Search results for 'moral reasoning' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Joseph M. Paxton & Joshua D. Greene (2010). Moral Reasoning: Hints and Allegations. Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (3):511-527.score: 240.0
    Recent research in moral psychology highlights the role of emotion and intuition in moral judgment. In the wake of these findings, the role and significance of moral reasoning remain uncertain. In this article, we distinguish among different kinds of moral reasoning and review evidence suggesting that at least some kinds of moral reasoning play significant roles in moral judgment, including roles in abandoning moral intuitions in the absence of justifying reasons, (...)
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  2. Henry S. Richardson, Moral Reasoning. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 240.0
    Moral reasoning is individual or collective practical reasoning about what, morally, one ought to do. Philosophical examination of moral reasoning faces both distinctive puzzles — about how we recognize moral considerations and cope with conflicts among them and about how they move us to act — and distinctive opportunities for gleaning insight about what we ought to do from how we reason about what we ought to do.
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  3. Mohammad J. Abdolmohammadi & C. Richard Baker (2006). Accountants' Value Preferences and Moral Reasoning. Journal of Business Ethics 69 (1):11 - 25.score: 240.0
    This paper examines relationships between accountants’ personal values and their moral reasoning. In particular, we hypothesize that there is an inverse relationship between accountants’ “Conformity” values and principled moral reasoning. This investigation is important because the literature suggests that conformity with rule-based standards may be one reason for professional accountants’ relatively lower scores on measures of moral reasoning (Abdolmohammadi et al. J Bus Ethics 16 (1997) 1717). We administered the Rokeach Values Survey (RVS) (Rokeach: (...)
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  4. Almerinda Forte (2005). Locus of Control and the Moral Reasoning of Managers. Journal of Business Ethics 58 (1-3):65 - 77.score: 240.0
    Rotter’s theory of internal-external locus of control evolved from Carl Jung’s work. In Psychological Types (1923), Jung defined two opposing tendencies in personality introversion and extroversion. While both tendencies are present in all individuals, one tends to dominate the other. The internal–external control construct was conceived as a generalized expectancy to perceive reinforcement either as contingent upon one’s own behaviors (internal control) or as the result of forces beyond one’s control, such as chance, fate, or powerful others (external control) (Lefcourt, (...)
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  5. James Weber (2010). Assessing the “Tone at the Top”: The Moral Reasoning of Ceos in the Automobile Industry. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):167 - 182.score: 240.0
    Relying on an expanded view of leadership and the moral reasoning framework developed by Lawrence Kohlberg (1981), this study explores the moral reasoning of the chief executive officers at the 11 largest automobile manufacturers in the world. Using the CEO's letter to their stakeholders found in the organizations' annual social responsibility reports, the CEOs' moral reasoning is compared to other managers' moral reasoning, and the moral reasoning exhibited within the CEO (...)
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  6. Alan H. Goldman (2001). Moral Reasoning Without Rules. Mind and Society 2 (2):105-118.score: 240.0
    Genuine rules cannot capture our intuitive moral judgments because, if usable, they mention only a limited number of factors as relevant to decisions. But morally relevant factors are both numerous and unpredictable in the ways they interact to change priorities among them. Particularists have pointed this out, but their account of moral judgment is also inadequate, leaving no room for genuine reasoning or argument. Reasons must be general even if not universal. Particularists can insist that our judgments (...)
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  7. John J. Ryan (2001). Moral Reasoning as a Determinant of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Study in the Public Accounting Profession. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 33 (3):233 - 244.score: 240.0
    This study examines the relationship between an employee's level of moral reasoning and a form of work performance known as organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB). Prior research in the public accounting profession has found higher levels of moral reasoning to be positively related to various types of ethical behavior. This study extends the ethical domain of accounting behaviors to include OCB. Analysis of respondents from a public accounting firm in the northeast region of the United States (n (...)
