Search results for 'model organisms' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Sabina Leonelli & Rachel Ankeny (2011). What’s so Special About Model Organisms? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 42 (2):313-323.score: 180.0
    This paper aims to identify the key characteristics of model organisms that make them a specific type of model within the contemporary life sciences: in particular, we argue that the term “model organism” does not apply to all organisms used for the purposes of experimental research. We explore the differences between experimental and model organisms in terms of their material and epistemic features, and argue that it is essential to distinguish between their representational (...)
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  2. Arnon Levy & Adrian Currie (forthcoming). Model Organisms Are Not (Theoretical) Models. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axt055.score: 148.0
    Many biological investigations are organized around a small group of species, often referred to as ‘model organisms’, such as the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The terms ‘model’ and ‘modelling’ also occur in biology in association with mathematical and mechanistic theorizing, as in the Lotka–Volterra model of predator-prey dynamics. What is the relation between theoretical models and model organisms? Are these models in the same sense? We offer an account on which the two practices are (...)
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  3. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1998). Model Organisms and Behavioral Genetics: A Rejoinder. Philosophy of Science 65 (2):276-288.score: 120.0
    In this rejoinder to the three preceding comments, I provide some additional philosophical warrant for the biomedical sciences' focus on model organisms. I then relate the inquiries on model systems to the concept of 'deep homology', and indicate that the issues that appear to divide my commentators and myself are in part empirical ones. I cite recent work on model organisms, and especially C. elegans that supports my views. Finally, I briefly readdress some of the (...)
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  4. Rachel A. Ankeny (2001). Model Organisms as Models: Understanding the 'Lingua Franca' of the Human Genome Project. Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2001 (3):S251-.score: 120.0
    Through an examination of the actual research strategies and assumptions underlying the Human Genome Project (HGP), it is argued that the epistemic basis of the initial model organism programs is not best understood as reasoning via causal analog models (CAMs). In order to answer a series of questions about what is being modeled and what claims about the models are warranted, a descriptive epistemological method is employed that uses historical techniques to develop detailed accounts which, in turn, help to (...)
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  5. Andrée C. Ehresmann & Jean-Paul Vanbremeersch (2006). The Memory Evolutive Systems as a Model of Rosen's Organisms – (Metabolic, Replication) Systems. Axiomathes 16 (1-2):137-154.score: 96.0
    Robert Rosen has proposed several characteristics to distinguish “simple” physical systems (or “mechanisms”) from “complex” systems, such as living systems, which he calls “organisms”. The Memory Evolutive Systems (MES) introduced by the authors in preceding papers are shown to provide a mathematical model, based on category theory, which satisfies his characteristics of organisms, in particular the merger of the Aristotelian causes. Moreover they identify the condition for the emergence of objects and systems of increasing complexity. As an (...)
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  6. Andrea Loettgers (2007). Model Organisms and Mathematical and Synthetic Models to Explore Gene Regulation Mechanisms. Biological Theory 2 (2):134-142.score: 90.0
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  7. Rachel A. Ankeny & Sabina Leonelli (2011). What's so Special About Model Organisms? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (2):313-323.score: 90.0
  8. Alan C. Love & Michael Travisano (2013). Microbes Modeling Ontogeny. Biology and Philosophy 28 (2):161-188.score: 90.0
    Model organisms are central to contemporary biology and studies of embryogenesis in particular. Biologists utilize only a small number of species to experimentally elucidate the phenomena and mechanisms of development. Critics have questioned whether these experimental models are good representatives of their targets because of the inherent biases involved in their selection (e.g., rapid development and short generation time). A standard response is that the manipulative molecular techniques available for experimental analysis mitigate, if not counterbalance, this concern. But (...)
