Search results for 'model organisms' (try it on Scholar)

1000+ found
Order:
  1.  92
    Sabina Leonelli & Rachel Ankeny (2011). What’s so Special About Model Organisms? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 42 (2):313-323.
    This paper aims to identify the key characteristics of model organisms that make them a specific type of model within the contemporary life sciences: in particular, we argue that the term “model organism” does not apply to all organisms used for the purposes of experimental research. We explore the differences between experimental and model organisms in terms of their material and epistemic features, and argue that it is essential to distinguish between their representational (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   21 citations  
  2. Alan C. Love (2009). Marine Invertebrates, Model Organisms, and the Modern Synthesis: Epistemic Values, Evo-Devo, and Exclusion. Theory in Biosciences 128:19–42.
    A central reason that undergirds the significance of evo-devo is the claim that development was left out of the Modern synthesis. This claim turns out to be quite complicated, both in terms of whether development was genuinely excluded and how to understand the different kinds of embryological research that might have contributed. The present paper reevaluates this central claim by focusing on the practice of model organism choice. Through a survey of examples utilized in the literature of the Modern (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  3. Arnon Levy & Adrian Currie (2015). Model Organisms Are Not Models. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (2):327-348.
    Many biological investigations are organized around a small group of species, often referred to as ‘model organisms’, such as the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The terms ‘model’ and ‘modelling’ also occur in biology in association with mathematical and mechanistic theorizing, as in the Lotka–Volterra model of predator-prey dynamics. What is the relation between theoretical models and model organisms? Are these models in the same sense? We offer an account on which the two practices are (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   6 citations  
  4.  39
    Rachel A. Ankeny & Sabina Leonelli (2011). What's so Special About Model Organisms? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (2):313-323.
    This paper aims to identify the key characteristics of model organisms that make them a specific type of model within the contemporary life sciences: in particular, we argue that the term “model organism” does not apply to all organisms used for the purposes of experimental research. We explore the differences between experimental and model organisms in terms of their material and epistemic features, and argue that it is essential to distinguish between their representational (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   9 citations  
  5. Rachel A. Ankeny (2001). Model Organisms as Models: Understanding the 'Lingua Franca' of the Human Genome Project. Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2001 (3):S251-.
    Through an examination of the actual research strategies and assumptions underlying the Human Genome Project (HGP), it is argued that the epistemic basis of the initial model organism programs is not best understood as reasoning via causal analog models (CAMs). In order to answer a series of questions about what is being modeled and what claims about the models are warranted, a descriptive epistemological method is employed that uses historical techniques to develop detailed accounts which, in turn, help to (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   14 citations  
  6.  29
    Andrea Loettgers (2007). Model Organisms and Mathematical and Synthetic Models to Explore Gene Regulation Mechanisms. Biological Theory 2 (2):134-142.
    Gene regulatory networks are intensively studied in biology. One of the main aims of these studies is to gain an understanding of how the structure of genetic networks relates to specific functions such as chemotaxis and the circadian clock. Scientists have examined this question by using model organisms such as Drosophila and mathematical models. In the last years, synthetic models—engineered genetic networks—have become more and more important in the exploration of gene regulation. What is the potential of this (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   6 citations  
  7.  73
    Kenneth F. Schaffner (1998). Model Organisms and Behavioral Genetics: A Rejoinder. Philosophy of Science 65 (2):276-288.
    In this rejoinder to the three preceding comments, I provide some additional philosophical warrant for the biomedical sciences' focus on model organisms. I then relate the inquiries on model systems to the concept of 'deep homology', and indicate that the issues that appear to divide my commentators and myself are in part empirical ones. I cite recent work on model organisms, and especially C. elegans that supports my views. Finally, I briefly readdress some of the (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  8.  11
    Rachel A. Ankeny (forthcoming). Historiographic Reflections on Model Organisms: Or How the Mureaucracy May Be Limiting Our Understanding of Contemporary Genetics and Genomics. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences.
