Search results for 'military technology' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. P. W. Singer (2010). The Ethics of Killer Applications: Why Is It So Hard To Talk About Morality When It Comes to New Military Technology? Journal of Military Ethics 9 (4):299-312.score: 51.0
    We live in a world of rapidly advancing, revolutionary technologies that are not just reshaping our world and wars, but also creating a host of ethical questions that must be dealt with. But in trying to answer them, we must also explore why exactly is it so hard to have effective discussions about ethics, technology, and war in the first place? This article delves into the all-too-rarely discussed underlying issues that challenge the field of ethics when it comes to (...)
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  2. David Lorge Parnas & Danny Cohen (1997). Ethics and Military Technology: Star Wars. In Kristin Shrader-Frechette & Laura Westra (eds.), Technology and Values. Rowman & Littlefield.score: 48.0
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  3. Karl Lautenschläger (1985). Controlling Military Technology. Ethics 95 (3):692-711.score: 45.0
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  4. John France (2013). Kelly DeVries and Robert Douglas Smith, Medieval Military Technology, 2nd Ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2012. Paper. Pp. Xviii, 356; 53 Figs. $34.95. ISBN: 9781442604971. [REVIEW] Speculum 88 (1):278-279.score: 45.0
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  5. Douglas D. Noble (1989). Cockpit Cognition: Education, the Military and Cognitive Engineering. [REVIEW] AI and Society 3 (4):271-296.score: 45.0
    The goals of public education, as well as conceptions of human intelligence and learning, are undergoing a transformation through the application of military-sponsored information technologies and information processing models of human thought. Recent emphases in education on thinking skills, learning strategies, and computer-based technologies are the latest episodes in the postwar military agenda to engineer intelligent components, human and artificial, for the optimal performance of complex technological systems. Public education serves increasingly as a “human factors” laboratory and production (...)
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  6. Martin Van Creveld (1994). The Rise and Fall of Military Technology. Science in Context 7 (2).score: 45.0
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  7. Fabiana Bekerman (2013). The Scientific Field During Argentina's Latest Military Dictatorship (1976–1983): Contraction of Public Universities and Expansion of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Research (CONICET). [REVIEW] Minerva 51 (2):253-269.score: 42.0
    This study looks at some of the traits that characterized Argentina’s scientific and university policies under the military regime that spanned from 1976 through 1983. To this end, it delves into a rarely explored empirical observation: financial resource transfers from national universities to the National Scientific and Technological Research Council (CONICET, for its Spanish acronym) during that period. The intention is to show how, by reallocating funds geared to Science and Technology, CONICET was made to expand and decentralize (...)
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  8. Mark Coeckelbergh (2013). Drones, Information Technology, and Distance: Mapping the Moral Epistemology of Remote Fighting. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 15 (2):87-98.score: 39.0
    Ethical reflection on drone fighting suggests that this practice does not only create physical distance, but also moral distance: far removed from one’s opponent, it becomes easier to kill. This paper discusses this thesis, frames it as a moral-epistemological problem, and explores the role of information technology in bridging and creating distance. Inspired by a broad range of conceptual and empirical resources including ethics of robotics, psychology, phenomenology, and media reports, it is first argued that drone fighting, like other (...)
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  9. Jürgen Altmann (2008). Military Uses of Nanotechnology—Too Much Complexity for International Security? Complexity 14 (1):62-70.score: 39.0
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  10. P. Forman, J. M. Sanchez Ron & W. G. Scaife (1997). National Military Establishments and the Advancement of Science and Technology. Annals of Science 54 (5):526-527.score: 36.0
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  11. Chris Hables Gray (1988). The Strategic Computing Program at Four Years: Implications and Intimations. [REVIEW] AI and Society 2 (2):141-149.score: 36.0
    Examining the Strategic Computing Program after four years, in the context of the crucial recognition that it is only a small part of the whole range of military artificial intelligence applications, suggests a number of clear implications and intimations about such crucial questions as: 1) the current roles of industry and the universities in developing high technology war; 2) the effects on political and military policy of high-tech weapons systems; and 3) the importance of advanced military (...)