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  9. Rachel A. Ankeny (forthcoming). Historiographic Reflections on Model Organisms: Or How the Mureaucracy May Be Limiting Our Understanding of Contemporary Genetics and Genomics. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences.score: 90.0
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  10. Mario Looso (2014). Opening the Genetic Toolbox of Niche Model Organisms with High Throughput Techniques: Novel Proteins in Regeneration as a Case Study. Bioessays 36 (4):407-418.score: 90.0
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  11. Joel B. Hagen (2010). A History of Model Organisms. Bioscience 60 (5):389-390.score: 90.0
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  12. David Shuker, Jeremy Lynch & Aitana Peire Morais (2003). Moving From Model to Non-Model Organisms? Lessons fromNasonia Wasps. Bioessays 25 (12):1247-1248.score: 90.0
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  13. John Carson (1999). Research Materials and Model Organisms in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences-Minding Matter/Mattering Mind: Knowledge and the Subject in Nineteenth-Century Psychology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science-Part C 30 (3):345-376.score: 90.0
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  14. Angela N. H. Creager (1999). Research Materials and Model Organisms in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences-'What Blood Told Dr Cohn': World War II, Plasma Fractionation, and the Growth of Human Blood Research. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science-Part C 30 (3):377-406.score: 90.0
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  15. Gerald L. Geison & Angela N. H. Creager (1999). Research Materials and Model Organisms in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences-Introduction: Research Materials and Model Organisms in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science-Part C 30 (3):315-318.score: 90.0
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  16. Karen A. Rader (1999). Research Materials and Model Organisms in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences-Of Mice, Medicine, and Genetics: CC Little's Creation of the Inbred Laboratory Mouse, 1909-1918. [REVIEW] Studies in History and Philosophy of Science-Part C 30 (3):319-344.score: 90.0
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  17. Massimo Pigliucci (2004). Studying the Plasticity of Phenotypic Integration in a Model Organism. In M. Pigliucci K. Preston (ed.), The Evolutionary Biology of Complex Phenotypes. Oxford University Press.score: 84.0
    How to use a model organism to study phenotypic integration and constraints on evolution.
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  18. Sabina Leonelli & Rachel A. Ankeny (2012). Re-Thinking Organisms: The Impact of Databases on Model Organism Biology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 43 (1):29-36.score: 72.0
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  19. Thomas C. Kane, Robert C. Richardson & Daniel W. Fong (1990). The Phenotype as the Level of Selection: Cave Organisms as Model Systems. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:151 - 164.score: 72.0
    Selection operates at many levels. Robert Brandon has distinguished the question of the level of selection from the unit of selection, arguing that the phenotype is commonly the target of selection, whatever the unit of selection might be. He uses "screening off" as a criterion for distinguishing the level of selection. Cave animals show a common morphological pattern which includes hypertrophy of some structures and reduction or loss of others. In a study of a cave dwelling crustacean, Gammarus minus, (...)
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  20. T. Tarockova (1998). The Model of Human Beings as Human Organisms and the Theory of Life Goals. Filozofia 53 (5):322-327.score: 72.0
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  21. Judy Johns Schloegel (1999). From Anomaly to Unification: Tracy Sonneborn and the Species Problem in Protozoa, 1954-1957. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 32 (1):93 - 132.score: 66.0
    This article examines the critique of the biological species concept advanced by protozoan geneticist Tracy Sonneborn at the 1955 AAAS symposium on "the species problem," published subsequently in 1957. Although Sonneborn was a strong proponent of a population genetical conception of species, he became critical of the biological species concept for its failure to incorporate asexual and obligatory inbreeding organisms. It is argued that Sonneborn's intimate knowledge of the ciliate protozoan Paramecium aurelia species complex brought him into conflict with (...)
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  22. Fabian Neuhaus & Barry Smith (2008). Modelling Principles and Methodologies: Relations in Anatomical Ontologies. In Albert Burger, Duncan Davidson & Richard Baldock (eds.), Anatomy Ontologies for Bioinformatics: Principles and Practice. Springer.score: 66.0
    It is now increasingly accepted that many existing biological and medical ontologies can be improved by adopting tools and methods that bring a greater degree of logical and ontological rigor. In this chapter we will focus on the merits of a logically sound approach to ontologies from a methodological point of view. As we shall see, one crucial feature of a logically sound approach is that we have clear and functional definitions of the relational expressions such as ‘is a’ and (...)
