Search results for 'minimal competence' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Thom Brooks (2007). Equality and Democracy. Ethical Perspectives 14 (1):3-12.
    In a recent article, Thomas Christiano defends the intrinsic justice of democracy grounded in the principle of equal consideration of interests. Each citizen is entitled to a single vote, equal in weight to all other citizens. The problem with this picture is that all citizens must meet a threshold of minimal competence. -/- My argument is that Christiano is wrong to claim a minimum threshold of competency is fully consistent with the principle of equality. While standards of (...) competency may be justifiable, these standards justify political inequality. -/- This paper explores the relationship between equality and democracy in terms of minimal competency, demonstrating how minimal competency is justified and why it is inegalitarian in interesting ways. (shrink)
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  2.  34
    Mark Hanin (2012). Naturalistic Moral Realism and Moral Disagreement: David Copp's Account. Res Publica 18 (4):283-301.
    To enhance the plausibility of naturalistic moral realism, David Copp develops an argument from epistemic defeaters aiming to show that strongly a priori synthetic moral truths do not exist. In making a case for the non-naturalistic position, I locate Copp’s account within the wider literature on peer disagreement; I identify key points of divergence between Copp’s doctrine and conciliatorist doctrines; I introduce the notion of ‘minimal moral competence’; I contend that some plausible benchmarks for minimal moral (...) are grounded in substantive moral considerations; and I discuss two forms of spinelessness that Copp’s moral naturalism could result in. (shrink)
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  3.  41
    Aidan Gray (2016). Minimal Descriptivism. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 7 (2):343-364.
    Call an account of names satisfactionalist if it holds that object o is the referent of name a in virtue of o’s satisfaction of a descriptive condition associated with a. Call an account of names minimally descriptivistif it holds that if a competent speaker finds ‘a=b’ to be informative, then she must associate some information with ‘a’ which she does not associate with ‘b’. The rejection of both positions is part of the Kripkean orthodoxy, and is also built into extant (...)
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  4.  36
    John-Michael Kuczynski (2014). What is Literal Meaning? Communication and Cognition: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly Journal 46 (1-4).
    The meaning of morpheme (a minimal unit of linguistic significance) cannot diverge from what it is taken to mean. But the meaning of a complex expression can diverge without limit from what it is taken to mean, given that the meaning of such an expression is a logical consequence of the meanings of its parts, coupled with the fact that people are not infallible ratiocinators. Nonetheless, given Chomsky’s distinction between competence (ability) and performance (ability to deploy ability), what (...)
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  5.  65
    Tyler Burge (2013). Some Remarks on Putnam's Contributions to Semantics. Theoria 79 (3):229-241.
    After a critical discussion of Putnam's early work on the analytic–synthetic distinction, this article discusses seven contributions that Putnam has made to the philosophy of language. These contributions are (1) to understanding the role of definitions in science and in ordinary discourse; (2) to recognizing the role of stereotypes in explaining meaning; (3) to acknowledging the minimal role of explicative understanding in having linguistic competence with natural kind words; (4) to distinguishing sharply between identifying natural kinds and determining (...)
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  6.  5
    Janet Holmes, Sharon Marsden & Meredith Marra (2013). Doing Listenership: One Aspect of Sociopragmatic Competence at Work. Pragmatics and Society 4 (1):26-53.
    The skills involved in contributing competently in workplace interaction include enacting attentive listenership and providing appropriate feedback to the talk of others. These sociopragmatic skills are often overlooked, and when non-native-like listener feedback does attract attention, cultural differences are commonly cited to account for differences observed. In this paper, we analyse data from recordings made by Chinese skilled migrants in New Zealand workplaces, focussing on their interactions with New Zealand mentors in authentic workplace encounters. We examine the range, frequency and (...)
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  7.  23
    Patricia Hanna (2001). Linguistic Competence and Kripke's Puzzle. Philosophia 28 (1-4):171-189.
    In "A Puzzle About Belief" (_Meaning and Use, A. Margalit (ed.), D. Reidel (1979), pp. 239-283), Saul Kripke argues that linguistic moves to all appearances normal in reporting the beliefs of others can be shown to generate paradox. In this paper, I argue that the supposed paradox is one in appearance only, and that the appearance rests on a covert vacillation in Kripke's paper between two conceptions of linguistic understanding, a weak, or 'minimal' one, and a 'strong' one. Only (...)