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  8. Leland F. Saunders (2013). What is Moral Reasoning? Philosophical Psychology (1):1-20.score: 240.0
    What role does moral reasoning play in moral judgment? More specifically, what causal role does moral reasoning have in the production of moral judgments? Recently, many philosophers and psychologists have attempted to answer this question by drawing on empirical data. However, these attempts fall short because there has been no sustained attention to the question of what moral reasoning is. This paper addresses this problem, by providing a general account of moral (...)
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  9. David Allen Jones (2009). A Novel Approach to Business Ethics Training: Improving Moral Reasoning in Just a Few Weeks. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 88 (2):367 - 379.score: 240.0
    I assessed change in students’ moral reasoning following five 75-min classes on business ethics and two assignments utilizing a novel pedagogical approach designed to foster ethical reasoning skills. To minimize threats to validity present in previous studies, an untreated control group design with pre- and post-training measures was used. Training (n = 114) and control (n = 76) groups comprised freshmen business majors who completed the Defining Issues Test before and after the training. Results showed that, controlling (...)
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  10. Nancy Uddin & Peter R. Gillett (2002). The Effects of Moral Reasoning and Self-Monitoring on CFO Intentions to Report Fraudulently on Financial Statements. Journal of Business Ethics 40 (1):15 - 32.score: 240.0
    This study adapts the theory of reasoned action (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980) to the behavior of fraudulent reporting on financial statements so as to examine the effects of moral reasoning and self-monitoring on intention to report fraudulently, using structural equation modeling. The paper seeks to investigate two of the red flags for financial statement fraud identified in Loebbecke et al.'s (1989) paper: client management displays a significant lack of moral fiber and client personnel exhibit strong personality anomalies. (...)
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  11. James Weber & Elaine McGivern (2010). A New Methodological Approach for Studying Moral Reasoning Among Managers in Business Settings. Journal of Business Ethics 92 (1):149 - 166.score: 240.0
    The introduction and validation of a new instrument, The Moral Reasoning Inventory, designed to measure an individuals' moral reasoning (MR) in response to two moral dilemmas within a business setting is the subject of this article. The instrument consists of two moral dilemma scenarios with eight MR statements. Two measurement scales were used for analyzing patterns of individual responses: the strength of belief in the reasons and the importance of those reasons for resolving the (...)
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  12. Aaron Cardon & J. S. Blumenthal-Barby (2011). Should Repugnance Give Us Pause? On the Neuroscience of Daily Moral Reasoning. American Journal of Bioethics- Neuroscience 2 (2):47-48.score: 240.0
    In our commentary we briefly review the work on the neurological differences between the rational ethical analysis used in professional contexts and the reflexive emotional responses of our daily moral reasoning, and discuss the implications for the claim that our normative arguments should not rely on the emotion of repugnance.
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  13. Gregory Liyanarachchi & Chris Newdick (2009). The Impact of Moral Reasoning and Retaliation on Whistle-Blowing: New Zealand Evidence. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 89 (1):37 - 57.score: 240.0
    This study examined experimentally the effect of retaliation strength and accounting students’ level of moral reasoning, on their propensity to blow the whistle (PBW) when faced with a serious wrongdoing. Fifty-one senior accounting students enrolled in an auditing course offered by a large New Zealand university participated in the study. Participants responded to three hypothetical whistle-blowing scenarios and completed an instrument that measured moral reasoning (Welton et al., 1994, Accounting Education . International Journal (Toronto, Ont.) 3 (...)
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  14. Natalia M. Mintchik & Timothy A. Farmer (2009). Associations Between Epistemological Beliefs and Moral Reasoning: Evidence From Accounting. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 84 (2):259 - 275.score: 240.0
    We investigated associations between moral reasoning and epistemological beliefs in an accounting context using the sample of 140 senior accounting students from a public university in Midwestern U.S. We found no significant correlations between accounting students’ principled reasoning about Thorne’s ethical dilemmas and their beliefs about knowledge measured by administering Schommer epistemological questionnaire. We conducted post-hoc power analysis and present the evidence that the lack of associations should not be attributed to the lack of power. Overall, our (...)