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  12. Paul K. Hoch (1990). Science as Power: Discourse and Ideology in Modern Society, by Stanley Aronowitz; Science, Technology and the Military, Ed. By E. Mendelsohn, M. Roe-Smith and P. Weingart; and Scient~ Flc Knowledge Socialized, Ed. By I. Hronsky, M. Fehér and B. Dajka. [REVIEW] History of Science 28:193-202.score: 36.0
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  13. H. Kragh (1996). Telephone Technology and its Interactions with Sciences and the Military, CA. 1900-1930. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 180:37-67.score: 36.0
     
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  14. Mark Coeckelbergh (2011). From Killer Machines to Doctrines and Swarms, or Why Ethics of Military Robotics Is Not (Necessarily) About Robots. Philosophy and Technology 24 (3):269-278.score: 33.0
    Ethical reflections on military robotics can be enriched by a better understanding of the nature and role of these technologies and by putting robotics into context in various ways. Discussing a range of ethical questions, this paper challenges the prevalent assumptions that military robotics is about military technology as a mere means to an end, about single killer machines, and about “military” developments. It recommends that ethics of robotics attend to how military technology (...)
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  15. Merel Noorman (2013). Responsibility Practices and Unmanned Military Technologies. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-18.score: 33.0
    The prospect of increasingly autonomous military robots has raised concerns about the obfuscation of human responsibility. This papers argues that whether or not and to what extent human actors are and will be considered to be responsible for the behavior of robotic systems is and will be the outcome of ongoing negotiations between the various human actors involved. These negotiations are about what technologies should do and mean, but they are also about how responsibility should be interpreted and how (...)
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  16. Robert Sparrow (2009). Predators or Ploughshares? Arms Control of Robotic Weapons. IEEE Technology and Society 28 (1):25-29.score: 33.0
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  17. Paul N. Edwards (1988). The Closed World: Systems Discourse, Military Strategy and Post WWII American Historical Consciousness. [REVIEW] AI and Society 2 (3):245-255.score: 30.0
    This essay proposes a cultural and historical explanation for the American Military's fascination with computing. Three key elements of post-WWII US political culture — apocalyptic struggle with the USSR, subsuming all other conflicts: a long history of antimilitarist sentiment in American politics; and the rise of science-based military power — contributed to a sense of the world as a closed system accessible to American technological control. A developing scientific systems discourse, centrally including computer science and AI, was adopted (...)
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  18. Norm Friesen (2010). Ethics and the Technologies of Empire: E-Learning and the US Military. [REVIEW] AI and Society 25 (1):71-81.score: 30.0
    Instructional technology, and the cognitivist and systems paradigms that underpin it, grew out of the military-industrial complex during the Cold War. Much as the Pentagon and this military complex defined the architecture of the Internet, they also essentially created, ex nihilo, the fields of instructional technology and instructional design. The results of the ongoing dominance or influence of the Pentagon in these specific disciplines have been traced in research that appeared during the final phases of the (...)
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  19. Professor Takeshi Hayashi (1993). Ecology of Technology: A Perspective. [REVIEW] AI and Society 7 (2):109-116.score: 30.0
    Science and technology are on trial due to the rapid changes — neither university nor science lead developments in technology, the most advanced military technology has lost linkages with industries, the widened North-South gaps — they are all sources of crisis in the global ecological balance. The Euro-centric universalism is useless to solve the global technology problems.
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  20. Mary Tiles (2009). Technology and the Possibility of Global Environmental Science. Synthese 168 (3):433 - 452.score: 27.0
    Global environmental science, in its current configuration as predominantly interdisciplinary earth systems analysis, owes its existence to technological development in three respects. (1) Environmental impacts of globalization of corporate and military industrial development linked to widespread use of new technologies prompted investigation of ways to understand and anticipate the global nature of such impacts. (2) Extension of the reach of technology itself demands extension of attempts to anticipate and control the environment in which the technology is to (...)