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  23. Rony Armon (2012). Between Biochemists and Embryologists - The Biochemical Study of Embryonic Induction in the 1930s. Journal of the History of Biology 45 (1):65 - 108.score: 62.0
    The discovery by Hans Spemann of the “organizer” tissue and its ability to induce the formation of the amphibian embryo's neural tube inspired leading embryologists to attempt to elucidate embryonic inductions’ underlying mechanism. Joseph Needham, who during the 1930s conducted research in biochemical embryology, proposed that embryonic induction is mediated by a specific chemical entity embedded in the inducing tissue, surmising that chemical to be a hormone of sterol-like structure. Along with embryologist Conrad H. Waddington, they conducted research aimed at (...)
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  24. F. Michael Akeroyd (2000). Why Was a Fuzzy Model so Successful in Physical Organic Chemistry? Hyle 6 (2):161 - 173.score: 60.0
    This paper examines a facet of the rise of the Hughes-Ingold Theory of Nucleophilic Substitution in Organic Chemistry 1933-1942, arguing that the SN1/SN2 model of reaction mechanism used by Hughes and Ingold is an example of a fuzzy model. Many real world 'Fuzzy Logic' Controlling Devices gave better results compared to classical logic controlling devices in the period 1975-1985. I propose that the adoption of fuzzy principles in the Hughes-Ingold program 1933-1940 led to scientific advance at a time (...)
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  25. Tanja Rabl & Torsten M. Kühlmann (2008). Understanding Corruption in Organizations – Development and Empirical Assessment of an Action Model. Journal of Business Ethics 82 (2):477 - 495.score: 54.0
    Despite a strong sensitization to the corruption problem and a large body of interdisciplinary research, scientists have only rarely investigated which motivational, volitional, emotional, and cognitive components make decision makers in companies act corruptly. Thus, we examined how their interrelation leads to corruption by proposing an action model. We tested the model using a business simulation game with students as participants. Results of the PLS structural equation modeling showed that both an attitude and subjective norm favoring corruption led (...)
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  26. L. G. & D. M. (2001). The Varied Lives of Organisms: Variation in the Historiography of the Biological Sciences. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 32 (1):1-29.score: 48.0
    This paper emphasizes the crucial role of variation, at several different levels, for a detailed historical understanding of the development of the biomedical sciences. Going beyond valuable recent studies that focus on model organisms, experimental systems and instruments, we argue that all of these categories can be accommodated within our approach, which pays special attention to organismal and cultural variation. Our empirical examples are drawn in particular from recent historical studies of nineteenth- and early twentieth-century genetics and physiology. (...)
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  27. Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic (2011). Significance of Models of Computation, From Turing Model to Natural Computation. Minds and Machines 21 (2):301-322.score: 46.0
    The increased interactivity and connectivity of computational devices along with the spreading of computational tools and computational thinking across the fields, has changed our understanding of the nature of computing. In the course of this development computing models have been extended from the initial abstract symbol manipulating mechanisms of stand-alone, discrete sequential machines, to the models of natural computing in the physical world, generally concurrent asynchronous processes capable of modelling living systems, their informational structures and dynamics on both symbolic and (...)
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  28. Jaegwon Kim (2002). The Layered Model: Metaphysical Considerations. Philosophical Explorations 5 (1):2 – 20.score: 42.0
    This paper examines the idea, commonly presupposed but seldom explicitly stated in discussions of certain philosophical problems, that the objects and phenomena of the world are structured in a hierarchy of "levels", from the bottom level of microparticles to the levels of cells and biological organisms and then to the levels of creatures with mentality and social groups of such creatures. Parallel to this "layered model" of the natural world is an ordering of the sciences, with physics as (...)
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  29. Richard Campbell (2009). A Process-Based Model for an Interactive Ontology. Synthese 166 (3):453 - 477.score: 42.0
    The paper proposes a process-based model for an ontology that encompasses the emergence of process systems generated by increasingly complex levels of organization. Starting with a division of processes into those that are persistent and those that are fleeting, the model builds through a series of exclusive and exhaustive disjunctions. The crucial distinction is between those persistent and cohesive systems that are energy wells, and those that are far-from-equilibrium. The latter are necessarily open; they can persist only by (...)