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  15. Manjit Monga (2007). Managers' Moral Reasoning: Evidence From Large Indian Manufacturing Organisations. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 71 (2):179 - 194.score: 240.0
    Increased globalisation has also seen increased scrutiny of corporate behaviour by the communities. Clearly managers are under increased pressure from stakeholders not only to outperform their competitors, but also are expected to do so in an ethical manner. In order to act ethically an individual is expected to have a well-developed moral imagination and moral reasoning. Literature on ethical reasoning research indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of moral reasoning and ethical behaviour. This (...)
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  16. Neil Remington Abramson (2011). Kierkegaardian Confessions: The Relationship Between Moral Reasoning and Failure to Be Promoted. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 98 (2):199 - 216.score: 240.0
    Kierkegaard's theory of pre-ethical, aesthetic, ethical, and religious spheres of moral reasoning was applied to the case of an individual rejected for promotion to full professor. The evaluators seemed to represent the public morality of the profession, assumed that they represented the highest level of moral reasoning, and judged that the candidate represented a private morality based on a lower level of moral reasoning. The article questioned the view that moral reasoning could (...)
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  17. Linda Thorne, Dawn W. Massey & Michel Magnan (2003). Institutional Context and Auditors' Moral Reasoning: A Canada-U.S. Comparison. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 43 (4):305 - 321.score: 240.0
    This paper compares the moral reasoning of 363 auditors from Canada and the United States. We investigate whether national institutional context is associated with differences in auditors'' moral reasoning by examining three components of auditors'' moral decision process: (1) moral development, which describes cognitive moral capability, (2) prescriptive reasoning of how a realistic accounting dilemma ought to be resolved and, (3) deliberative reasoning of how a realistic accounting dilemma will be resolved. (...)
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  18. William A. Kerler Iii & Larry N. Killough (2009). The Effects of Satisfaction with a Client's Management During a Prior Audit Engagement, Trust, and Moral Reasoning on Auditors' Perceived Risk of Management Fraud. Journal of Business Ethics 85 (2):109 - 136.score: 240.0
    The recent accounting scandals have raised concerns regarding the closeness of auditor–client relationships. Critics argue that as the relationship lengthens a bond develops and auditors' professional skepticism may be replaced with trust. However, Statement on Auditing Standards No. 99 states that auditors "should conduct the engagement with a mindset that recognizes the possibility that a material misstatement due to fraud could be present, regardless of any past experience with the entity and regardless of the auditor's belief about management's honesty and (...)
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  19. [deleted]Simona Carla Silvia Caravita, Simona Giardino, Leonardo Lenzi, Mariaelena Salvaterra & Alessandro Antonietti (2012). Socio-Economic Factors Related to Moral Reasoning in Childhood and Adolescence: The Missing Link Between Brain and Behavior. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 240.0
    Neuroscientific and psychological research on moral development has until now developed independently, referring to distinct theoretical models, contents and methods. In particular, the influence of socio-economic and cultural factors on morality has been broadly investigated by psychologists but as yet has not been investigated by neuroscientists. The value of bridging these two areas both theoretically and methodologically has, however, been suggested. This study aims at providing a first connection between neuroscientific and psychological literature on morality by investigating whether socio-economic (...)
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  20. Bent Warming-Rasmussen & Carolyn A. Windsor (2003). Danish Evidence of Auditors' Level of Moral Reasoning and Predisposition to Provide Fair Judgements. Journal of Business Ethics 47 (2):77 - 87.score: 228.0
    The community has legislatively conferred on external auditors a special but lucrative responsibility to provide fair and independent opinions about management''s preparation of company financial statements. In return, auditors are obliged by professional standards to act with integrity, independently and in the public interest. This study examined 174 auditors'' predisposition to provide just and fair judgements, using Kohlberg''s theory of developmental moral reasoning, one of the most widely accepted theories in justice psychology. Respondents came from five international audit (...)
