to the National Scientific and Technological Research Council (CONICET, for its Spanish acronym) during that period. The intention is to show how, by reallocating funds geared to Science and Technology, CONICET was made to expand and decentralize (...)
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  22.  16
    Mary Tiles (2009). Technology and the Possibility of Global Environmental Science. Synthese 168 (3):433 - 452.
    Global environmental science, in its current configuration as predominantly interdisciplinary earth systems analysis, owes its existence to technological development in three respects. (1) Environmental impacts of globalization of corporate and military industrial development linked to widespread use of new technologies prompted investigation of ways to understand and anticipate the global nature of such impacts. (2) Extension of the reach of technology itself demands extension of attempts to anticipate and control the environment in which the technology is to (...)
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  23.  71
    Jason Borenstein (2008). The Ethics of Autonomous Military Robots. Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology 2 (1).
    The U.S. military has started to construct and deploy robotic weapons systems. Although human controllers may still be monitoring the functioning of the technology, the next logical step is to transfer incrementally more of the decision-making power to the robots themselves. Thus, this article seeks to examine the ethical implications of the creation and use of "autonomous weapons systems.".
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  24.  74
    D. Kellner (1999). Virilio, War and Technology: Some Critical Reflections. Theory, Culture and Society 16 (5-6):103-125.
    Paul Virilio is one of the most prolific and penetrating critics of the drama of technology in the contemporary era, especially military technology, technologies of representation, computer and information technologies, and biotechnology. For Virilio, the question of technology is the question of our time and his life work constitutes a sustained reflection on the origins, nature and effects of the key technologies that have constituted the modern/ postmodern world. In particular, Virilio carries out a radical critique (...)
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  25.  14
    Andrew Alexandra (2012). Private Military and Security Companies and the Liberal Conception of Violence. Criminal Justice Ethics 31 (3):158-174.
    Abstract The institution of war is the broad framework of rules, norms, and organizations dedicated to the prevention, prosecution, and resolution of violent conflict between political entities. Important parts of that institution consist of the accountability arrangements that hold between armed forces, the political leaders who oversee and direct the use of those forces, and the people in whose name the leaders act and from whose ranks the members of the armed forces are drawn. Like other parts of the institution, (...)
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  26.  39
    Thomas Hellström (2013). On the Moral Responsibility of Military Robots. Ethics and Information Technology 15 (2):99-107.
    This article discusses mechanisms and principles for assignment of moral responsibility to intelligent robots, with special focus on military robots. We introduce the concept autonomous power as a new concept, and use it to identify the type of robots that call for moral considerations. It is furthermore argued that autonomous power, and in particular the ability to learn, is decisive for assignment of moral responsibility to robots. As technological development will lead to robots with increasing autonomous power, we should (...)
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  27. Christine James (2005). Sonar Technology and Shifts in Environmental Ethics. Essays in Philosophy 6 (1).
    The history of sonar technology provides a fascinating case study for philosophers of science. During the first and second World Wars, sonar technology was primarily associated with activity on the part of the sonar technicians and researchers. Usually this activity is concerned with creation of sound waves under water, as in the classic “ping and echo”. The last fifteen years have seen a shift toward passive, ambient noise “acoustic daylight imaging” sonar. Along with this shift a new relationship (...)
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  28.  22
    David Roberts (2012). Technology and Modernity Spengler, Jünger, Heidegger, Cassirer. Thesis Eleven 111 (1):19-35.
    In the crisis scenarios of modernity which flourished in the Weimar Republic, technology is typically seen as destiny or fate. Thus Oswald Spengler and Ernst Jünger both construe the coming struggle for world power in terms of the integration of production and technology in the industrial-military complex. Martin Heidegger’s critique of Jünger’s blueprint for total mobilization in Der Arbeiter (1932) springs from his reading of modernity as nihilism. Just as the crisis of Western history is reaching completion (...)
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  29.  41
    L. Khong (2003). Actants and Enframing: Heidegger and Latour on Technology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 34 (4):693-704.
    A central issue in the philosophy of technology concerns the relationship between technology and the conditions under which technology develops. Traditionally, two main accounts are given of this relationship. The social constructivist approach considers technology to be largely determined by ''social'' factors (e.g. military interests, economic policy). By contrast, technological determinism describes technology as self-determinative, and as following its own independent aim of greater efficiency. This paper discusses two alternatives to these conceptions of (...), namely, the accounts offered by Bruno Latour and Martin Heidegger. It examines their common theses that our present misunderstanding of technology is due to a continued commitment to the subject-object distinction. The paper further compares their accounts, which attempt to overcome this distinction, and argues that ultimately both authors fail to find a role for human beings that is consistent with their contention that we need to develop a less anthropocentric understanding of the world. (shrink)
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  30.  15
    Norm Friesen (2010). Ethics and the Technologies of Empire: E-Learning and the US Military. [REVIEW] AI and Society 25 (1):71-81.