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  8.  8
    Giacomo Romano (2011). Minimal Personhood. Iris. European Journal of Philosophy and Public Debate 2 (3):183-195.
    In the following article I present a basic proposal that is intended to provide the ground for a broader program in which I attempt to explain and characterize the foundations of the normativity generally regarded as implicit in the notion of a "person." I intend to argue that these foundations are natural in the sense that they are derived from basic behavioral and cognitive patterns which are particularly characteristic of human beings especially during their infancy. Among these basic patterns I (...)
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  9.  52
    Laura Klaming & Pim Haselager (2013). Did My Brain Implant Make Me Do It? Questions Raised by DBS Regarding Psychological Continuity, Responsibility for Action and Mental Competence. Neuroethics 6 (3):527-539.
    Deep brain stimulation is a well-accepted treatment for movement disorders and is currently explored as a treatment option for various neurological and psychiatric disorders. Several case studies suggest that DBS may, in some patients, influence mental states critical to personality to such an extent that it affects an individual’s personal identity, i.e. the experience of psychological continuity, of persisting through time as the same person. Without questioning the usefulness of DBS as a treatment option for various serious and treatment refractory (...)
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  10. Lisa Miracchi (2015). Competence to Know. Philosophical Studies 172 (1):29-56.
    I argue against traditional virtue epistemology on which knowledge is a success due to a competence to believe truly, by revealing an in-principle problem with the traditional virtue epistemologist’s explanation of Gettier cases. The argument eliminates one of the last plausible explanation of Gettier cases, and so of knowledge, in terms of non-factive mental states and non-mental conditions. I then I develop and defend a different kind of virtue epistemology, on which knowledge is an exercise of a competence (...)
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  11.  80
    Yu-Shan Chen (2008). The Driver of Green Innovation and Green Image – Green Core Competence. Journal of Business Ethics 81 (3):531 - 543.
    This study proposed a novel construct – green core competence – to explore its positive effects on green innovation and green images of firms. The results showed that green core competences of firms were positively correlated to their green innovation performance and green images. In addition, this research also verified two types of green innovation performance had partial mediation effects between green core competences and green images of firms. Therefore, investment in the development of green core competence was (...)
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  12. Stephen Klaidman (1987). The Virtuous Journalist. Oxford University Press.
    This book combines the insights of a seasoned journalist with those of an expert on philsophical ethics to provide a penetrating and comprehensive guide to the ethics of news reporting. It is essential reading for anyone interested in the role the press plays in influencing social, economic, and political choices in modern society. Drawing on a wealth of real-life cases, The Virtuous Journalist melds for the first time a conceptual analysis of the critical moral problems in journalism with a solid (...)
     
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  13.  38
    Thomas Metzinger (2013). Why Are Dreams Interesting for Philosophers? The Example of Minimal Phenomenal Selfhood, Plus an Agenda for Future Research. Frontiers in Psychology 4:746.
    This metatheoretical paper develops a list of new research targets by exploring particularly promising interdisciplinary contact points between empirical dream research and philosophy of mind. The central example is the MPS-problem. It is constituted by the epistemic goal of conceptually isolating and empirically grounding the phenomenal property of “minimal phenomenal selfhood,” which refers to the simplest form of self-consciousness. In order to precisely describe MPS, one must focus on those conditions that are not only causally enabling, but strictly necessary (...)
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  14.  41
    David E. Desplaces, David E. Melchar, Laura L. Beauvais & Susan M. Bosco (2007). The Impact of Business Education on Moral Judgment Competence: An Empirical Study. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 74 (1):73 - 87.
    This study uses theories of moral reasoning and moral competence to investigate how university codes of ethics, perceptions of ethical culture, academic pressure from significant others, and ethics pedagogy are related to the moral development of students. Results suggest that ethical codes and student perceptions of such codes affect their perceptions of the ethical nature of the cultures within these institutions. In addition, faculty and student discussion of ethics in business courses is significantly and positively related to moral (...) among students. Our results point to the need to further examine the connections among academic institutional structures, ethics pedagogy, and students’ moral development. (shrink)
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  15.  54
    Mark Pinder (2014). Borg’s Minimalism and the Problem of Paradox. In Piotr Stalmaszczyk (ed.), Semantics and Beyond: Philosophical and Linguistic Inquiries. De Gruyter 207-230.