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  21. Jonathan Phillips & Liane Young (2011). Apparent Paradoxes in Moral Reasoning; Or How You Forced Him to Do It, Even Though He Wasn’T Forced to Do It. Proceedings of the Thirty-Third Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society:138-143.score: 222.0
    The importance of situational constraint for moral evaluations is widely accepted in philosophy, psychology, and the law. However, recent work suggests that this relationship is actually bidirectional: moral evaluations can also influence our judgments of situational constraint. For example, if an agent is thought to have acted immorally rather than morally, that agent is often judged to have acted with greater freedom and under less situational constraint. Moreover, when considering interpersonal situations, we judge that an agent who forces (...)
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  22. Jeremiah Joven Joaquin, Dissolving the Is-Ought Problem: An Essay on Moral Reasoning.score: 218.0
    The debate concerning the proper way of understanding, and hence solving, the “is-ought problem” produced two mutually exclusive positions. One position claims that it is entirely impossible to deduce an imperative statement from a set of factual statements. The other position holds a contrary view to the effect that one can naturally derive an imperative statement from a set of factual statements under certain conditions. Although these two positions have opposing views concerning the problem, it should be evident that they (...)
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  23. Suzanne M. Jaeger (2001). Teaching Health Care Ethics: The Importance of Moral Sensitivity for Moral Reasoning. Nursing Philosophy 2 (2):131-142.score: 210.0
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  24. Jayantha S. Wimalasiri (2004). Contrasts in Moral Reasoning Capacity: The Fijians and the Singaporeans. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 49 (3):251-272.score: 208.0
    The moral reasoning capacity of managementstudents in Fiji and in Singapore, twoculturally distinct nations, was examinedusing the Defining Issue Test (DIT). Statistical analyses of the data revealed amarked difference in the reasoning capacity of thetwo groups. In the Fiji sample, religion andrace were found to have a moderating effect onmoral judgment. In the Singapore sample, age,race and religion were found to have asignificant correlation with moral judgment. The data were subjected to paired-samplest-tests using p-score as a (...)
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  25. Wayne Christensen & John Sutton (2012). Reflections on Emotions, Imagination, and Moral Reasoning Toward an Integrated, Multidisciplinary Approach to Moral Cognition. In Robyn Langdon & Catriona Mackenzie (eds.), Emotions, Imagination, and Moral Reasoning. Psychology Press. 327-347.score: 198.0
    B eginning with the problem of integrating diverse disciplinary perspectives on moral cognition, we argue that the various disciplines have an interest in developing a common conceptual framework for moral cognition research. We discuss issues arising in the other chapters in this volume that might serve as focal points for future investigation and as the basis for the eventual development of such a framework. These include the role of theory in binding together diverse phenomena and the role of (...)
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  26. Byron J. Stoyles (2007). Aristotle, Akrasia, and the Place of Desire in Moral Reasoning. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10 (2):195 - 207.score: 198.0
    This paper serves both as a discussion of Henry’s (Ethical Theory Moral Practice, 5:255–270, 2002) interpretation of Aristotle on the possibility of akrasia – knowing something is wrong and doing it anyway – and an indication of the importance of desire in Aristotle’s account of moral reasoning. As I will explain, Henry’s interpretation is advantageous for the reason that it makes clear how Aristotle could have made good sense of genuine akrasia, a phenomenon that we seem to (...)
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  27. Sean R. Valentine & Connie R. Bateman (2011). The Impact of Ethical Ideologies, Moral Intensity, and Social Context on Sales-Based Ethical Reasoning. Journal of Business Ethics 102 (1):155-168.score: 192.0
    Previous research indicates that ethical ideologies, issue-contingencies, and social context can impact ethical reasoning in different business situations. However, the manner in which these constructs work together to shape different steps of the ethical decision-making process is not always clear. The purpose of this study was to address these issues by exploring the influence of idealism and relativism, perceived moral intensity in a decision-making situation, and social context on the recognition of an ethical issue and ethical intention. Utilizing (...)