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  21. Jessica Wolfendale (2008). Performance-Enhancing Technologies and Moral Responsibility in the Military. American Journal of Bioethics 8 (2):28 – 38.score: 24.0
    New scientific advances have created previously unheard of possibilities for enhancing combatants' performance. Future war fighters may be smarter, stronger, and braver than ever before. If these technologies are safe, is there any reason to reject their use? In this article, I argue that the use of enhancements is constrained by the importance of maintaining the moral responsibility of military personnel. This is crucial for two reasons: the military's ethical commitments require military personnel to be morally responsible (...)
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  22. Andrew Alexandra (2012). Private Military and Security Companies and the Liberal Conception of Violence. Criminal Justice Ethics 31 (3):158-174.score: 24.0
    Abstract The institution of war is the broad framework of rules, norms, and organizations dedicated to the prevention, prosecution, and resolution of violent conflict between political entities. Important parts of that institution consist of the accountability arrangements that hold between armed forces, the political leaders who oversee and direct the use of those forces, and the people in whose name the leaders act and from whose ranks the members of the armed forces are drawn. Like other parts of the institution, (...)
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  23. Thomas Hellström (2013). On the Moral Responsibility of Military Robots. Ethics and Information Technology 15 (2):99-107.score: 24.0
    This article discusses mechanisms and principles for assignment of moral responsibility to intelligent robots, with special focus on military robots. We introduce the concept autonomous power as a new concept, and use it to identify the type of robots that call for moral considerations. It is furthermore argued that autonomous power, and in particular the ability to learn, is decisive for assignment of moral responsibility to robots. As technological development will lead to robots with increasing autonomous power, we should (...)
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  24. Rinie van Est (2010). The Cubicle Warrior: The Marionette of Digitalized Warfare. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 12 (3):289-296.score: 24.0
    In the last decade we have entered the era of remote controlled military technology. The excitement about this new technology should not mask the ethical questions that it raises. A fundamental ethical question is who may be held responsible for civilian deaths. In this paper we will discuss the role of the human operator or so-called ‘cubicle warrior’, who remotely controls the military robots behind visual interfaces. We will argue that the socio-technical system conditions the cubicle (...)
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  25. Robin S. Dillon (2010). Respect for Persons, Identity, and Information Technology. Ethics and Information Technology 12 (1):17-28.score: 21.0
    There is surprisingly little attention in Information Technology ethics to respect for persons, either as an ethical issue or as a core value of IT ethics or as a conceptual tool for discussing ethical issues of IT. In this, IT ethics is very different from another field of applied ethics, bioethics, where respect is a core value and conceptual tool. This paper argues that there is value in thinking about ethical issues related to information technologies, especially, though not exclusively, (...)
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  26. Albert Borgmann (2011). The Here and Now: Theory, Technology, and Actuality. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Technology 24 (1):5-17.score: 21.0
    Central figures of American mainstream philosophy have at crucial points in their work been concerned with the concreteness of actual reality, but have in various ways been deflected to primarily technical issues of philosophical analysis. It is possible, however, to see in these concerns a line of inquiry that leads to an examination of what is characteristic of actual reality today and of what is troubling and what is hopeful in it. Technology is a helpful term for the character (...)
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  27. Roger Wertheimer (2010). The Morality of Military Ethics Education. In , Empowering Our Military Conscience.score: 21.0
    Professional Military Ethics Education (PMEE) must transmit and promote military professionalism, so it must continuously.
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  28. Roger Wertheimer (2010). The Moral Singularity of Military Professionalism. In , Empowering Our Military Conscience.score: 21.0
    Neither M. Walzer's collectivist conception of the "moral equality" of combatants, nor its antithetical individualist conceptions of responsibility are compatible with the ethos of military professionalism and its conception(s) of the responsibility of military professionals for service in an unjust war.
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  29. Christine James (2005). Sonar Technology and Shifts in Environmental Ethics. Essays in Philosophy 6 (1).score: 21.0
    The history of sonar technology provides a fascinating case study for philosophers of science. During the first and second World Wars, sonar technology was primarily associated with activity on the part of the sonar technicians and researchers. Usually this activity is concerned with creation of sound waves under water, as in the classic “ping and echo”. The last fifteen years have seen a shift toward passive, ambient noise “acoustic daylight imaging” sonar. Along with this shift a new relationship (...)
