Search results for 'military technology' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. P. W. Singer (2010). The Ethics of Killer Applications: Why Is It So Hard To Talk About Morality When It Comes to New Military Technology? Journal of Military Ethics 9 (4):299-312.score: 102.0
    We live in a world of rapidly advancing, revolutionary technologies that are not just reshaping our world and wars, but also creating a host of ethical questions that must be dealt with. But in trying to answer them, we must also explore why exactly is it so hard to have effective discussions about ethics, technology, and war in the first place? This article delves into the all-too-rarely discussed underlying issues that challenge the field of ethics when it comes to (...)
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  2. David Lorge Parnas & Danny Cohen (1997). Ethics and Military Technology: Star Wars. In Kristin Shrader-Frechette & Laura Westra (eds.), Technology and Values. Rowman & Littlefield.score: 96.0
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  3. Karl Lautenschläger (1985). Controlling Military Technology. Ethics 95 (3):692-711.score: 90.0
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  4. John France (2013). Kelly DeVries and Robert Douglas Smith, Medieval Military Technology, 2nd Ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2012. Paper. Pp. Xviii, 356; 53 Figs. $34.95. ISBN: 9781442604971. [REVIEW] Speculum 88 (1):278-279.score: 90.0
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  5. Douglas D. Noble (1989). Cockpit Cognition: Education, the Military and Cognitive Engineering. [REVIEW] AI and Society 3 (4):271-296.score: 90.0
    The goals of public education, as well as conceptions of human intelligence and learning, are undergoing a transformation through the application of military-sponsored information technologies and information processing models of human thought. Recent emphases in education on thinking skills, learning strategies, and computer-based technologies are the latest episodes in the postwar military agenda to engineer intelligent components, human and artificial, for the optimal performance of complex technological systems. Public education serves increasingly as a “human factors” laboratory and production (...)
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  6. Martin Van Creveld (1994). The Rise and Fall of Military Technology. Science in Context 7 (2).score: 90.0
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  7. Fabiana Bekerman (2013). The Scientific Field During Argentina's Latest Military Dictatorship (1976–1983): Contraction of Public Universities and Expansion of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Research (CONICET). [REVIEW] Minerva 51 (2):253-269.score: 84.0
    This study looks at some of the traits that characterized Argentina’s scientific and university policies under the military regime that spanned from 1976 through 1983. To this end, it delves into a rarely explored empirical observation: financial resource transfers from national universities to the National Scientific and Technological Research Council (CONICET, for its Spanish acronym) during that period. The intention is to show how, by reallocating funds geared to Science and Technology, CONICET was made to expand and decentralize (...)
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  8. Mark Coeckelbergh (2013). Drones, Information Technology, and Distance: Mapping the Moral Epistemology of Remote Fighting. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 15 (2):87-98.score: 78.0
    Ethical reflection on drone fighting suggests that this practice does not only create physical distance, but also moral distance: far removed from one’s opponent, it becomes easier to kill. This paper discusses this thesis, frames it as a moral-epistemological problem, and explores the role of information technology in bridging and creating distance. Inspired by a broad range of conceptual and empirical resources including ethics of robotics, psychology, phenomenology, and media reports, it is first argued that drone fighting, like other (...)
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  9. Jürgen Altmann (2008). Military Uses of Nanotechnology—Too Much Complexity for International Security? Complexity 14 (1):62-70.score: 78.0
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  10. Chris Hables Gray (1988). The Strategic Computing Program at Four Years: Implications and Intimations. [REVIEW] AI and Society 2 (2):141-149.score: 72.0
    Examining the Strategic Computing Program after four years, in the context of the crucial recognition that it is only a small part of the whole range of military artificial intelligence applications, suggests a number of clear implications and intimations about such crucial questions as: 1) the current roles of industry and the universities in developing high technology war; 2) the effects on political and military policy of high-tech weapons systems; and 3) the importance of advanced military (...)