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  28. Sean Valentine & David Hollingworth (2012). Moral Intensity, Issue Importance, and Ethical Reasoning in Operations Situations. Journal of Business Ethics 108 (4):509 - 523.score: 192.0
    Previous work suggests that moral intensity and the perceived importance of an ethical issue can influence individual ethical decision making. However, prior research has not explored how the various dimensions of moral intensity might differentially affect PIE, or how moral intensity might function together with (or in the presence of) PIE to influence ethical decision making. In addition, prior work has also not adequately investigated how the operational context of an organization, which may embody conditions or practices (...)
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  29. John Bolender (2001). A Two-Tiered Cognitive Architecture for Moral Reasoning. Biology and Philosophy 16 (3):339-356.score: 192.0
    The view that moral cognition is subserved by a two-tieredarchitecture is defended: Moral reasoning is the result both ofspecialized, informationally encapsulated modules which automaticallyand effortlessly generate intuitions; and of general-purpose,cognitively penetrable mechanisms which enable moral judgment in thelight of the agent's general fund of knowledge. This view is contrastedwith rival architectures of social/moral cognition, such as Cosmidesand Tooby's view that the mind is wholly modular, and it is argued thata two-tiered architecture is more plausible.
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  30. George Lan, Maureen Gowing, Sharon McMahon, Fritz Rieger & Norman King (2008). A Study of the Relationship Between Personal Values and Moral Reasoning of Undergraduate Business Students. Journal of Business Ethics 78 (1-2):121 - 139.score: 192.0
    This study examines values and value types as well as scores in levels of moral reasoning for␣students enrolled in a business program. These two factors are measured using the Schwartz Personal Values␣Questionnaire and the Defining Issues Test 2. No statistically significant differences in levels of moralreasoning, rankings of values, and value types could be attributed to gender. However, eight significant correlations between value types and levels of moral reasoning provide evidence that a systematic relationship (...)
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  31. Jeffrey A. Roberts & David M. Wasieleski (2012). Moral Reasoning in Computer-Based Task Environments: Exploring the Interplay Between Cognitive and Technological Factors on Individuals' Propensity to Break Rules. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 110 (3):355-376.score: 192.0
    This study examines the relationship between cognitive moral development (CMD), productivity features of information technology (IT) and unethical behavior or misconduct. Using an experimental design that randomly assigns subjects to one of four unique technology conditions, we assess the relationship between a subjects' predominant level of CMD and ethical misconduct on IT-oriented work tasks. Our results show that both higher levels of CMD and increased levels of IT productivity features at one's disposal have a significant role to play in (...)
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  32. Neil A. Granitz & James C. Ward (2001). Actual and Perceived Sharing of Ethical Reasoning and Moral Intent Among in-Group and Out-Group Members. Journal of Business Ethics 33 (4):299 - 322.score: 192.0
    Despite an extensive amount of research studying the influence of significant others on an individual's ethical behavior, researchers have not examined this variable in the context of organizational group boundaries. This study tests actual and perceptual sharing and variation in ethical reasoning and moral intent within and across functional groups in an organization. Integrating theory on ethical behavior, group dynamics, and culture, it is proposed that organizational structure affects cognitive structure. Departmental boundaries create stronger social ties within the (...)
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  33. Stephen Cohen (2004). The Nature of Moral Reasoning: The Framework and Activities of Ethical Deliberation, Argument, and Decision-Making. Oxford University Press.score: 192.0
    The Nature of Moral Reasoning is a discussion about the landscape, or environment, in which moral reasoning occurs, and the factors which contribute to it.