  9. Rachel A. Ankeny (2001). Model Organisms as Models: Understanding the 'Lingua Franca' of the Human Genome Project. Philosophy of Science 68 (S3):S251-S261.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   7 citations  
  10.  3
    Mario Looso (2014). Opening the Genetic Toolbox of Niche Model Organisms with High Throughput Techniques: Novel Proteins in Regeneration as a Case Study. Bioessays 36 (4):407-418.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  11.  2
    David Shuker, Jeremy Lynch & Aitana Peire Morais (2003). Moving From Model to Non-Model Organisms? Lessons fromNasonia Wasps. Bioessays 25 (12):1247-1248.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  12. John Carson (1999). Research Materials and Model Organisms in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences-Minding Matter/Mattering Mind: Knowledge and the Subject in Nineteenth-Century Psychology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 30 (3):345-376.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  13. Angela N. H. Creager (1999). Research Materials and Model Organisms in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences-'What Blood Told Dr Cohn': World War II, Plasma Fractionation, and the Growth of Human Blood Research. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 30 (3):377-406.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  14. Gerald L. Geison & Angela N. H. Creager (1999). Research Materials and Model Organisms in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences-Introduction: Research Materials and Model Organisms in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 30 (3):315-318.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  15. Karen A. Rader (1999). Research Materials and Model Organisms in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences-Of Mice, Medicine, and Genetics: CC Little's Creation of the Inbred Laboratory Mouse, 1909-1918. [REVIEW] Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 30 (3):319-344.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  16.  49
    Andrée C. Ehresmann & Jean-Paul Vanbremeersch (2006). The Memory Evolutive Systems as a Model of Rosen's Organisms – (Metabolic, Replication) Systems. Axiomathes 16 (1-2):137-154.
    Robert Rosen has proposed several characteristics to distinguish “simple” physical systems (or “mechanisms”) from “complex” systems, such as living systems, which he calls “organisms”. The Memory Evolutive Systems (MES) introduced by the authors in preceding papers are shown to provide a mathematical model, based on category theory, which satisfies his characteristics of organisms, in particular the merger of the Aristotelian causes. Moreover they identify the condition for the emergence of objects and systems of increasing complexity. As an (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  17.  33
    Sabina Leonelli & Rachel A. Ankeny (2012). Re-Thinking Organisms: The Impact of Databases on Model Organism Biology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 43 (1):29-36.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  18.  3
    Sabina Leonelli & Rachel A. Ankeny (2012). Re-Thinking Organisms: The Impact of Databases on Model Organism Biology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43 (1):29-36.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  19.  3
    Rachel A. Ankeny, Sabina Leonelli, Nicole C. Nelson & Edmund Ramsden (2014). Making Organisms Model Human Behavior: Situated Models in North-American Alcohol Research, Since 1950. Science in Context 27 (3):485-509.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  20.  2
    Thomas C. Kane, Robert C. Richardson & Daniel W. Fong (1990). The Phenotype as the Level of Selection: Cave Organisms as Model Systems. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:151-164.
    Selection operates at many levels. Robert Brandon has distinguished the question of the level of selection from the unit of selection, arguing that the phenotype is commonly the target of selection, whatever the unit of selection might be. He uses "screening off" as a criterion for distinguishing the level of selection. Cave animals show a common morphological pattern which includes hypertrophy of some structures and reduction or loss of others. In a study of a cave dwelling crustacean, Gammarus minus, we (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  21. Teruhiko Suzuki, Shiho Nobesawa & Ikuo Tahara (2009). Tree-Structured Digital Organisms Model. Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence 24:178-190.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  22. T. Tarockova (1998). The Model of Human Beings as Human Organisms and the Theory of Life Goals. Filozofia 53 (5):322-327.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  23. Massimo Pigliucci (2004). Studying the Plasticity of Phenotypic Integration in a Model Organism. In M. Pigliucci K. Preston (ed.), The Evolutionary Biology of Complex Phenotypes. Oxford University Press
    How to use a model organism to study phenotypic integration and constraints on evolution.