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  11. P. Forman, J. M. Sanchez Ron & W. G. Scaife (1997). National Military Establishments and the Advancement of Science and Technology. Annals of Science 54 (5):526-527.score: 72.0
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  12. Paul K. Hoch (1990). Science as Power: Discourse and Ideology in Modern Society, by Stanley Aronowitz; Science, Technology and the Military, Ed. By E. Mendelsohn, M. Roe-Smith and P. Weingart; and Scient~ Flc Knowledge Socialized, Ed. By I. Hronsky, M. Fehér and B. Dajka. [REVIEW] History of Science 28:193-202.score: 72.0
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  13. H. Kragh (1996). Telephone Technology and its Interactions with Sciences and the Military, CA. 1900-1930. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 180:37-67.score: 72.0
     
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  14. Mark Coeckelbergh (2011). From Killer Machines to Doctrines and Swarms, or Why Ethics of Military Robotics Is Not (Necessarily) About Robots. Philosophy and Technology 24 (3):269-278.score: 66.0
    Ethical reflections on military robotics can be enriched by a better understanding of the nature and role of these technologies and by putting robotics into context in various ways. Discussing a range of ethical questions, this paper challenges the prevalent assumptions that military robotics is about military technology as a mere means to an end, about single killer machines, and about “military” developments. It recommends that ethics of robotics attend to how military technology (...)
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  15. Robert Sparrow (2009). Predators or Ploughshares? Arms Control of Robotic Weapons. IEEE Technology and Society 28 (1):25-29.score: 66.0
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  16. Norm Friesen (2010). Ethics and the Technologies of Empire: E-Learning and the US Military. [REVIEW] AI and Society 25 (1):71-81.score: 60.0
    Instructional technology, and the cognitivist and systems paradigms that underpin it, grew out of the military-industrial complex during the Cold War. Much as the Pentagon and this military complex defined the architecture of the Internet, they also essentially created, ex nihilo, the fields of instructional technology and instructional design. The results of the ongoing dominance or influence of the Pentagon in these specific disciplines have been traced in research that appeared during the final phases of the (...)
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  17. Paul N. Edwards (1988). The Closed World: Systems Discourse, Military Strategy and Post WWII American Historical Consciousness. [REVIEW] AI and Society 2 (3):245-255.score: 60.0
    This essay proposes a cultural and historical explanation for the American Military's fascination with computing. Three key elements of post-WWII US political culture — apocalyptic struggle with the USSR, subsuming all other conflicts: a long history of antimilitarist sentiment in American politics; and the rise of science-based military power — contributed to a sense of the world as a closed system accessible to American technological control. A developing scientific systems discourse, centrally including computer science and AI, was adopted (...)
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  18. Professor Takeshi Hayashi (1993). Ecology of Technology: A Perspective. [REVIEW] AI and Society 7 (2):109-116.score: 60.0
    Science and technology are on trial due to the rapid changes — neither university nor science lead developments in technology, the most advanced military technology has lost linkages with industries, the widened North-South gaps — they are all sources of crisis in the global ecological balance. The Euro-centric universalism is useless to solve the global technology problems.
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  19. Mary Tiles (2009). Technology and the Possibility of Global Environmental Science. Synthese 168 (3):433 - 452.score: 54.0
    Global environmental science, in its current configuration as predominantly interdisciplinary earth systems analysis, owes its existence to technological development in three respects. (1) Environmental impacts of globalization of corporate and military industrial development linked to widespread use of new technologies prompted investigation of ways to understand and anticipate the global nature of such impacts. (2) Extension of the reach of technology itself demands extension of attempts to anticipate and control the environment in which the technology is to (...)
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  20. Merel Noorman (2014). Responsibility Practices and Unmanned Military Technologies. Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (3):809-826.score: 54.0
    The prospect of increasingly autonomous military robots has raised concerns about the obfuscation of human responsibility. This papers argues that whether or not and to what extent human actors are and will be considered to be responsible for the behavior of robotic systems is and will be the outcome of ongoing negotiations between the various human actors involved. These negotiations are about what technologies should do and mean, but they are also about how responsibility should be interpreted and how (...)