    According to Emma Borg, minimalism is (roughly) the view that natural language sentences have truth conditions, and that these truth conditions are fully determined by syntactic structure and lexical content. A principal motivation for her brand of minimalism is that it coheres well with the popular view that semantic competence is underpinned by the cognition of a minimal semantic theory. In this paper, I argue that the liar paradox presents a serious problem for this principal motivation. Two lines (...)
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  16. Sarah Sawyer (ed.) (2009). New Waves in Philosophy of Language. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Machine generated contents note: Notes on ContributorsLinguistic Puzzles and Semantic Pretence--B.Armour-Garb &--J.Woodbridge Minimal Semantics and the Nature of Psychological Evidence--E.BorgA Naturalistic Approach to the Philosophy of Language --J.Collins In Praise of our Linguistic Intuitions--A.EverettPhenomenal Continua and Secondary Properties--P.Greenough Semantic Oughts in Context--A.Hattiangadi Content, Force and Semantic Norms--M.KlbelLinguistic Competence and Propositional Knowledge--G.LongworthExpressives and Beyond--S.PredelliAnalyticity in Externalist Languages --G.Russell Names as Predicates--S.SawyerThe Epistemic Reading of Counterfactual Conditionals--K.Schulz Introduction, Transmission, and the Foundations of Meaning--J.SpeaksIndex.
     
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  17. Andy Clark (1990). Connectionism, Competence and Explanation. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 41 (June):195-222.
    A competence model describes the abstract structure of a solution to some problem. or class of problems, facing the would-be intelligent system. Competence models can be quite derailed, specifying far more than merely the function to be computed. But for all that, they are pitched at some level of abstraction from the details of any particular algorithm or processing strategy which may be said to realize the competence. Indeed, it is the point and virtue of such models (...)
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  18.  25
    Wolfgang Freitag (2013). In Defence of a Minimal Conception of Epistemic Contextualism: A Reply to M. D. Ashfield's Response. [REVIEW] Acta Analytica 28 (1):127-137.
    The article responds to the objections M.D. Ashfield has raised to my recent attempt at saving epistemic contextualism from the knowability problem. First, it shows that Ashfield’s criticisms of my minimal conception of epistemic contextualism, even if correct, cannot reinstate the knowability problem. Second, it argues that these criticisms are based on a misunderstanding of the commitments of my minimal conception. I conclude that there is still no reason to maintain that epistemic contextualism has the knowability problem.
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  19.  21
    Tae-Yeol Kim & Minsoo Kim (2013). Leaders' Moral Competence and Employee Outcomes: The Effects of Psychological Empowerment and Person–Supervisor Fit. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 112 (1):155-166.
    This study examined how leaders’ moral competence is linked to employees’ task performance and organizational citizenship behaviors. Based on a sample of 102 employee–supervisor pairs from seven organizations in South Korea, the results of this study revealed that leaders’ moral competence was positively associated with employees’ task performance and organizational citizenship behaviors toward leaders (OCBS). As expected, employees’ psychological empowerment partially mediated the relationship between leaders’ moral competence and employees’ task performance and OCBS. Furthermore, person–supervisor fit (PS (...)
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  20.  5
    Stella Reiter-Theil, Marcel Mertz, Jan Schürmann, Nicola Stingelin Giles & Barbara Meyer-Zehnder (2011). Evidence – Competence – Discourse: The Theoretical Framework of the Multi-Centre Clinical Ethics Support Project Metap. Bioethics 25 (7):403-412.
    In this paper we assume that ‘theory’ is important for Clinical Ethics Support Services (CESS). We will argue that the underlying implicit theory should be reflected. Moreover, we suggest that the theoretical components on which any clinical ethics support (CES) relies should be explicitly articulated in order to enhance the quality of CES.A theoretical framework appropriate for CES will be necessarily complex and should include ethical (both descriptive and normative), metaethical and organizational components. The various forms of CES that exist (...)