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  30. V. Csanyi (1987). The Replicative Model of Evolution: A General Theory. World Futures 23 (1):31-65.score: 42.0
    Formulation of a general model of evolution is presented which is based upon the recognition of the ?biosocial? entity, that is the biosphere and human society, as a component?system. It can be demonstrated that the interactions of the components (moleculas, cells, organisms, ecosystems in the biological realms and people, artifacts and ideas in the societies) have replicative organization. We suggest an explanation for the spontaneous emergence of replicative function and organization, a process called autogenesis. During autogenesis, hierarchical levels (...)
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  31. Almo Farina (2008). The Landscape as a Semiotic Interface Between Organisms and Resources. Biosemiotics 1 (1):75-83.score: 42.0
    Despite an impressive number of investigations and indirect evidence, the mechanisms that link patterns and processes across the landscape remain a debated point. A new definition of landscape as a semiotic interface between resources and organisms opens up a new perspective to a better understanding of such mechanisms. If the landscape is considered a source of signals converted by animal cognition into signs, it follows that spatial configurations, extension, shape and contagion are not only landscape patterns but categories of (...)
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  32. Athel Cornish-Bowden, Gabriel Piedrafita, Federico Morán, María Luz Cárdenas & Francisco Montero (2013). Simulating a Model of Metabolic Closure. Biological Theory 8 (4):383-390.score: 42.0
    The goal of synthetic biology is to create artificial organisms. To achieve this it is essential to understand what life is. Metabolism-replacement systems, or (M, R)-systems, constitute a theory of life developed by Robert Rosen, characterized in the statement that organisms are closed to efficient causation, which means that they must themselves produce all the catalysts they need. This theory overlaps in part with other current theories, including autopoiesis, the chemoton, and autocatalytic sets, all of them invoking some (...)
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  33. W. Edward Stead, Dan L. Worrell & Jean Garner Stead (1990). An Integrative Model for Understanding and Managing Ethical Behavior in Business Organizations. Journal of Business Ethics 9 (3):233 - 242.score: 40.0
    Managing ethical behavior is a one of the most pervasive and complex problems facing business organizations today. Employees' decisions to behave ethically or unethically are influenced by a myriad of individual and situational factors. Background, personality, decision history, managerial philosophy, and reinforcement are but a few of the factors which have been identified by researchers as determinants of employees' behavior when faced with ethical dilemmas. The literature related to ethical behavior is reviewed in this article, and a model for (...)
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  34. Chris Robertson & Paul A. Fadil (1999). Ethical Decision Making in Multinational Organizations: A Culture-Based Model. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 19 (4):385 - 392.score: 40.0
    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between national culture and ethical decision making. Established theories of ethics and moral development are reviewed and a culture-based model of ethical decision making in organizations is derived. Although the body of knowledge in both cross-cultural management and ethics is well documented, researchers have failed to integrate the influence of cultural values into the ethical decision-making paradigm. A conceptual understanding of how managers from different nations make decisions about highly (...)
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  35. J. Scott Jordan (2000). The Role of "Control" in an Embodied Cognition. Philosophical Psychology 13 (2):233 – 237.score: 36.0
    Borrett, Kelly, and Kwan follow the lead of Merleau-Ponty and develop a theory of neural-network modeling that emerges out of what they find wrong with current approaches to thought and action. Specifically, they take issue with "cognitivism" and its tendency to model cognitive agents as controlling, representational systems. While attempting to make the point that pre-predicative experience/action/place (i.e. grasping) involves neither representation nor control, the authors imply that control-theoretic concepts and representationalism necessarily go hand-in-hand. The purpose of the present (...)
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  36. Rachel A. Ankeny (2000). Fashioning Descriptive Models in Biology: Of Worms and Wiring Diagrams. Philosophy of Science 67 (3):272.score: 36.0
    The biological sciences have become increasingly reliant on so-called 'model organisms'. I argue that in this domain, the concept of a descriptive model is essential for understanding scientific practice. Using a case study, I show how such a model was formulated in a preexplanatory context for subsequent use as a prototype from which explanations ultimately may be generated both within the immediate domain of the original model and in additional, related domains. To develop this concept (...)
