Search results for 'multi-level systems' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. William Harms (1997). Reliability and Novelty: Information Gain in Multi-Level Selection Systems. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 46 (3):335-363.score: 471.0
    Information about the environment is captured in human biological systems on a variety of interacting levels – in distributions of genes, linguistic particulars, concepts, methods, theories, preferences, and overt behaviors. I investigate some of the basic principles which govern such a hierarchy by constructing a comparatively simple three-level selection model of bee foraging preferences and behaviors. The information-theoretic notion of ''''mutual information'''' is employed as a measure of efficiency in tracking a changing environment, and its appropriateness in epistemological applications (...)
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  2. João Queiroz & Charbel Niño El-Hani (2006). Towards a Multi-Level Approach to the Emergence of Meaning Processes in Living Systems. Acta Biotheoretica 54 (3).score: 444.0
    Any description of the emergence and evolution of different types of meaning processes (semiosis, sensu C.S.Peirce) in living systems must be supported by a theoretical framework which makes it possible to understand the nature and dynamics of such processes. Here we propose that the emergence of semiosis of different kinds can be understood as resulting from fundamental interactions in a triadically-organized hierarchical process. To grasp these interactions, we develop a model grounded on Stanley Salthe's hierarchical structuralism. This model can (...)
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  3. Chih-Chun Chen, Sylvia B. Nagl & Christopher D. Clack (2009). A Formalism for Multi-Level Emergent Behaviours in Designed Component-Based Systems and Agent-Based Simulations. In Ma Aziz-Alaoui & C. Bertelle (eds.), From System Complexity to Emergent Properties. Springer. 101--114.score: 438.0
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  4. Tom R. Burns & Dave Meeker (1978). Conflict and Structure in Multi-Level Multiple Objective Decision-Making Systems. In A. Hooker, J. J. Leach & E. F. McClennen (eds.), Foundations and Applications of Decision Theory. D. Reidel. 67--114.score: 435.0
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  5. Don Collins Reed (2009). A Multi-Level Model of Moral Functioning Revisited. Journal of Moral Education 38 (3):299-313.score: 297.0
    The model of moral functioning scaffolded in the 2008 JME Special Issue is here revisited in response to three papers criticising that volume. As guest editor of that Special Issue I have formulated the main body of this response, concerning the dynamic systems approach to moral development, the problem of moral relativism and the role of emotion in moral functioning. Five 2008 Special Issue authors contribute reflections: Darcia Narvaez, Jeremy Frimer and Lawrence Walker, Helen Haste and Ann Higgins?d?Alessandro. The (...)
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  6. Philip Brey (2000). Method in Computer Ethics: Towards a Multi-Level Interdisciplinary Approach. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 2 (2):125-129.score: 291.0
    This essay considers methodological aspects ofcomputer ethics and argues for a multi-levelinterdisciplinary approach with a central role forwhat is called disclosive computer ethics. Disclosivecomputer ethics is concerned with the moraldeciphering of embedded values and norms in computersystems, applications and practices. In themethodology for computer ethics research proposed inthe essay, research takes place at three levels: thedisclosure level, in which ideally philosophers,computer scientists and social scientists collaborateto disclose embedded normativity in computer systemsand practices, the theoretical level, in whichphilosophers develop and modify (...)
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  7. Christopher Clarke (forthcoming). Multi-Level Selection and the Explanatory Value of Mathematical Decompositions. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.score: 224.0
    Do multi-level selection explanations of the evolution of social traits deepen the understanding provided by single-level explanations? Central to the former is a mathematical theorem, the multi-level Price decomposition. I build a framework through which to understand the explanatory role of such non-empirical decompositions in scientific practice. Applying this general framework to the present case places two tasks on the agenda. The first task is to distinguish the various ways of suppressing within-collective variation in fitness, and moreover to (...)
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  8. Benjamin Kerr & Peter Godfrey-Smith (2002). Individualist and Multi-Level Perspectives on Selection in Structured Populations. Biology and Philosophy 17 (4):477-517.score: 224.0
    Recent years have seen a renewed debate over the importance of groupselection, especially as it relates to the evolution of altruism. Onefeature of this debate has been disagreement over which kinds ofprocesses should be described in terms of selection at multiple levels,within and between groups. Adapting some earlier discussions, we presenta mathematical framework that can be used to explore the exactrelationships between evolutionary models that do, and those that donot, explicitly recognize biological groups as fitness-bearing entities.We show a fundamental set (...)
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  9. Guido Boella & Leendert van der Torre (2007). The Ontological Properties of Social Roles in Multi-Agent Systems: Definitional Dependence, Powers and Roles Playing Roles. [REVIEW] Artificial Intelligence and Law 15 (3):201-221.score: 224.0
    In this paper we address the problem of defining social roles in multi-agent systems. Social roles provide the basic structure of social institutions and organizations. We start from the properties attributed to roles both in the multi-agent systems and the Object Oriented community, and we use them in an ontological analysis of the notion of social role. We identify three main properties of social roles. First, they are definitionally dependent on the institution they belong to, i.e. the definition (...)
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  10. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2002). Individualist and Multi-Level Perspectives on Selection in Structured Populations. Biology and Philosophy 17 (4):477-517.score: 224.0
    Recent years have seen a renewed debate over the importance of groupselection, especially as it relates to the evolution of altruism. Onefeature of this debate has been disagreement over which kinds ofprocesses should be described in terms of selection at multiple levels,within and between groups. Adapting some earlier discussions, we presenta mathematical framework that can be used to explore the exactrelationships between evolutionary models that do, and those that donot, explicitly recognize biological groups as fitness-bearing entities.We show a fundamental set (...)