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  21. Oleg Belegradek, Ya'Acov Peterzil & Frank Wagner (2000). Quasi-o-Minimal Structures. Journal of Symbolic Logic 65 (3):1115-1132.
    A structure (M, $ ,...) is called quasi-o-minimal if in any structure elementarily equivalent to it the definable subsets are exactly the Boolean combinations of 0-definable subsets and intervals. We give a series of natural examples of quasi-o-minimal structures which are not o-minimal; one of them is the ordered group of integers. We develop a technique to investigate quasi-o-minimality and use it to study quasi-o-minimal ordered groups (possibly with extra structure). Main results: any quasi-o-minimal ordered (...)
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  22.  96
    Jillian Craigie (2011). Competence, Practical Rationality and What a Patient Values. Bioethics 25 (6):326-333.
    According to the principle of patient autonomy, patients have the right to be self-determining in decisions about their own medical care, which includes the right to refuse treatment. However, a treatment refusal may legitimately be overridden in cases where the decision is judged to be incompetent. It has recently been proposed that in assessments of competence, attention should be paid to the evaluative judgments that guide patients' treatment decisions.In this paper I examine this claim in light of theories of (...)
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  23. Nick Boreham (2004). A Theory of Collective Competence: Challenging the Neo-Liberal Individualisation of Performance at Work. British Journal of Educational Studies 52 (1):5 - 17.
    Contemporary work-related education and training policy represents occupational competence as the outcome of individual performance at work. This paper presents a critique of this neo-liberal assumption, arguing that in many cases competence should be regarded as an attribute of groups, teams and communities. It proposes a theory of collective competence in terms of (1) making collective sense of events in the workplace, (2) developing and using a collective knowledge base and (3) developing a sense of interdependency. It (...)
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  24. Sanneke de Haan & Leon de Bruin (2010). Reconstructing the Minimal Self, or How to Make Sense of Agency and Ownership. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 9 (3):373-396.
    We challenge Gallagher’s distinction between the sense of ownership and the sense of agency as two separable modalities of experience of the minimal self and argue that a careful investigation of the examples provided to promote this distinction in fact reveals that SO and SA are intimately related and modulate each other. We propose a way to differentiate between the various notions of SO and SA that are currently used interchangeably in the debate, and suggest a more gradual reading (...)
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  25.  42
    Gerben Meynen (2011). Depression, Possibilities, and Competence: A Phenomenological Perspective. [REVIEW] Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 32 (3):181-193.
    Competent decision-making is required for informed consent. In this paper, I aim, from a phenomenological perspective, to identify the specific facets of competent decision-making that may form a challenge to depressed patients. On a phenomenological account, mood and emotions are crucial to the way in which human beings encounter the world. More precisely, mood is intimately related to the options and future possibilities we perceive in the world around us. I examine how possibilities should be understood in this context, and (...)
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  26.  18
    Fabian Wendt (2016). Political Authority and the Minimal State. Social Theory and Practice 42 (1):97-122.
    Robert Nozick and Eric Mack have tried to show that a minimal state could be just. A minimal state, they claim, could help to protect people’s moral rights without violating moral rights itself. In this article, I will discuss two challenges for defenders of a minimal state. The first challenge is to show that the just minimal state does not violate moral rights when taxing people and when maintaining a monopoly on the use of force. I (...)
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  27.  14
    Peter Verdée (2009). Adaptive Logics Using the Minimal Abnormality Strategy Are 1 \Pi^11 -Complex. Synthese 167 (1):93 - 104.
    In this article complexity results for adaptive logics using the minimal abnormality strategy are presented. It is proven here that the consequence set of some recursive premise sets is $\Pi _1^1 - complete$ . So, the complexity results in (Horsten and Welch, Synthese 158:41–60,2007) are mistaken for adaptive logics using the minimal abnormality strategy.
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  28.  65
    Fernando Prieto Ramos (2015). Quality Assurance in Legal Translation: Evaluating Process, Competence and Product in the Pursuit of Adequacy. International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 28 (1):11-30.