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  21. Andrew Alexandra (2012). Private Military and Security Companies and the Liberal Conception of Violence. Criminal Justice Ethics 31 (3):158-174.score: 48.0
    Abstract The institution of war is the broad framework of rules, norms, and organizations dedicated to the prevention, prosecution, and resolution of violent conflict between political entities. Important parts of that institution consist of the accountability arrangements that hold between armed forces, the political leaders who oversee and direct the use of those forces, and the people in whose name the leaders act and from whose ranks the members of the armed forces are drawn. Like other parts of the institution, (...)
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  22. Thomas Hellström (2013). On the Moral Responsibility of Military Robots. Ethics and Information Technology 15 (2):99-107.score: 48.0
    This article discusses mechanisms and principles for assignment of moral responsibility to intelligent robots, with special focus on military robots. We introduce the concept autonomous power as a new concept, and use it to identify the type of robots that call for moral considerations. It is furthermore argued that autonomous power, and in particular the ability to learn, is decisive for assignment of moral responsibility to robots. As technological development will lead to robots with increasing autonomous power, we should (...)
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  23. Rinie van Est (2010). The Cubicle Warrior: The Marionette of Digitalized Warfare. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 12 (3):289-296.score: 48.0
    In the last decade we have entered the era of remote controlled military technology. The excitement about this new technology should not mask the ethical questions that it raises. A fundamental ethical question is who may be held responsible for civilian deaths. In this paper we will discuss the role of the human operator or so-called ‘cubicle warrior’, who remotely controls the military robots behind visual interfaces. We will argue that the socio-technical system conditions the cubicle (...)
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  24. Christine James (2005). Sonar Technology and Shifts in Environmental Ethics. Essays in Philosophy 6 (1).score: 42.0
    The history of sonar technology provides a fascinating case study for philosophers of science. During the first and second World Wars, sonar technology was primarily associated with activity on the part of the sonar technicians and researchers. Usually this activity is concerned with creation of sound waves under water, as in the classic “ping and echo”. The last fifteen years have seen a shift toward passive, ambient noise “acoustic daylight imaging” sonar. Along with this shift a new relationship (...)
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  25. L. Khong (2003). Actants and Enframing: Heidegger and Latour on Technology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 34 (4):693-704.score: 42.0
    A central issue in the philosophy of technology concerns the relationship between technology and the conditions under which technology develops. Traditionally, two main accounts are given of this relationship. The social constructivist approach considers technology to be largely determined by ''social'' factors (e.g. military interests, economic policy). By contrast, technological determinism describes technology as self-determinative, and as following its own independent aim of greater efficiency. This paper discusses two alternatives to these conceptions of (...), namely, the accounts offered by Bruno Latour and Martin Heidegger. It examines their common theses that our present misunderstanding of technology is due to a continued commitment to the subject-object distinction. The paper further compares their accounts, which attempt to overcome this distinction, and argues that ultimately both authors fail to find a role for human beings that is consistent with their contention that we need to develop a less anthropocentric understanding of the world. (shrink)
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  26. David Roberts (2012). Technology and Modernity Spengler, Jünger, Heidegger, Cassirer. Thesis Eleven 111 (1):19-35.score: 42.0
    In the crisis scenarios of modernity which flourished in the Weimar Republic, technology is typically seen as destiny or fate. Thus Oswald Spengler and Ernst Jünger both construe the coming struggle for world power in terms of the integration of production and technology in the industrial-military complex. Martin Heidegger’s critique of Jünger’s blueprint for total mobilization in Der Arbeiter (1932) springs from his reading of modernity as nihilism. Just as the crisis of Western history is reaching completion (...)
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  27. Benoit Godin (2002). The Numbers Makers: Fifty Years of Science and Technology Official Statistics. [REVIEW] Minerva 40 (4):375-397.score: 42.0
    Official science and technology statistics arefifty years old. Among industrial countries,the forerunners were the United States, Canadaand Great Britain. This paper traces thedevelopment and the construction of S&Tstatistics in these three countries, and theirsubsequent standardization, mainly by theOECD, in the 1960s. It shows how military andscience policy needs drove the construction ofstatistics, until economic considerations cameto dominate their development. It alsodiscusses how statistics interacted withpolitics by way of studies that documentedgaps between OECD Member countries and betweenthe OECD and (...)