     
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  34. Gilbert Harman, Kelby Mason & Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (2010). Moral Reasoning. In John Michael Doris (ed.), The Moral Psychology Handbook. Oxford University Press.score: 186.0
    What is moral reasoning? For that matter, what is any sort of reasoning? Let me begin by making a few distinctions. First, there is a distinction between reasoning as something that that people do and the abstract structures of proof or “argument” that are the subject matter of formal logic. I will be mainly concerned with reasoning in the first sense, reasoning that people do. Second, there is a distinction between moral reasoning (...)
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  35. Sonja J. Ellis (2002). Moral Reasoning and Homosexuality: The Acceptability of Arguments About Lesbian and Gay Issues. Journal of Moral Education 31 (4):455-467.score: 186.0
    In the political arena, lesbian and gay issues have been contested typically on grounds of human rights, but with variable success. Using a moral developmental framework, the purpose of this study was to explore preferences for different types of moral arguments when thinking about moral dilemmas around lesbian and gay issues. The analysis presented here comprised data collected from 545 students at UK universities who completed a questionnaire, part of which comprised a moral dilemma task. Findings (...)
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  36. Lawrence J. Walker & Karl H. Hennig (1999). Parenting Style and the Development of Moral Reasoning. Journal of Moral Education 28 (3):359-374.score: 186.0
    This paper addresses the polarisation among theoretical perspectives in moral psychology regarding the relative significance of parents and peers in children's moral development and, in particular, the short shrift given the family context by cognitive-developmental theory. We contend that parents do play a significant role in this area of their children's development. Research findings from two studies are presented which indicate that parents' interaction styles, ego functioning and level of moral reasoning used in discussion are predictive (...)
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  37. Don Locke (1979). Cognitive Stages or Developmental Phases? A Critique of Kohlberg's Stage‐Structural Theory of Moral Reasoning. Journal of Moral Education 8 (3):168-181.score: 186.0
    Abstract After some preliminary doubts about Kohlberg's method of assessing moral reasoning, his ?stage?structural? theory is criticized under six heads. (1) The claim that the stages constitute structural wholes, representing unified and differentiated patterns of thought: it is argued that the available evidence, and Kohlberg's own methodology, unambiguously implies a developmental continuum, not discrete stage structures. (2) Invariance, which, after counter?evidence led to a revision in the theory, has yet to be demonstrated. (3) Cultural Universality: it is argued (...)
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  38. Daniel Brugman * & A. Elisabeth Aleva (2004). Developmental Delay or Regression in Moral Reasoning by Juvenile Delinquents? Journal of Moral Education 33 (3):321-338.score: 186.0
    This study extends research on moral reasoning competence in juvenile delinquents to their practical reasoning and perception of an institutional moral atmosphere in order to find out whether a delay in moral competence is one of the causes of the offence or one of the consequences of institutionalization or both. The study involved 64 delinquent adolescents from a modern, humane, high security detention centre and 81 secondary school pupils, all males. Delinquent adolescents exhibited lower (...) competence than non?delinquents, particularly in the value area ?obeying the law?, but the difference was smaller than previously reported. Juvenile delinquents' perception of the moral atmosphere in the detention centre was no lower than that of pupils regarding their school and their low moral competence could not be attributed to a poor moral atmosphere in the centre. Thus, the small delay found in moral competence is likely to precede detention. In both the delinquent and pupil groups perception of a poor moral atmosphere was a more important indicator of self?reported antisocial behaviour than low moral competence. Our conclusion is that improving the perception of the institutional moral atmosphere in school and in prison is more likely to reduce antisocial behaviour among adolescents than only improving their moral competence. (shrink)
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  39. Rhoda Cummings, Steve Harlow & Cleborne Maddux (2007). Moral Reasoning of in-Service and Pre-Service Teachers: A Review of the Research. [REVIEW] Journal of Moral Education 36 (1):67-78.score: 186.0
    Although concerns about the moral domain of teaching have been expressed for more than 30 years, empirical studies investigating moral reasoning of in?service and pre?service teachers are sparse. Even fewer studies have investigated the effectiveness of educational interventions to advance moral reasoning in these populations. The purpose of this paper is to review the research on moral reasoning of and moral interventions with in?service and pre?service teachers and to suggest implications for teacher (...)