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  37. Tim Lewens (2002). Adaptationism and Engineering. Biology and Philosophy 17 (1):1-31.score: 36.0
    The rights and wrongs of adaptationism areoften discussed by appeal to what I call theartefact model. Anti-adaptationistscomplain that the use of optimality modelling,reverse engineering and other techniques areindicative of a mistaken and outmoded beliefthat organisms are like well-designedartefacts. Adaptationists (e.g. Dennett 1995)respond with the assertion that viewingorganisms as though they were well designed isa fruitful, perhaps necessary research strategyin evolutionary biology. Anti-adaptationistsare right when they say that techniques likereverse engineering are liable to mislead. This fact does not undermine (...)
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  38. Joshua B. Tenenbaum & Thomas L. Griffiths (2001). Generalization, Similarity, and Bayesian Inference. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (4):629-640.score: 36.0
    Shepard has argued that a universal law should govern generalization across different domains of perception and cognition, as well as across organisms from different species or even different planets. Starting with some basic assumptions about natural kinds, he derived an exponential decay function as the form of the universal generalization gradient, which accords strikingly well with a wide range of empirical data. However, his original formulation applied only to the ideal case of generalization from a single encountered stimulus to (...)
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  39. Susan J. Harrington (1997). A Test of a Person -- Issue Contingent Model of Ethical Decision Making in Organizations. Journal of Business Ethics 16 (4):363-375.score: 34.0
    Despite the existence of a large number of models to explain the ethical decision-making process, rarely have the models been tested. This research validated the use of such models by showing that both issue-contingent variables and individual characteristics affect two commonly-proposed model components: i.e., moral judgment and moral intent. As proposed by Jones' (1991) ethical decision-making model and elaborated on by the author, the main effect of an issue-contingent variable, social consensus, and a closely-related variable, seriousness of consequences, (...)
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  40. Lu Tang (2008). An Integral Model of Collective Action in Organizations and Beyond. Journal of Business Ethics 80 (2):249 - 261.score: 34.0
    While a large amount of work has been done to understand public good and to construct conceptual models explaining the antecedents of collective action, current literature is flawed in that most of them only examine the lower-level public good and attribute people's participation in collective action to external variables. It pays little to the developmental nature of collective action. Utilizing Ken Wilber's theory of integral psychology, this paper proposes a holistic definition of public good, emphasizing its different levels of development. (...)
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  41. E. Günter Schumacher & David M. Wasieleski (2013). Erratum To: Institutionalizing Ethical Innovation in Organizations: An Integrated Causal Model of Moral Innovation Decision Processes. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 113 (1):181-182.score: 32.0
    This article answers several calls—coming as well from corporate governance practitioners as from corporate governance researchers—concerning the possibility of complying simultaneously with requirements of innovation and ethics. Revealing the long-term orientation as the variable which permits us to link the principal goal of organization, being “survival,” with innovation and ethic, the article devises a framework for incorporating ethics into a company’s processes and strategies for innovation. With the principal goal of organizations being “survival” in the long-term, it is assumed that (...)
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  42. Ralph W. Jackson, Charles M. Wood & James J. Zboja (2013). The Dissolution of Ethical Decision-Making in Organizations: A Comprehensive Review and Model. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 116 (2):233-250.score: 32.0
    The purpose of this research is to present the major factors that lead to ethical dissolution in an organization. Specifically, drawing from a wide spectrum of sources, this study explores the impact of organizational, individual, and contextual factors that converge to contribute to ethical dissolution. Acknowledging that ethical decisions are, in the final analysis, made by individuals, this study presents a model of ethical dissolution that gives insight into how a variety of elements coalesce to draw individuals into decisions (...)
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  43. Bella L. Galperin, Rebecca J. Bennett & Karl Aquino (2011). Status Differentiation and the Protean Self: A Social-Cognitive Model of Unethical Behavior in Organizations. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 98 (3):407 - 424.score: 32.0
    Based on social-cognitive theory, this article proposes a model that seeks to explain why high status organizational members engage in unethical behavior. We argue that status differentiation in organizations creates social isolation which initiates activation of high status group identity and a deactivation of moral identity. We further argue that high status group identity results in insensitivity to the needs of out-group members which, in turn, results in lessened motivation to selfregulate ethical decision making. As a result of this (...)