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  24.  9
    Alan C. Love & Michael Travisano (2013). Microbes Modeling Ontogeny. Biology and Philosophy 28 (2):161-188.
    Model organisms are central to contemporary biology and studies of embryogenesis in particular. Biologists utilize only a small number of species to experimentally elucidate the phenomena and mechanisms of development. Critics have questioned whether these experimental models are good representatives of their targets because of the inherent biases involved in their selection (e.g., rapid development and short generation time). A standard response is that the manipulative molecular techniques available for experimental analysis mitigate, if not counterbalance, this concern. But (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  25.  43
    Gillian Barker, Eric Desjardins & Trevor Pearce (eds.) (2014). Entangled Life: Organism and Environment in the Biological and Social Sciences. Springer.
    Despite the burgeoning interest in new and more complex accounts of the organism-environment dyad by biologists and philosophers, little attention has been paid in the resulting discussions to the history of these ideas and to their deployment in disciplines outside biology—especially in the social sciences. Even in biology and philosophy, there is a lack of detailed conceptual models of the organism-environment relationship. This volume is designed to fill these lacunae by providing the first multidisciplinary discussion of the topic of organism-environment (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  26.  5
    Judy Johns Schloegel (1999). From Anomaly to Unification: Tracy Sonneborn and the Species Problem in Protozoa, 1954-1957. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 32 (1):93 - 132.
    This article examines the critique of the biological species concept advanced by protozoan geneticist Tracy Sonneborn at the 1955 AAAS symposium on "the species problem," published subsequently in 1957. Although Sonneborn was a strong proponent of a population genetical conception of species, he became critical of the biological species concept for its failure to incorporate asexual and obligatory inbreeding organisms. It is argued that Sonneborn's intimate knowledge of the ciliate protozoan Paramecium aurelia species complex brought him into conflict with (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  27.  5
    James Griesemer (2013). Integration of Approaches in David Wake’s Model-Taxon Research Platform for Evolutionary Morphology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):525-536.
    What gets integrated in integrative scientific practices has been a topic of much discussion. Traditional views focus on theories and explanations, with ideas of reduction and unification dominating the conversation. More recent ideas focus on disciplines, fields, or specialties; models, mechanisms, or methods; phenomena, problems. How integration works looks different on each of these views since the objects of integration are ontologically and epistemically various: statements, boundary conditions, practices, protocols, methods, variables, parameters, domains, laboratories, and questions all have their own (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  28.  10
    Gerald L. Geison & Manfred D. Laubichler (2001). The Varied Lives of Organisms: Variation in the Historiography of the Biological Sciences. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 32 (1):1-29.
    This paper emphasizes the crucial role of variation, at several different levels, for a detailed historical understanding of the development of the biomedical sciences. Going beyond valuable recent studies that focus on model organisms, experimental systems and instruments, we argue that all of these categories can be accommodated within our approach, which pays special attention to organismal and cultural variation. Our empirical examples are drawn in particular from recent historical studies of nineteenth- and early twentieth-century genetics and physiology. (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   9 citations  
  29.  5
    Rony Armon (2012). Between Biochemists and Embryologists - The Biochemical Study of Embryonic Induction in the 1930s. Journal of the History of Biology 45 (1):65 - 108.
    The discovery by Hans Spemann of the “organizer” tissue and its ability to induce the formation of the amphibian embryo's neural tube inspired leading embryologists to attempt to elucidate embryonic inductions’ underlying mechanism. Joseph Needham, who during the 1930s conducted research in biochemical embryology, proposed that embryonic induction is mediated by a specific chemical entity embedded in the inducing tissue, surmising that chemical to be a hormone of sterol-like structure. Along with embryologist Conrad H. Waddington, they conducted research aimed at (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  30.  20
    Fabian Neuhaus & Barry Smith (2008). Modelling Principles and Methodologies: Relations in Anatomical Ontologies. In Albert Burger, Duncan Davidson & Richard Baldock (eds.), Anatomy Ontologies for Bioinformatics: Principles and Practice. Springer
    It is now increasingly accepted that many existing biological and medical ontologies can be improved by adopting tools and methods that bring a greater degree of logical and ontological rigor. In this chapter we will focus on the merits of a logically sound approach to ontologies from a methodological point of view. As we shall see, one crucial feature of a logically sound approach is that we have clear and functional definitions of the relational expressions such as ‘is a’ and (...)