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  40. Ann Breslin (1982). Tolerance and Moral Reasoning Among Adolescents in Ireland. Journal of Moral Education 11 (2):112-127.score: 186.0
    This research was undertaken in order to investigate the relationship between tolerance and moral reasoning among adolescents in Northern Ireland and in the Irish Republic. A study of Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development led to the expectation that individuals who understood the ?principled? level of moral reasoning would be more tolerant than those who reasoned predominantly at the ?conventional? level. The subjects of this research, all senior students, completed a questionnaire which furnished data on (...)
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  41. Lawrence J. Walker & Thomas J. Moran (1991). Moral Reasoning in a Communist Chinese Society. Journal of Moral Education 20 (2):139-155.score: 186.0
    Abstract This study examined the cross?cultural universality of Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning development in the People's Republic of China??a culture quite different from the one out of which the theory arose. In particular, the applicability of the theory was evaluated in terms of its comprehensiveness and the validity of the moral stage model. Participants were 52 adolescents and adults, drawn from five groups: moral leaders, intellectuals, workers, college and junior high school students. In individual interviews (...)
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  42. Brian Barger & W. Pitt Derryberry (2013). Do Negative Mood States Impact Moral Reasoning? Journal of Moral Education 42 (4):443-459.score: 186.0
    This paper presents three studies exploring the relationship between emotional responses to classic cognitive developmental moral dilemmas and moral reasoning indices as measured by the Defining Issues Test (DIT). Each study indicated that certain moral dilemmas elicit varying levels of anger and sadness as compared to a neutral baseline. In each study, decreased moral reasoning was observed in those instances where reports in both sadness and anger were high following a dilemma. This did not (...)
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  43. John T. Hyland (1977). Moral Reasoning and Moral Education. Journal of Moral Education 6 (2):75-80.score: 186.0
    Abstract It is argued that R.W. Beardsmore's account of moral reasoning provides the most satisfactory explanation of moral behaviour and this is supported by an examination of his main criticisms of R.M. Hare and Philippa Foot. The chief educational implication of Beardsmore's account of moral development is, it is suggested, that, though educators cannot be uncommitted on fundamental moral issues, they can, nevertheless, ensure that rational procedures are followed. A committed teacher is not, therefore, necessarily (...)
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  44. Matthew Mayhew & Patricia King (2008). How Curricular Content and Pedagogical Strategies Affect Moral Reasoning Development in College Students. Journal of Moral Education 37 (1):17-40.score: 186.0
    College instructors use a variety of approaches to teach students to reason more effectively about issues with a moral dimension and achieve mixed results. This pre?post study of 423 undergraduate students examined the effects of morally explicit and implicit curricular content and of selected pedagogical strategies on moral reasoning development. Using causal modelling to control for a range of student background variables as well as Time 1 scores, 52% of the variance in moral reasoning scores (...)