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  30. L. Khong (2003). Actants and Enframing: Heidegger and Latour on Technology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 34 (4):693-704.score: 21.0
    A central issue in the philosophy of technology concerns the relationship between technology and the conditions under which technology develops. Traditionally, two main accounts are given of this relationship. The social constructivist approach considers technology to be largely determined by ''social'' factors (e.g. military interests, economic policy). By contrast, technological determinism describes technology as self-determinative, and as following its own independent aim of greater efficiency. This paper discusses two alternatives to these conceptions of (...), namely, the accounts offered by Bruno Latour and Martin Heidegger. It examines their common theses that our present misunderstanding of technology is due to a continued commitment to the subject-object distinction. The paper further compares their accounts, which attempt to overcome this distinction, and argues that ultimately both authors fail to find a role for human beings that is consistent with their contention that we need to develop a less anthropocentric understanding of the world. (shrink)
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  31. Lucas D. Introna (2007). Maintaining the Reversibility of Foldings: Making the Ethics (Politics) of Information Technology Visible. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 9 (1):11-25.score: 21.0
    This paper will address the question of the morality of technology. I believe this is an important question for our contemporary society in which technology, especially information technology, is increasingly becoming the default mode of social ordering. I want to suggest that the conventional manner of conceptualising the morality of technology is inadequate – even dangerous. The conventional view of technology is that technology represents technical means to achieve social ends. Thus, the moral problem (...)
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  32. Martin Brigham & Lucas D. Introna (2007). Invoking Politics and Ethics in the Design of Information Technology: Undesigning the Design. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 9 (1):1-10.score: 21.0
    It is a truism that the design and deployment of information and communication technologies is vital to everyday life, the conduct of work and to social order. But how are individual, organisational and societal choices made? What might it mean to invoke a politics and an ethics of information technology design and use? This editorial paper situates these questions within the trajectory of preoccupations and approaches to the design and deployment of information technology since computerisation began in the (...)
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  33. Steven Dorrestijn (2012). Technical Mediation and Subjectivation: Tracing and Extending Foucault's Philosophy of Technology. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Technology 25 (2):221-241.score: 21.0
    This article focuses on tracing and extending Michel Foucault’s contributions to the philosophy of technology. At first sight his work on power seems the most relevant. In his later work on subjectivation and ethics technology is absent. However, notably by recombining Foucault’s work on power with his work on subjectivation, does his work contribute to solving pertinent problems in current approaches to the ethics of technology. First, Foucault’s position is compared to critical theory and Heidegger, and associated (...)
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  34. Philip J. Nickel, Maarten Franssen & Peter Kroes (2010). Can We Make Sense of the Notion of Trustworthy Technology? Knowledge, Technology and Policy 23 (3-4):429-444.score: 21.0
    In this paper we raise the question whether technological artifacts can properly speaking be trusted or said to be trustworthy. First, we set out some prevalent accounts of trust and trustworthiness and explain how they compare with the engineer’s notion of reliability. We distinguish between pure rational-choice accounts of trust, which do not differ in principle from mere judgments of reliability, and what we call “motivation-attributing” accounts of trust, which attribute specific motivations to trustworthy entities. Then we consider some examples (...)
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  35. Anders Albrechtslund (2007). Ethics and Technology Design. Ethics and Information Technology 9 (1):63-72.score: 21.0
    This article offers a discussion of the connection between technology and values and, specifically, I take a closer look at ethically sound design. In order to bring the discussion into a concrete context, the theory of Value Sensitive Design (VSD) will be the focus point. To illustrate my argument concerning design ethics, the discussion involves a case study of an augmented window, designed by the VSD Research Lab, which has turned out to be a potentially surveillance-enabling technology. I (...)
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  36. Kurt Seemann (2003). Basic Principles in Holistic Technology Education. Journal of Technology Education 14 (2):15.score: 21.0
    A school that adopts a curriculum, that aims for a holistic understanding of technology, does so because it produces a better educated person than a curriculum which does not. How do we know when we are teaching technology holistically and why must we do so? Increasingly, more is asked of technology educators to be holistic in the understanding conveyed to learners of technology itself in order to make better informed technical and design decisions in a wider (...)