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  31.  10
    Andrew S. Yang (2007). Thinking Outside the Embryo: The Superorganism as a Model for EvoDevo Studies. Biological Theory 2 (4):398-408.
    Traditional model systems such as fly, mouse, and chick have formed the foundation of the EvoDevo research program. These animal systems have provided a wealth of information on the patterns and mechanisms of developmental change over large phylogenetic scales. However, the almost exclusive focus on individual embryos as model organisms has also limited the field’s ability to address the central roles that natural selection and life history adaptation play in the evolution of developmental systems. Likewise, focus on (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  32. L. G. & D. M. (2001). The Varied Lives of Organisms: Variation in the Historiography of the Biological Sciences. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 32 (1):1-29.
    This paper emphasizes the crucial role of variation, at several different levels, for a detailed historical understanding of the development of the biomedical sciences. Going beyond valuable recent studies that focus on model organisms, experimental systems and instruments, we argue that all of these categories can be accommodated within our approach, which pays special attention to organismal and cultural variation. Our empirical examples are drawn in particular from recent historical studies of nineteenth- and early twentieth-century genetics and physiology. (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  33. Jaegwon Kim (2002). The Layered Model: Metaphysical Considerations. Philosophical Explorations 5 (1):2 – 20.
    This paper examines the idea, commonly presupposed but seldom explicitly stated in discussions of certain philosophical problems, that the objects and phenomena of the world are structured in a hierarchy of "levels", from the bottom level of microparticles to the levels of cells and biological organisms and then to the levels of creatures with mentality and social groups of such creatures. Parallel to this "layered model" of the natural world is an ordering of the sciences, with physics as (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   19 citations  
  34.  13
    Peter Godfrey-Smith (2014). Sender-Receiver Systems Within and Between Organisms. Philosophy of Science 81 (5):866-878.
    Drawing on models of communication due to Lewis and Skyrms, I contrast sender-receiver systems as they appear within and between organisms, and as they function in the bridging of space and time. Within the organism, memory can be seen as the sending of messages over time, communication between stages as opposed to spatial parts. Psychological memory and genetic memory are compared with respect to their relations to a sender-receiver model. Some puzzles about “genetic information” can be resolved by (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  35.  62
    Richard Campbell (2009). A Process-Based Model for an Interactive Ontology. Synthese 166 (3):453 - 477.
    The paper proposes a process-based model for an ontology that encompasses the emergence of process systems generated by increasingly complex levels of organization. Starting with a division of processes into those that are persistent and those that are fleeting, the model builds through a series of exclusive and exhaustive disjunctions. The crucial distinction is between those persistent and cohesive systems that are energy wells, and those that are far-from-equilibrium. The latter are necessarily open; they can persist only by (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   9 citations  
  36.  24
    V. Csanyi (1987). The Replicative Model of Evolution: A General Theory. World Futures 23 (1):31-65.
    Formulation of a general model of evolution is presented which is based upon the recognition of the ?biosocial? entity, that is the biosphere and human society, as a component?system. It can be demonstrated that the interactions of the components (moleculas, cells, organisms, ecosystems in the biological realms and people, artifacts and ideas in the societies) have replicative organization. We suggest an explanation for the spontaneous emergence of replicative function and organization, a process called autogenesis. During autogenesis, hierarchical levels (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   26 citations  
  37.  12
    Athel Cornish-Bowden, Gabriel Piedrafita, Federico Morán, María Luz Cárdenas & Francisco Montero (2013). Simulating a Model of Metabolic Closure. Biological Theory 8 (4):383-390.