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  44. Jay Odenbaugh, Models in Biology.score: 30.0
    In recent years, there has much attention given by philosophers to the ubiquitous role of models and modeling in the biological sciences. Philosophical debates has focused on several areas of discussion. First, what are models in the biological sciences? The term ‘model’ is applied to mathematical structures, graphical displays, computer simulations, and even concrete organisms. Is there an account which unifies these disparate structures? Second, scientists routinely distinguish between theories and models; however, this distinction is more difficult to (...)
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  45. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2008). Theories, Models, and Equations in Biology: The Heuristic Search for Emergent Simplifications in Neurobiology. Philosophy of Science 75 (5):1008-1021.score: 30.0
    This article considers claims that biology should seek general theories similar to those found in physics but argues for an alternative framework for biological theories as collections of prototypical interlevel models that can be extrapolated by analogy to different organisms. This position is exemplified in the development of the Hodgkin‐Huxley giant squid model for action potentials, which uses equations in specialized ways. This model is viewed as an “emergent unifier.” Such unifiers, which require various simplifications, involve the (...)
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  46. Ron Chrisley & J. Parthemore (2007). Synthetic Phenomenology:Exploiting Embodiment to Specify the Non-Conceptual Content of Visual Experience. Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (7):44-58.score: 30.0
    Not all research in machine consciousness aims to instantiate phenomenal states in artefacts. For example, one can use artefacts that do not themselves have phenomenal states, merely to simulate or model organisms that do. Nevertheless, one might refer to all of these pursuits -- instantiating, simulating or modelling phenomenal states in an artefact -- as 'synthetic phenomenality'. But there is another way in which artificial agents (be they simulated or real) may play a crucial role in understanding or (...)
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  47. Marcel Weber (forthcoming). Experimental Modeling in Biology: In Vivo Representation and Stand-Ins As Modeling Strategies. Philosophy of Science.score: 30.0
    Experimental modeling in biology involves the use of living organisms (not necessarily so-called "model organisms") in order to model or simulate biological processes. I argue here that experimental modeling is a bona fide form of scientific modeling that plays an epistemic role that is distinct from that of ordinary biological experiments. What distinguishes them from ordinary experiments is that they use what I call "in vivo representations" where one kind of causal process is used to stand (...)
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  48. Alan C. Love (2007). Functional Homology and Homology of Function: Biological Concepts and Philosophical Consequences. Biology and Philosophy 22 (5):691-708.score: 30.0
    “Functional homology” appears regularly in different areas of biological research and yet it is apparently a contradiction in terms—homology concerns identity of structure regardless of form and function. I argue that despite this conceptual tension there is a legitimate conception of ‘homology of function’, which can be recovered by utilizing a distinction from pre-Darwinian physiology (use versus activity) to identify an appropriate meaning of ‘function’. This account is directly applicable to molecular developmental biology and shares a connection to the theme (...)
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  49. Börje Ekstig (2010). Complexity and Evolution: A Study of the Growth of Complexity in Organic and Cultural Evolution. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 15 (3):263-278.score: 30.0
    In the present paper I develop a model of the evolutionary process associated to the widespread although controversial notion of a prevailing trend of increasing complexity over time. The model builds on a coupling of evolution to individual developmental programs and introduces an integrated view of evolution implying that human culture and science form a continuous extension of organic evolution. It is formed as a mathematical model that has made possible a quantitative estimation in relative terms of (...)
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  50. Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers (2011). Causal Isolation Robustness Analysis: The Combinatorial Strategy of Circadian Clock Research. Biology and Philosophy 26 (5):773-791.score: 30.0
    This paper distinguishes between causal isolation robustness analysis and independent determination robustness analysis and suggests that the triangulation of the results of different epistemic means or activities serves different functions in them. Circadian clock research is presented as a case of causal isolation robustness analysis: in this field researchers made use of the notion of robustness to isolate the assumed mechanism behind the circadian rhythm. However, in contrast to the earlier philosophical case studies on causal isolation robustness analysis (Weisberg and (...)
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