    Building on a functionalist framework for decision-making in legal translation, a holistic approach to quality is presented in order to respond to the specificities of this field and overcome the shortcomings of general models of translation quality evaluation. The proposed approach connects legal, contextual, macrotextual and microtextual variables for the definition of the translation adequacy strategy, which guides problem-solving and the rest of the translation process. The same parameters remain traceable between the translation brief and the translation product both in (...)
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  29. Luca Moretti (2008). The Ontological Status of Minimal Entities. Philosophical Studies 141 (1):97 - 114.
    Minimal entities are, roughly, those that fall under notions defined by only deflationary principles. In this paper I provide an accurate characterization of two types of minimal entities: minimal properties and minimal facts. This characterization is inspired by both Schiffer's notion of a pleonastic entity and Horwich's notion of minimal truth. I argue that we are committed to the existence of minimal properties and minimal facts according to a deflationary notion of existence, and (...)
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  30.  7
    Irma M. Hein, Pieter W. Troost, Alice Broersma, Martine C. De Vries, Joost G. Daams & Ramón J. L. Lindauer (2015). Why is It Hard to Make Progress in Assessing Children’s Decision-Making Competence? BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):1.
    For decades, the discussion on children’s competence to consent to medical issues has concentrated around normative concerns, with little progress in clinical practices. Decision-making competence is an important condition in the informed consent model. In pediatrics, clinicians need to strike a proper balance in order to both protect children’s interests when they are not fully able to do so themselves and to respect their autonomy when they are. Children’s competence to consent, however, is currently not assessed in (...)
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  31.  30
    Marcello Frixione (2001). Tractable Competence. Minds and Machines 11 (3):379-397.
    In the study of cognitive processes, limitations on computational resources (computing time and memory space) are usually considered to be beyond the scope of a theory of competence, and to be exclusively relevant to the study of performance. Starting from considerations derived from the theory of computational complexity, in this paper I argue that there are good reasons for claiming that some aspects of resource limitations pertain to the domain of a theory of competence.
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  32. J. Alcalde, M. C. Marco-Gil & J. A. Silva, The Minimal Overlap Rule: Restrictions on Mergers for Creditors' Consensus.
    As it is known, there is no rule satisfying Additivity in the complete domain of bankruptcy problems. This paper proposes a notion of partial Additivity in this context, to be called µ-additivity. We find that µ-additivity, together with two quite compelling axioms, anonymity and continuity, identify the Minimal Overlap rule, introduced by Neill (1982).
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  33.  62
    Philippe Chaubet, Enrique Correa Molina & Colette Gervais (2013). Considérations méthodologiques pour aborder la compétence à « réfléchir » ou à « faire réfléchir » sur sa pratique en enseignement. Phronesis 2 (1):28-40.
    Résumé : L’article propose une démarche méthodologique permettant d’identifier la réflexion professionnelle chez des stagiaires en formation à l’enseignement. En effet, la capacité d’analyser sa pratique de façon réflexive est une composante d’une compétence professionnelle à développer selon le Ministère de l’Éducation du Québec. Une certaine forme de réflexion chez les étudiants est donc à acquérir et, du point de vue des tuteurs de stage, à faire acquérir. Quels sont les critères implicites que les enseignants associés des écoles ou les (...)
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  34.  3
    Roberto Fumagalli (2016). Why We Cannot Learn From Minimal Models. Erkenntnis 81 (3):433-455.
    Philosophers of science have developed several accounts of how consideration of scientific models can prompt learning about real-world targets. In recent years, various authors advocated the thesis that consideration of so-called minimal models can prompt learning about such targets. In this paper, I draw on the philosophical literature on scientific modelling and on widely cited illustrations from economics and biology to argue that this thesis fails to withstand scrutiny. More specifically, I criticize leading proponents of such thesis for failing (...)
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  35.  13
    Sander P. K. Welie (2001). Criteria for Patient Decision Making (in)Competence: A Review of and Commentary on Some Empirical Approaches. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 4 (2):139-151.
    The principle of autonomy presupposes Patient Decision Making Competence (PDMC). For a few decades a considerable amount of empirical research has been done into PDMC. In this contribution that research is explored. After a short exposition on four qualities involved in PDMC, different approaches to assess PDMC are distinguished, namely a negative and a positive one. In the negative approach the focus is on identifying psychopathologic conditions that impair sound decision making; the positive one attempts to assess whether a (...)