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  37. Michael T. McFall (2012). Real Character-Friends: Aristotelian Friendship, Living Together, and Technology. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 14 (3):221-230.score: 21.0
    Aristotle’s account of friendship has largely withstood the test of time. Yet there are overlooked elements of his account that, when challenged by apparent threats of current and emerging communication technologies, reveal his account to be remarkably prescient. I evaluate the danger that technological advances in communication pose to the future of friendship by examining and defending Aristotle’s claim that perfect or character-friends must live together. I concede that technologically-mediated communication can aid existing character-friendships, but I argue that character-friendships cannot (...)
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  38. Asle H. Kiran & Peter-Paul Verbeek (2010). Trusting Our Selves to Technology. Knowledge, Technology and Policy 23 (3-4):409-427.score: 21.0
    Trust is a central dimension in the relation between human beings and technologies. In many discourses about technology, the relation between human beings and technologies is conceptualized as an external relation: a relation between pre-given entities that can have an impact on each other but that do not mutually constitute each other. From this perspective, relations of trust can vary between reliance, as is present for instance in technological extensionism, and suspicion, as in various precautionary approaches in ethics that (...)
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  39. Akhlaque Haque (2003). Information Technology, GIS and Democraticvalues: Ethical Implications for ITprofessionals in Public Service. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 5 (1):39-48.score: 21.0
    Information technologies (IT) play a criticalrole in transforming public administration andredefining the role of bureaucracy in ademocratic society. New applications of ITbring great promises for government, but at thesame time raise concerns about administrativepower and its abuse. Using GeographicInformation Systems (GIS) as the centralexample, this paper provides the philosophicalunderpinnings of the role of technology anddiscusses the importance of an ethicaldiscourse in IT for public serviceprofessionals. Such ethical discourse must bebased on upholding the democratic values andpreserving the institutional integrity of (...)
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  40. Kirsten Martin (2012). Information Technology and Privacy: Conceptual Muddles or Privacy Vacuums? [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 14 (4):267-284.score: 21.0
    Within a given conversation or information exchange, do privacy expectations change based on the technology used? Firms regularly require users, customers, and employees to shift existing relationships onto new information technology, yet little is known as about how technology impacts established privacy expectations and norms. Coworkers are asked to use new information technology, users of gmail are asked to use GoogleBuzz, patients and doctors are asked to record health records online, etc. Understanding how privacy expectations change, (...)
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  41. William F. Birdsall (2011). Human Capabilities and Information and Communication Technology: The Communicative Connection. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 13 (2):93-106.score: 21.0
    The potential contributions information and communication technology (ICT) can make to advancing human capabilities are acknowledged by both the capability approach (CA) and ICT communities. However, there is a lack of genuine engagement between the two communities. This paper addresses the question: How can a collaborative dialogue between the CA and ICT communities be advanced? A prerequisite to exploring collaboratively the potential use of particular technologies with specific capabilities is a conceptual framework within which a dialogue can be undertaken (...)
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  42. Joseph C. Pitt (2010). It's Not About Technology. Knowledge, Technology and Policy 23 (3-4):445-454.score: 21.0
    It is argued that the question “Can we trust technology?” is unanswerable because it is open-ended. Only questions about specific issues that can have specific answers should be entertained. It is further argued that the reason the question cannot be answered is that there is no such thing as Technology simpliciter. Fundamentally, the question comes down to trusting people and even then, the question has to be specific about trusting a person to do this or that.
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  43. David M. Wasieleski & Mordechai Gal-Or (2008). An Enquiry Into the Ethical Efficacy of the Use of Radio Frequency Identification Technology. Ethics and Information Technology 10 (1):27-40.score: 21.0
    This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the privacy rights dilemma surrounding radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. As one example of ubiquitous information system, RFID has multitudinous applications in various industries and businesses across society. The use of this technology will have to lead to a policy setting dilemma in that a balance between individuals’ privacy concerns and the benefits that they derive from it must be drawn. After describing the basic RFID technology some of its most (...)