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  28. Jessica Wolfendale (2008). Performance-Enhancing Technologies and Moral Responsibility in the Military. American Journal of Bioethics 8 (2):28 – 38.score: 40.0
    New scientific advances have created previously unheard of possibilities for enhancing combatants' performance. Future war fighters may be smarter, stronger, and braver than ever before. If these technologies are safe, is there any reason to reject their use? In this article, I argue that the use of enhancements is constrained by the importance of maintaining the moral responsibility of military personnel. This is crucial for two reasons: the military's ethical commitments require military personnel to be morally responsible (...)
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  29. Ineke Malsch (2013). The Just War Theory and the Ethical Governance of Research. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (2):461-486.score: 38.0
    This article analyses current trends in and future expectations of nanotechnology and other key enabling technologies for security as well as dual use nanotechnology from the perspective of the ethical Just War Theory (JWT), interpreted as an instrument to increase the threshold for using armed force for solving conflicts. The aim is to investigate the relevance of the JWT to the ethical governance of research. The analysis gives rise to the following results. From the perspective of the JWT, military (...)
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  30. Patrick Lin (2010). Ethical Blowback From Emerging Technologies. Journal of Military Ethics 9 (4):313-331.score: 36.0
    The military is a major driver of technological, world-changing innovations which, like the Internet, often have unpredictable dual uses and widespread civilian impact (?blowback?). Ethical and policy concerns arising from such technologies, therefore, are not limited to military affairs, but can have great implications for society at large as well. This paper will focus on two technology areas making headlines at present: human enhancement technologies and robotics, representing both biological and technological upgrades to the military. The (...)
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  31. Nicholas R. Maradin Iii (2013). Militainment and Mechatronics: Occultatio and the Veil of Science Fiction Cool in United States Air Force Advertisements. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 15 (2):77-86.score: 36.0
    In 2009, the United States Air Force aired a series of science fiction-themed recruitment commercials on network television and their official YouTube channel. In these advertisements, the superimposition of science fiction imagery over depictions of Air Force operations frames these missions as near-future sci-fi adventure, ironically summarized by the tagline: “It’s not science fiction. It’s what we do every day.” Focusing on an early advertisement for the Air Force’s Reaper unmanned aerial vehicle, this essay explores how themes essential to the (...)
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  32. Geoffrey K. Pullum (1987). Natural Language Interfaces and Strategic Computing. AI and Society 1 (1):47-58.score: 36.0
    Modern weaponry is often too complex for unaided human operation, and is largely or totally controlled by computers. But modern software, particularly artificial intelligence software, exhibits such complexity and inscrutability that there are grave dangers associated with its use in non-benign applications. Recent efforts to make computer systems more accessible to military personnel through natural language processing systems, as proposed in the Strategic Computing Initiative of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, increases rather than decreases the dangers of unpredictable (...)
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  33. Suzy Killmister (2008). Remote Weaponry: The Ethical Implications. Journal of Applied Philosophy 25 (2):121–133.score: 30.0
    The nature of warfare is changing. Increasingly, developments in military technology are removing soldiers from the battlefield, enabling war to be waged from afar. Bombs can be dropped from unmanned drones flying above the range of retaliation. Missiles can be launched, at minimal cost, from ships 200 miles to sea. Micro Air Vehicles, or 'WASPS', will soon be able to lethally attack enemy soldiers. Though still in the developmental stage, progress is rapidly being made towards autonomous weaponry capable (...)
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  34. Igor Primoratz (2005). Civilian Immunity in War. Philosophical Forum 36 (1):41–58.score: 30.0
    The protection of noncombatants from deadly violence is the centrepiece of any account of ethical and legal constraints on war. It was a major achievement of moral progress from early modern times to World War I. Yet it has been under constant attrition since - perhaps never more so than in our time, with its 'new wars', the spectre of weapons of mass destruction, and the global terrorism alert. -/- Civilian Immunity in War, written in collaboration by eleven authors, provides (...)