    The goal of synthetic biology is to create artificial organisms. To achieve this it is essential to understand what life is. Metabolism-replacement systems, or (M, R)-systems, constitute a theory of life developed by Robert Rosen, characterized in the statement that organisms are closed to efficient causation, which means that they must themselves produce all the catalysts they need. This theory overlaps in part with other current theories, including autopoiesis, the chemoton, and autocatalytic sets, all of them invoking some (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  38.  81
    Alfred Gierer (2012). The Hydra Model - a Model for What? International Journal of Developmental Biology 56:437-445.
    The introductory personal remarks refer to my motivations for choosing research projects, and for moving from physics to molecular biology and then to development, with Hydra as a model system. Historically, Trembley’s discovery of Hydra regeneration in 1744 was the begin¬ning of developmental biology as we understand it, with passionate debates about preformation versus de novo generation, mechanisms versus organisms. In fact, seemingly conflicting bottom-up and top-down concepts are both required in combination to understand development. In modern terms, (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  39.  48
    Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic (2011). Significance of Models of Computation, From Turing Model to Natural Computation. Minds and Machines 21 (2):301-322.
    The increased interactivity and connectivity of computational devices along with the spreading of computational tools and computational thinking across the fields, has changed our understanding of the nature of computing. In the course of this development computing models have been extended from the initial abstract symbol manipulating mechanisms of stand-alone, discrete sequential machines, to the models of natural computing in the physical world, generally concurrent asynchronous processes capable of modelling living systems, their informational structures and dynamics on both symbolic and (...)
    Direct download (17 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  40.  6
    Almo Farina (2008). The Landscape as a Semiotic Interface Between Organisms and Resources. Biosemiotics 1 (1):75-83.
    Despite an impressive number of investigations and indirect evidence, the mechanisms that link patterns and processes across the landscape remain a debated point. A new definition of landscape as a semiotic interface between resources and organisms opens up a new perspective to a better understanding of such mechanisms. If the landscape is considered a source of signals converted by animal cognition into signs, it follows that spatial configurations, extension, shape and contagion are not only landscape patterns but categories of (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  41.  15
    Jamie Cohen-Cole (2005). The Reflexivity of Cognitive Science: The Scientist as Model of Human Nature. History of the Human Sciences 18 (4):107-139.
    This article examines how experimental psychology experienced a revolution as cognitive science replaced behaviorism in the mid-20th century. This transition in the scientific account of human nature involved making normal what had once been normative: borrowing ideas of democratic thinking from political culture and conceptions of good thinking from philosophy of science to describe humans as active, creatively thinking beings, rather than as organisms that simply respond to environmental conditions. Reflexive social and intellectual practices were central to this process (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  42.  4
    Guido Caniglia (2015). Understanding Societies From Inside the Organisms. Leo Pardi’s Work on Social Dominance in Polistes Wasps. Journal of the History of Biology 48 (3):455-486.
    Leo Pardi was the initiator of ethological research in Italy. During more than 50 years of active scientific career, he gave groundbreaking contributions to the understanding of social life in insects, especially in Polistes wasps, an important model organism in sociobiology. In the 1940s, Pardi showed that Polistes societies are organized in a linear social hierarchy that relies on reproductive dominance and on the physiological and developmental mechanisms that regulate it, i.e. on the status of ovarian development of single (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  43. Glenn D. Walters (1999). Human Survival and the Self-Destruction Paradox: An Integrated Theoretical Model. Journal of Mind and Behavior 20 (1):57-78.
    Borrowing from evolutionary biology, existentialism, developmental psychology, and social learning theory, an integrated model of human behavior is applied to several forms of self-destructive behavior, to include anorexia nervosa, suicide, substance abuse, and pathological gambling. It is argued that self-destructive behavior is a function of how the individual psychologically construes survival and copes with perceptions of isolation and separation from the environment. The paradox of self-destructive behavior in organisms motivated by self-preservation is resolved by taking note of the (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  44.  1
    Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic, Significance of Models of Computation, From Turing Model to Natural Computation.