    Instructional technology, and the cognitivist and systems paradigms that underpin it, grew out of the military-industrial complex during the Cold War. Much as the Pentagon and this military complex defined the architecture of the Internet, they also essentially created, ex nihilo, the fields of instructional technology and instructional design. The results of the ongoing dominance or influence of the Pentagon in these specific disciplines have been traced in research that appeared during the final phases of the (...)
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  31. Dr Raymond E. Spier & Raymond E. Spier (2001). Science and Technology Ethics. Routledge.
    Science and Technology Ethics re-examines the ethics by which we live and asks the question: do we have in place the ethical guidelines through which we can incorporate these developments with the minimum of disruption and disaffection? It assesses the ethical systems in place and proposes new approaches to our scientific and engineering processes and products, our social contacts, biology and informatics, the military industry and our environmental responsibilities. The volume is multidisciplinary and reflects the aim of the (...)
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  32. Benoit Godin (2002). The Numbers Makers: Fifty Years of Science and Technology Official Statistics. [REVIEW] Minerva 40 (4):375-397.
    Official science and technology statistics arefifty years old. Among industrial countries,the forerunners were the United States, Canadaand Great Britain. This paper traces thedevelopment and the construction of S&Tstatistics in these three countries, and theirsubsequent standardization, mainly by theOECD, in the 1960s. It shows how military andscience policy needs drove the construction ofstatistics, until economic considerations cameto dominate their development. It alsodiscusses how statistics interacted withpolitics by way of studies that documentedgaps between OECD Member countries and betweenthe OECD and (...)
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  33.  2
    Edward T. Barrett (2015). Reliable Old Wineskins: The Applicability of the Just War Tradition to Military Cyber Operations. Philosophy and Technology 28 (3):387-405.
    This article argues that the traditional jus ad bellum and jus in bello criteria are fully capable of providing the ethical guidance needed to legitimately conduct military cyber operations. The first part examines the criteria’s foundations by focusing on the notion of liability to defensive harm worked out by revisionist just war thinkers. The second part critiques the necessity of alternative frameworks, which its proponents assert are required to at least supplement the traditional just war criteria. Using the latter, (...)
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  34.  2
    P. K. Saint-Amour (2011). Applied Modernism: Military and Civilian Uses of the Aerial Photomosaic. Theory, Culture and Society 28 (7-8):241-269.
    This article is about a period of technology transfer – the late 1910s and 1920s – when wartime aerial reconnaissance techniques and operations were being adapted to a range of civilian uses, including urban planning, land use analysis, traffic control, tax equalization, and even archaeology. At the center of the discussion is the ‘photomosaic’: a patchwork of overlapping aerial photographs that have been rectified and fit together so as to form a continuous survey of a territory. Initially developed during (...)
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  35. Dr Raymond E. Spier & Raymond E. Spier (2003). Science and Technology Ethics. Routledge.
    Science and Technology Ethics re-examines the ethics by which we live and asks the question: do we have in place the ethical guidelines through which we can incorporate these developments with the minimum of disruption and disaffection? It assesses the ethical systems in place and proposes new approaches to our scientific and engineering processes and products, our social contacts, biology and informatics, the military industry and our environmental responsibilities. The volume is multidisciplinary and reflects the aim of the (...)
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  36. Bradley Jay Strawser (ed.) (2013). Killing by Remote Control: The Ethics of an Unmanned Military. Oxford University Press Usa.
    The increased military employment of remotely operated aerial vehicles, also known as drones, has raised a wide variety of important ethical questions, concerns, and challenges. Many of these have not yet received the serious scholarly examination such worries rightly demand. This volume attempts to fill that gap through sustained analysis of a wide range of specific moral issues that arise from this new form of killing by remote control. Many, for example, are troubled by the impact that killing through (...)
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  37.  11
    Rinie van Est (2010). The Cubicle Warrior: The Marionette of Digitalized Warfare. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 12 (3):289-296.
    In the last decade we have entered the era of remote controlled military technology. The excitement about this new technology should not mask the ethical questions that it raises. A fundamental ethical question is who may be held responsible for civilian deaths. In this paper we will discuss the role of the human operator or so-called ‘cubicle warrior’, who remotely controls the military robots behind visual interfaces. We will argue that the socio-technical system conditions the cubicle (...)
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  38.  17
    Erik Thomsen, Fred Read, William Duncan, Tatiana Malyuta & Barry Smith (2014). Ontological Support for Living Plan Specification, Execution and Evaluation. In Semantic Technology in Intelligence, Defense and Security (STIDS). 10-17.
    Maintaining systems of military plans is critical for military effectiveness, but is also challenging. Plans will become obsolete as the world diverges from the assumptions on which they rest. If too many ad hoc changes are made to intermeshed plans, the ensemble may no longer lead to well-synchronized and coordinated operations, resulting in the system of plans becoming itself incoherent. We describe in what follows an Adaptive Planning process that we are developing on behalf of the Air Force (...)
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  39.  8
    Ian Wilson (2009). Scratching the Surface of the History of Military Medicine. Metascience 18 (2):285-287.