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  45. Kelly Morton, Joanna Worthley, John Testerman & Marita Mahoney (2006). Defining Features of Moral Sensitivity and Moral Motivation: Pathways to Moral Reasoning in Medical Students. Journal of Moral Education 35 (3):387-406.score: 186.0
    Kohlberg's theory of moral development explores the roles of cognition and emotion but focuses primarily on cognition. Contemporary post?formal theories lead to the conclusion that skills resulting from cognitive?affective integration facilitate consistency between moral judgement and moral behaviour. Rest's four?component model of moral development delineates these skills specifically. The components, moral motivation, moral sensitivity, moral reasoning and moral character, operate as multidimensional processes that facilitate moral development and subsequently promote (...) behaviour. The relationships between these components have been relatively unexplored, thereby missing the opportunity to unpack the processes underlying moral growth and development. In this study, moral motivation (spirituality), moral sensitivity (post?formal skills) and moral reasoning are operationalized to examine the mediational effects of moral sensitivity of medical students. In the complex moral environment of medical students opportunities arise to question values and develop cognitive?affective skills, among them spirituality and post?formal thinking which are linked to increases in post?conventional moral reasoning. The models tested indicate that moral sensitivity mediates the relationship between moral motivation and moral reasoning. (shrink)
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  46. Fataneh Zarinpoush, Martin Cooper & Stephanie Moylan (2000). The Effects of Happiness and Sadness on Moral Reasoning. Journal of Moral Education 29 (4):397-412.score: 186.0
    Three experiments were designed to investigate effects of mood on college students' capacities of moral reasoning. Following a mood induction, the standard or a modified version of the Defining Issues Test (DIT) was administered to measure moral reasoning. The results of Experiment 1, using the standard short form of the DIT, showed elated subjects performed more poorly and took longer than subjects in neutral and sad mood conditions. The results of Experiment 2, using the self-orientated DIT, (...)
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  47. Gustavo Carlo, Meredith McGinley, Scott Roesch & Jennifer Kaminski (2008). Measurement Invariance in a Measure of Prosocial Moral Reasoning to Use with Adolescents From the USA and Brazil. Journal of Moral Education 37 (4):485-502.score: 186.0
    Scholars have noted the need to examine the psychometric properties of measures that can be used in evaluating moral education programs. The present study was designed to examine the best?fitting factor model of a commonly?used measure of prosocial moral reasoning (PROM) across samples from Brazil and the USA, gender and adolescent age groups. The samples consisted of 619 college students (M age = 20.59 years, SD = 4.08; 41% men, 59% women) and 239 middle and high school (...)
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  48. Cheryl Armon & Theo L. Dawson (1997). Developmental Trajectories in Moral Reasoning Across the Life Span. Journal of Moral Education 26 (4):433-453.score: 186.0
    Abstract This long?term study found that moral reasoning as conceptualised by Kohlberg (1981, 1985) can develop into adulthood. Predominantly white, well?educated, middle?class participants were interviewed four times at 4?year intervals (N = 44). Stage development was sequential and continued throughout the life span, although its occurrence decreased with advancing age in a curvilinear fashion. Post?conventional reasoning was demonstrated by seven adults. Stage of moral reasoning correlated with age strongly in children and moderately in adults, and (...)
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  49. Sylvia Hurtado, Matthew J. Mayhew & Mark E. Engberg (2012). Diversity Courses and Students' Moral Reasoning: A Model of Predispositions and Change. Journal of Moral Education 41 (2):201-224.score: 186.0
    The purpose of this study was to examine how moral reasoning develops for 236 students enrolled in either a diversity course or a management course. These courses were compared based on the level of diversity inclusion and type of pedagogy employed in the classroom. We used causal modelling to compare the two types of courses, controlling for the effects of demographic (i.e., race, gender), curricular (i.e., previous course-related diversity learning) and pedagogical (i.e., active learning) covariates. Results showed that (...)
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  50. M. Maqsud (1977). Moral Reasoning of Nigerian and Pakistani Muslim Adolescents. Journal of Moral Education 7 (1):40-41.score: 186.0
    Abstract Two studies were conducted to test the universality of Piaget's and Kohlberg's stages of the development of moral judgment in Nigerian and Pakistani cultures. For the first study, 120 Nigerian Muslim Hausa secondary school adolescents (60 boys and 60 girls), whose ages ranged between 14 and 16, were questioned individually about two of Piaget's moral judgment situations, representing two different moral attributes, clumsiness and equality. In the second study, 90 subjects (30 Nigerian Muslim Hausa, 30 Nigerian (...)
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