    The increased interactivity and connectivity of computational devices along with the spreading of computational tools and computational thinking across the fields, has changed our understanding of the nature of computing. In the course of this development computing models have been extended from the initial abstract symbol manipulating mechanisms of stand-alone, discrete sequential machines, to the models of natural computing in the physical world, generally concurrent asynchronous processes capable of modelling living systems, their informational structures and dynamics on both symbolic and (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  45.  9
    I. Walker (1978). The Evolution of Sexual Reproduction as a Repair Mechanism. Part I. A Model for Self-Repair and its Biological Implications. Acta Biotheoretica 27 (3-4):133-158.
    The theory is presented that the sexual process is a repair mechanism which maintains redundancy within the sub-structure of hierarchical, self-reproducing organisms. In order to keep the problems within mathematically tractable limits , a simple model is introduced: a wheel with 6 spokes, 3 of them vital and 3 redundant, symbolizes the individual . Random accidents destroy spokes; the wheels replicate at regular cycles and engage periodically in pairing and repair phases during which missing spokes are copy-reproduced along (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  46.  5
    Harald Riedl (1972). A Model Proposed for the Process of Evolution with Special Reference to Plants. Acta Biotheoretica 21 (1-2):63-85.
    A spiral running along the surface of a cone standing on top is proposed as a model for evolution, the progress of which is considered as composed of a linear progression following the direction of time and representing the linear increase in the number of taxa, while a circular component stands for the ever recurring functional types of organisms.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  47.  25
    Joshua B. Tenenbaum & Thomas L. Griffiths (2001). Generalization, Similarity, and Bayesian Inference. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (4):629-640.
    Shepard has argued that a universal law should govern generalization across different domains of perception and cognition, as well as across organisms from different species or even different planets. Starting with some basic assumptions about natural kinds, he derived an exponential decay function as the form of the universal generalization gradient, which accords strikingly well with a wide range of empirical data. However, his original formulation applied only to the ideal case of generalization from a single encountered stimulus to (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   45 citations  
  48.  3
    Kalevi Kull (2015). Evolution, Choice, and Scaffolding: Semiosis is Changing Its Own Building. Biosemiotics 8 (2):223-234.
    We develop here a semiotic model of evolution. We point out the role of confusion and choice as a condition for semiosis, which is a precondition for semiotic learning and semiotic adaptation. Semiosis itself as interpretation and decision-making between options requires phenomenal present. The body structure of the organism is largely a product of former semiosis. The organism’s body together with the structure of the ecosystem serves also as a scaffolding for the sign processes that carry on the ontogenetic (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  49.  42
    Tim Lewens (2002). Adaptationism and Engineering. Biology and Philosophy 17 (1):1-31.
    The rights and wrongs of adaptationism areoften discussed by appeal to what I call theartefact model. Anti-adaptationistscomplain that the use of optimality modelling,reverse engineering and other techniques areindicative of a mistaken and outmoded beliefthat organisms are like well-designedartefacts. Adaptationists (e.g. Dennett 1995)respond with the assertion that viewingorganisms as though they were well designed isa fruitful, perhaps necessary research strategyin evolutionary biology. Anti-adaptationistsare right when they say that techniques likereverse engineering are liable to mislead. This fact does not undermine (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   5 citations  
  50.  63
    J. Scott Jordan (2000). The Role of "Control" in an Embodied Cognition. Philosophical Psychology 13 (2):233 – 237.
    Borrett, Kelly, and Kwan follow the lead of Merleau-Ponty and develop a theory of neural-network modeling that emerges out of what they find wrong with current approaches to thought and action. Specifically, they take issue with "cognitivism" and its tendency to model cognitive agents as controlling, representational systems. While attempting to make the point that pre-predicative experience/action/place (i.e. grasping) involves neither representation nor control, the authors imply that control-theoretic concepts and representationalism necessarily go hand-in-hand. The purpose of the present (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
1 — 50 / 1000