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  40.  4
    Bennett Gilbert (2014). Johannes Fontana’s Drawing for a Castellus Umbrarum, Udine or Padua, C. 1415–20. Mediaevalia 35 (1):255-277.
    A finished sketch for a light-and-shadow projection device by the Paduan mechanical artisan Johannes de Fontana (c.1395–1455), in his manuscript book of drawings now known as Liber Bellicorum Instrumentorum, depicts a machine for communicating ideas or information through spectacle. The manuscript is fairly well known, and this sketch is just one of many interesting images worthy of study in its 70 leaves. A couple dozen manuscripts of the mechanical arts from this period survive, the best-studied of which fall into (...)
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  41.  15
    Ineke Malsch (2013). The Just War Theory and the Ethical Governance of Research. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (2):461-486.
    This article analyses current trends in and future expectations of nanotechnology and other key enabling technologies for security as well as dual use nanotechnology from the perspective of the ethical Just War Theory (JWT), interpreted as an instrument to increase the threshold for using armed force for solving conflicts. The aim is to investigate the relevance of the JWT to the ethical governance of research. The analysis gives rise to the following results. From the perspective of the JWT, military (...)
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  42. Douglas Kellner, Digital Technology and Media Spectacle.
    The unfolding of the panorama of images of US prisoner abuse of Iraqis and the quest to pin responsibility on the soldiers and higher US military and political authorities is one of the most intense media spectacles of contemporary journalism. Evoking universal disgust and repugnance, the images of young American soldiers humiliating Iraqis circulated with satellite-driven speed through broadcasting channels, the Internet, and print media and may stand as some of the most influential images of all time.
     
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  43.  24
    Vincent Bataoel (2011). On the Use of Drones in Military Operations in Libya: Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues. Synesis: A Journal of Science, Technology, Ethics, and Policy 2 (1):G69 - G76.
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  44.  9
    Jürgen Altmann, Peter Asaro, Noel Sharkey & Robert Sparrow (2013). Armed Military Robots: Editorial. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 15 (2):73-76.
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  45.  3
    Geoffrey K. Pullum (1987). Natural Language Interfaces and Strategic Computing. AI and Society 1 (1):47-58.
    Modern weaponry is often too complex for unaided human operation, and is largely or totally controlled by computers. But modern software, particularly artificial intelligence software, exhibits such complexity and inscrutability that there are grave dangers associated with its use in non-benign applications. Recent efforts to make computer systems more accessible to military personnel through natural language processing systems, as proposed in the Strategic Computing Initiative of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, increases rather than decreases the dangers of unpredictable (...)
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  46.  6
    GregorioMartin Quetglás & BernardoCuenca Grau (2002). Aspects of University Research and Technology Transfer to Private Industry. Journal of Business Ethics 39 (1-2):51 - 58.
    University research in the U.S.A. is based on a tight relationship between University and economic activity. In Europe and South America, although less commonly than in the U.S.A., there's already a large amount of experiences related to the creation of "on campus" or "spin off" companies based on the results and knowledge obtained from research in University departments and R&D centres financed with public funds. The virtual base of this results in communication technologies enables private use and the appropriation of (...)
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  47.  2
    Nicholas R. Maradin Iii (2013). Militainment and Mechatronics: Occultatio and the Veil of Science Fiction Cool in United States Air Force Advertisements. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 15 (2):77-86.
    In 2009, the United States Air Force aired a series of science fiction-themed recruitment commercials on network television and their official YouTube channel. In these advertisements, the superimposition of science fiction imagery over depictions of Air Force operations frames these missions as near-future sci-fi adventure, ironically summarized by the tagline: “It’s not science fiction. It’s what we do every day.” Focusing on an early advertisement for the Air Force’s Reaper unmanned aerial vehicle, this essay explores how themes essential to the (...)
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  48.  3
    Merel Noorman & Deborah G. Johnson (2014). Negotiating Autonomy and Responsibility in Military Robots. Ethics and Information Technology 16 (1):51-62.
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  49.  3
    Gregorio Martín Quetglás & Bernardo Cuenca Grau (2002). Aspects of University Research and Technology Transfer to Private Industry. Journal of Business Ethics 39 (1/2):51 - 58.
    University research in the U.S.A. is based on a tight relationship between University and economic activity. In Europe and South America, although less commonly than in the U.S.A., there's already a large amount of experiences related to the creation of "on campus" or "spin off" companies based on the results and knowledge obtained from research in University departments and R&D centres financed with public funds. The virtual base of this results in communication technologies enables private use and the appropriation of (...)
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  50. S. Sassen (2010). When the City Itself Becomes a Technology of War. Theory, Culture and Society 27 (6):33-50.
    The essay is framed by the proposition that cities are the frontier spaces for much of what is usually referred to as global governance challenges. It uses the case of asymmetric war to explore the contradictions that arise from this urbanizing — most significantly, the limits of superior military power when war moves to cities and the ways in which this makes powerlessness complex rather than elementary. The core of the paper focuses on Mumbai and Gaza as two sites (...)
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