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  35. Bradley J. Strawser (2010). Moral Predators: The Duty to Employ Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles. Journal of Military Ethics 9 (4):342-368.score: 30.0
    A variety of ethical objections have been raised against the military employment of uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs, drones). Some of these objections are technological concerns over UAVs abilities’ to function on par with their inhabited counterparts. This paper sets such concerns aside and instead focuses on supposed objections to the use of UAVs in principle. I examine several such objections currently on offer and show them all to be wanting. Indeed, I argue that we have a duty to protect (...)
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  36. Peter Danielson (2011). Engaging the Public in the Ethics of Robots for War and Peace. Philosophy and Technology 24 (3):239-249.score: 30.0
    Emerging technologies like robotics for war and peace stress our moral norms and generate much public interest and controversy. We use this interest to attract participants to an innovative on-line survey platform, designed for experimenting with public engagement in the ethics of technology. In particular, the N-Reasons platform addresses several issues in democratic ethics: the cost of public participation, the methodological issue of feasible reflective ethical equilibrium (how can individuals in a large group, take into account the ethical views (...)
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  37. Robert M. Geraci (2011). Martial Bliss: War and Peace in Popular Science Robotics. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Technology 24 (3):339-354.score: 30.0
    In considering how to best deploy robotic systems in public and private sectors, we must consider what individuals will expect from the robots with which they interact. Public awareness of robotics—as both military machines and domestic helpers—emerges out of a braided stream composed of science fiction and popular science. These two genres influence news media, government and corporate spending, and public expectations. In the Euro-American West, both science fiction and popular science are ambivalent about the military applications for (...)
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  38. Christian V. Lundestad & Anique Hommels (2007). Software Vulnerability Due to Practical Drift. Ethics and Information Technology 9 (2):89-100.score: 30.0
    The proliferation of information and communication technologies (ICTs) into all aspects of life poses unique ethical challenges as our modern societies become increasingly dependent on the flawless operation of these technologies. As we increasingly entrust our privacy, our well-being and our lives to an ever greater number of computers we need to look more closely at the risks and ethical implications of these developments. By emphasising the vulnerability of software and the practice of professional software developers, we want to make (...)
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  39. Wendell Wallach & Colin Allen (2013). Framing Robot Arms Control. Ethics and Information Technology 15 (2):125-135.score: 30.0
    The development of autonomous, robotic weaponry is progressing rapidly. Many observers agree that banning the initiation of lethal activity by autonomous weapons is a worthy goal. Some disagree with this goal, on the grounds that robots may equal and exceed the ethical conduct of human soldiers on the battlefield. Those who seek arms-control agreements limiting the use of military robots face practical difficulties. One such difficulty concerns defining the notion of an autonomous action by a robot. Another challenge concerns (...)
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  40. Justinas Žilinskas (2013). The Influence of Using Cyber Technologies in Armed Conflicts on International Humanitarian Law. Jurisprudence 20 (3):1195-1212.score: 30.0
    Cyber warfare is becoming a new reality with new battles fought everyday on virtual battlefields. For a century and a half, International Humanitarian Law has been a sentry for victims of wars guaranteeing their legal protection from the calamities of war, trying hard to respond to Clausewitz’s “chameleon of war”. Cyber conflict marks new chameleon’s colour together with the unmanned aerial vehicles, autonomic battle systems and other technologies deployed on battlefields. However, it would be greatly erroneous to claim that the (...)
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  41. Gregorio Martín Quetglás & Bernardo Cuenca Grau (2002). Aspects of University Research and Technology Transfer to Private Industry. Journal of Business Ethics 39 (1/2):51 - 58.score: 30.0
    University research in the U.S.A. is based on a tight relationship between University and economic activity. In Europe and South America, although less commonly than in the U.S.A., there's already a large amount of experiences related to the creation of "on campus" or "spin off" companies based on the results and knowledge obtained from research in University departments and R&D centres financed with public funds. The virtual base of this results in communication technologies enables private use and the appropriation of (...)