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  36.  30
    Roberto Fumagalli (forthcoming). Why We Cannot Learn From Minimal Models. Erkenntnis:1-23.
    Philosophers of science have developed several accounts of how consideration of scientific models can prompt learning about real-world targets. In recent years, various authors advocated the thesis that consideration of so-called minimal models can prompt learning about such targets. In this paper, I draw on the philosophical literature on scientific modelling and on widely cited illustrations from economics and biology to argue that this thesis fails to withstand scrutiny. More specifically, I criticize leading proponents of such thesis for failing (...)
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  37.  18
    S. Eriksson, G. Helgesson & A. T. Höglund (2007). Being, Doing, and Knowing: Developing Ethical Competence in Health Care. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 5 (2-4):207-216.
    There is a growing interest in ethical competence-building within nursing and health care practising. This tendency is accompanied by a remarkable growth of ethical guidelines. Ethical demands have also been laid down in laws. Present-day practitioners and researchers in health care are thereby left in a virtual cross-fire of various legislations, codes, and recommendations, all intended to guide behaviour. The aim of this paper was to investigate the role of ethical guidelines in the process of ethical competence-building within (...)
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  38.  21
    Nenad Miščević (2006). Intuitions. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 6 (3):523-548.
    In Devitt’s view, linguistic intuitions are opinions about linguistic production of products, most often one’s own. They result frorn ordinary empirical investigation, so “they are immediate and fairly unreflectiveernpirical central-processor responses to linguistic phenomena”, which reactions are, moreover, theory-laden, where the ‘theory’ encompasses all sorts of speaker’s beliefs. The paper reconstructs his arguments, places his view on a map of alternative approaches to intuitions, and offers a defense of a minimalistic “voice-of-competence” view. First, intuitions are to be identified with (...)
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  39.  4
    Jafar S. Eivazloo & Somayyeh Tari (2016). SCE-Cell Decomposition and OCP in Weakly O-Minimal Structures. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 57 (3):399-410.
    Continuous extension cell decomposition in o-minimal structures was introduced by Simon Andrews to establish the open cell property in those structures. Here, we define strong $\mathrm{CE}$-cells in weakly o-minimal structures, and prove that every weakly o-minimal structure with strong cell decomposition has $\mathrm{SCE}$-cell decomposition if and only if its canonical o-minimal extension has $\mathrm{CE}$-cell decomposition. Then, we show that every weakly o-minimal structure with $\mathrm{SCE}$-cell decomposition satisfies $\mathrm{OCP}$. Our last result implies that every o-minimal (...)
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  40.  6
    Vincent Guingona & Michael C. Laskowski (2013). On VC-Minimal Theories and Variants. Archive for Mathematical Logic 52 (7-8):743-758.
    In this paper, we study VC-minimal theories and explore related concepts. We first define the notion of convex orderablity and show that this lies strictly between VC-minimality and dp-minimality. To do this we prove a general result about set systems with independence dimension ≤ 1. Next, we define the notion of weak VC-minimality, show it lies strictly between VC-minimality and dependence, and show that all unstable weakly VC-minimal theories interpret an infinite linear order. Finally, we define the notion (...)
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  41.  24
    Rebecca J. Hester (2012). The Promise and Paradox of Cultural Competence. HEC Forum 24 (4):279-291.
    Cultural competence has become a ubiquitous and unquestioned aspect of professional formation in medicine. It has been linked to efforts to eliminate race-based health disparities and to train more compassionate and sensitive providers. In this article, I question whether the field of cultural competence lives up to its promise. I argue that it does not because it fails to grapple with the ways that race and racism work in U.S. society today. Unless we change our theoretical apparatus for (...)
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  42.  23
    Eric Vogelstein (2014). Competence and Ability. Bioethics 28 (5):235-244.
    It is nearly universally thought that the kind of decision-making competence that gives one a strong prima facie right to make one's own medical decisions essentially involves having an ability (or abilities) of some sort, or having a certain level or degree of ability (or abilities). When put under philosophical scrutiny, however, this kind of theory does not hold up. I will argue that being competent does not essentially involve abilities, and I will propose and defend a theory of (...)