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  44. Yingqin Zheng & Bernd Carsten Stahl (2011). Technology, Capabilities and Critical Perspectives: What Can Critical Theory Contribute to Sen's Capability Approach? [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 13 (2):69-80.score: 21.0
    This paper explores what insights can be drawn from critical theory to enrich and strengthen Sen’s capability approach in relation to technology and human development. The two theories share some important commonalities: both are concerned with the pursuit of “a good life”; both are normative theories rooted in ethics and meant to make a difference, and both are interested in democracy. The paper provides a brief overview of both schools of thought and their applications to technology and human (...)
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  45. Andrew Feenberg (1991). Critical Theory of Technology. Oxford University Press.score: 21.0
    Modern technology is more than a neutral tool: it is the framework of our civilization and shapes our way of life. Social critics claim that we must choose between this way of life and human values. Critical Theory of Technology challenges that pessimistic cliche. This pathbreaking book argues that the roots of the degradation of labor, education, and the environment lie not in technology per se but in the cultural values embodied in its design. Rejecting such popular (...)
     
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  46. Benoit Godin (2002). The Numbers Makers: Fifty Years of Science and Technology Official Statistics. [REVIEW] Minerva 40 (4):375-397.score: 21.0
    Official science and technology statistics arefifty years old. Among industrial countries,the forerunners were the United States, Canadaand Great Britain. This paper traces thedevelopment and the construction of S&Tstatistics in these three countries, and theirsubsequent standardization, mainly by theOECD, in the 1960s. It shows how military andscience policy needs drove the construction ofstatistics, until economic considerations cameto dominate their development. It alsodiscusses how statistics interacted withpolitics by way of studies that documentedgaps between OECD Member countries and betweenthe OECD and (...)
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  47. David Roberts (2012). Technology and Modernity Spengler, Jünger, Heidegger, Cassirer. Thesis Eleven 111 (1):19-35.score: 21.0
    In the crisis scenarios of modernity which flourished in the Weimar Republic, technology is typically seen as destiny or fate. Thus Oswald Spengler and Ernst Jünger both construe the coming struggle for world power in terms of the integration of production and technology in the industrial-military complex. Martin Heidegger’s critique of Jünger’s blueprint for total mobilization in Der Arbeiter (1932) springs from his reading of modernity as nihilism. Just as the crisis of Western history is reaching completion (...)
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  48. Shannon Vallor (2010). Social Networking Technology and the Virtues. Ethics and Information Technology 12 (2):157-170.score: 19.0
    This paper argues in favor of more widespread and systematic applications of a virtue-based normative framework to questions about the ethical impact of information technologies, and social networking technologies in particular. The first stage of the argument identifies several distinctive features of virtue ethics that make it uniquely suited to the domain of IT ethics, while remaining complementary to other normative approaches. I also note its potential to reconcile a number of significant methodological conflicts and debates in the existing literature, (...)
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  49. John Elia (2009). Transparency Rights, Technology, and Trust. Ethics and Information Technology 11 (2):145-153.score: 19.0
    Information theorists often construe new Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) as leveling mechanisms, regulating power relations at a distance by arming stakeholders with information and enhanced agency. Management theorists have claimed that transparency cultivates stakeholder trust, distinguishes a business from its competition, and attracts new clients, investors, and employees, making it key to future growth and prosperity. Synthesizing these claims, we encounter an increasingly common view: If corporations voluntarily adopted new ICTs in order to foster transparency, trust, and growth, while (...)
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  50. Ineke Malsch (2013). The Just War Theory and the Ethical Governance of Research. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (2):461-486.score: 19.0
    This article analyses current trends in and future expectations of nanotechnology and other key enabling technologies for security as well as dual use nanotechnology from the perspective of the ethical Just War Theory (JWT), interpreted as an instrument to increase the threshold for using armed force for solving conflicts. The aim is to investigate the relevance of the JWT to the ethical governance of research. The analysis gives rise to the following results. From the perspective of the JWT, military (...)
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