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  42. Charles G. Kels (2012). Closing Argument: At the Outer Bounds of Asymmetry. Journal of Military Ethics 11 (3):223-244.score: 30.0
    Abstract The increasing prevalence of armed drones in the conduct of military operations has generated robust debate. Among legal scholars, the crux of the dispute generally pits those who herald the new technology's unparalleled precision against those who view such newfound capabilities as an inducement to employ excessive force. Largely overlooked in the discussion over how drone strikes can be accomplished lawfully is a more fundamental question: Can a model of warfare that eschews any risk of harm to (...)
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  43. GregorioMartin Quetglás & BernardoCuenca Grau (2002). Aspects of University Research and Technology Transfer to Private Industry. Journal of Business Ethics 39 (1-2):51 - 58.score: 30.0
    University research in the U.S.A. is based on a tight relationship between University and economic activity. In Europe and South America, although less commonly than in the U.S.A., there's already a large amount of experiences related to the creation of "on campus" or "spin off" companies based on the results and knowledge obtained from research in University departments and R&D centres financed with public funds. The virtual base of this results in communication technologies enables private use and the appropriation of (...)
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  44. Thomas E. Ricks (2002). Target Approval Delays Cost Air Force Key Hits. Journal of Military Ethics 1 (2):109-112.score: 30.0
    This case study is taken from the early phase of the current war against terrorism in Afghanistan. It exemplifies the complexities of contemporary warfare, in which the commander must weigh the military advantages provided by advanced technology against political, legal and ethical considerations. This can cause frustration in the lower echelons, when it is perceived that opportunities for decisive strikes are missed because of hesitation in the chain of command at higher levels. Following the case study, three commentators (...)
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  45. Wim A. Smit (2006). Military Technologies and Politics. In Robert E. Goodin & Charles Tilly (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Contextual Political Analysis. Oup Oxford.score: 30.0
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  46. Hugh Lacey (2012). Reflections on Science and Technoscience. Scientiae Studia 10 (SPE):103-128.score: 28.0
    Technoscientific research, a kind of scientific research conducted within the decontextualized approach (DA), uses advanced technology to produce instruments, experimental objects, and new objects and structures, that enable us to gain knowledge of states of affairs of novel domains, especially knowledge about new possibilities of what we can do and make, with the horizons of practical, industrial, medical or military innovation, and economic growth and competition, never far removed from view. The legitimacy of technoscientific innovations can be appraised (...)
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  47. Kelly Ichitani Koide (2012). A Militant Rationality: Epistemic Values, Scientific Ethos, and Methodological Pluralism in Epidemiology. Scientiae Studia 10 (SPE):141-150.score: 24.0
    Technoscientific research, a kind of scientific research conducted within the decontextualized approach (DA), uses advanced technology to produce instruments, experimental objects, and new objects and structures, that enable us to gain knowledge of states of affairs of novel domains, especially knowledge about new possibilities of what we can do and make, with the horizons of practical, industrial, medical or military innovation, and economic growth and competition, never far removed from view. The legitimacy of technoscientific innovations can be appraised (...)
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  48. Jason Borenstein (2008). The Ethics of Autonomous Military Robots. Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology 2 (1).score: 24.0
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  49. Garrett Hardin, The Tragedy of the Commons.score: 24.0
    At the end of a thoughtful article on the future of nuclear war, Wiesner and York (1) concluded that: "Both sides in the arms race are... confronted by the dilemma of steadily increasing military power and steadily decreasing national security. It is our considered professional judgment that this dilemma has no technical solution. If the great powers continue to look for solutions in the area of science and technology only, the result will be to worsen the situation.".
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  50. Mary L. Cummings (2006). Integrating Ethics in Design Through the Value-Sensitive Design Approach. Science and Engineering Ethics 12 (4):701-715.score: 24.0
    The Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technology (ABET) has declared that to achieve accredited status, “engineering programs must demonstrate that their graduates have an understanding of professional and ethical responsibility.” Many engineering professors struggle to integrate this required ethics instruction in technical classes and projects because of the lack of a formalized ethics-in-design approach. However, one methodology developed in human-computer interaction research, the Value-Sensitive Design approach, can serve as an engineering education tool which bridges the gap between design and (...)
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