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  43.  14
    Niklas Möller (2014). All That Jazz: Linguistic Competence and Improvisation. Philosophical Studies 167 (2):237-250.
    Recently, theorists have pointed to the role of improvisation in practical reasoning and in gaining new moral knowledge. Laura and François Schroeter have gone even further by suggesting an account of competence with evaluative terms based on holistic improvisation. I argue, however, that they fail in their task. Through a challenge of their key claim against Allan Gibbard’s alternative account, I demonstrate that Schroeter and Schroeter provide only partial constraints on competence, and thus that their account lacks the (...)
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  44.  18
    Peter Verdée (2009). Adaptive Logics Using the Minimal Abnormality Strategy Are P 1 1 \Pi^1_1 -Complex. Synthese 167 (1):93 - 104.
    In this article complexity results for adaptive logics using the minimal abnormality strategy are presented. It is proven here that the consequence set of some recursive premise sets is $\Pi _1^1 - complete$ . So, the complexity results in (Horsten and Welch, Synthese 158:41–60,2007) are mistaken for adaptive logics using the minimal abnormality strategy.
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  45.  3
    Gerben Meynen (2009). Exploring the Similarities and Differences Between Medical Assessments of Competence and Criminal Responsibility. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (4):443-451.
    The medical assessments of criminal responsibility and competence to consent to treatment are performed, developed and debated in distinct domains. In this paper I try to connect these domains by exploring the similarities and differences between both assessments. In my view, in both assessments a decision-making process is evaluated in relation to the possible influence of a mental disorder on this process. I will argue that, in spite of the relevance of the differences, both practices could benefit from the (...)
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  46.  5
    Chris Miller & James Tyne (2006). Expansions of o-Minimal Structures by Iteration Sequences. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 47 (1):93-99.
    Let P be the ω-orbit of a point under a unary function definable in an o-minimal expansion ℜ of a densely ordered group. If P is monotonically cofinal in the group, and the compositional iterates of the function are cofinal at +\infty in the unary functions definable in ℜ, then the expansion (ℜ, P) has a number of good properties, in particular, every unary set definable in any elementarily equivalent structure is a disjoint union of open intervals and finitely (...)
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  47.  52
    Andrew Davis (2005). Social Externalism and the Ontology of Competence. Philosophical Explorations 8 (3):297-308.
    Social externalism implies that many competences are not personal assets separable from social and cultural environments but complex states of affairs involving individuals and persisting features of social reality. The paper explores the consequences for competence identity over time and across contexts, and hence for the predictive role usually accorded to competences.
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  48.  31
    Sidarta Ribeiro, Angelo Loula, Ivan Araújo, Ricardo Gudwin & Joao Queiroz (2006). Symbols Are Not Uniquely Human. Cogprints.
    Modern semiotics is a branch of logics that formally defines symbol-based communication. In recent years, the semiotic classification of signs has been invoked to support the notion that symbols are uniquely human. Here we show that alarm-calls such as those used by African vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), logically satisfy the semiotic definition of symbol. We also show that the acquisition of vocal symbols in vervet monkeys can be successfully simulated by a computer program based on minimal semiotic and neurobiological (...)
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  49.  75
    Mark Addis (2013). Linguistic Competence and Expertise. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (2):327-336.
    Questions about the relationship between linguistic competence and expertise will be examined in the paper. Harry Collins and others distinguish between ubiquitous and esoteric expertise. Collins places considerable weight on the argument that ordinary linguistic competence and related phenomena exhibit a high degree of expertise. His position and ones which share close affinities are methodologically problematic. These difficulties matter because there is continued and systematic disagreement over appropriate methodologies for the empirical study of expertise. Against Collins, it will (...)
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    Jos V. M. Welie & Sander P. K. Welie (2001). Patient Decision Making Competence: Outlines of a Conceptual Analysis. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 4 (2):127-138.
    In order to protect patients against medical paternalism, patients have been granted the right to respect of their autonomy. This right is operationalized first and foremost through the phenomenon of informed consent. If the patient withholds consent, medical treatment, including life-saving treatment, may not be provided. However, there is one proviso: The patient must be competent to realize his autonomy and reach a decision about his own care that reflects that autonomy. Since one of the most important patient rights hinges (...)
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