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  11. Jeff Buechner & Herman T. Tavani (2011). Trust and Multi-Agent Systems: Applying the Diffuse, Default Model of Trust to Experiments Involving Artificial Agents. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 13 (1):39-51.score: 224.0
    We argue that the notion of trust, as it figures in an ethical context, can be illuminated by examining research in artificial intelligence on multi-agent systems in which commitment and trust are modeled. We begin with an analysis of a philosophical model of trust based on Richard Holton’s interpretation of P. F. Strawson’s writings on freedom and resentment, and we show why this account of trust is difficult to extend to artificial agents (AAs) as well as to other non-human (...)
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  12. Maria Isabel Aldinhas Ferreira & Miguel Gama Caldas (2013). The Concept of Umwelt Overlap and its Application to Cooperative Action in Multi-Agent Systems. Biosemiotics 6 (3):497-514.score: 220.0
    The present paper stems from the biosemiotic modelling of individual artificial cognition proposed by Ferreira and Caldas (2012) but goes further by introducing the concept of Umwelt Overlap. The introduction of this concept is of fundamental importance making the present model closer to natural cognition. In fact cognition can only be viewed as a purely individual phenomenon for analytical purposes. In nature it always involves the crisscrossing of the spheres of action of those sharing the same environmental bubble. Plus, the (...)
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  13. Tae H. Lee, Ju H. Park, D. H. Ji & H. Y. Jung (2013). Leader‐Following Consensus Problem of Heterogeneous Multi‐Agent Systems with Nonlinear Dynamics Using Fuzzy Disturbance Observer. Complexity 19 (4):20-31.score: 196.0
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  14. Peter McBurney & Simon Parsons (2001). Dialogue Games in Multi-Agent Systems. Informal Logic 22 (3).score: 196.0
    Formal dialogue games have been studied in philosophy since at least the time of Aristotle. Recently they have been applied in various contexts in computer science and artificial intelligence, particularly as the basis for interaction between autonomous software agents. We review these applications and discuss the many open research questions and challenges at this exciting interface between philosophy and computer science.
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  15. Jayne Fountain, James Gallagher & Julia Brown (2004). A Practical Approach to a Multi‐Level Analysis with a Sparse Binary Outcome Within a Large Surgical Trial. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 10 (2):323-327.score: 196.0
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  16. Massimo Durante (2010). What Is the Model of Trust for Multi-Agent Systems? Whether or Not E-Trust Applies to Autonomous Agents. Knowledge, Technology and Policy 23 (3-4):347-366.score: 194.7
    A socio-cognitive approach to trust can help us envisage a notion of networked trust for multi-agent systems (MAS) based on different interacting agents. In this framework, the issue is to evaluate whether or not a socio-cognitive analysis of trust can apply to the interactions between human and autonomous agents. Two main arguments support two alternative hypothesis; one suggests that only reliance applies to artificial agents, because predictability of agents’ digital interaction is viewed as an absolute value and human relation (...)
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  17. Christian List (2014). Free Will, Determinism, and the Possibility of Doing Otherwise. Noûs 48 (1):156-178.score: 189.0
    I argue that free will and determinism are compatible, even when we take free will to require the ability to do otherwise and even when we interpret that ability modally, as the possibility of doing otherwise, and not just conditionally or dispositionally. My argument draws on a distinction between physical and agential possibility. Although in a deterministic world only one future sequence of events is physically possible for each state of the world, the more coarsely defined state of an agent (...)
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  18. Hans Paul Prümm (2012). The Didactic Turn of German Legal Methodology. Jurisprudence 18 (4):1233-1282.score: 183.0
    We note an increasing consciousness of weakness of legal methodology taught to law students today: The students get neither real idea nor feeling of legal decision-making as mixture of legal matters, issue of facts, personal inputs, diverging interests, and the interplay with other actors. For minimize these defects it is necessary that law students learn in legal studies the following points: (1) Legal decision-making is a special kind of decision-making and is embedded in all problems of this process. (2) Jurisprudence (...)
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  19. Francesca Poggiolesi (2013). From Single Agent to Multi-Agent Via Hypersequents. Logica Universalis 7 (2):147-166.score: 182.0
    In this paper we present a sequent calculus for the multi-agent system S5 m . First, we introduce a particularly simple alternative Kripke semantics for the system S5 m . Then, we construct a hypersequent calculus for S5 m that reflects at the syntactic level this alternative interpretation. We prove that this hypersequent calculus is theoremwise equivalent to the Hilbert-style system S5 m , that it is contraction-free and cut-free, and finally that it is decidable. All results are proved in (...)
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  20. Jerry M. Calton (2009). A Multi-Level Approach to Teaching Sustainability From the Inside Out. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 20:390-394.score: 179.3
    Teaching sustainability from the “inside-out” means starting at the level of individual students, progressing to organizational responsibilities, and lastly arriving at system-wide responsibilities.
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  21. Michael E. Palanski (2012). Forgiveness and Reconciliation in the Workplace: A Multi-Level Perspective and Research Agenda. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 109 (3):275-287.score: 172.0
    Forgiveness and reconciliation have been shown to be beneficial alternatives to revenge as responses to an interpersonal offense in the workplace. Prior research on these topics, however, is often narrow in scope, focusing on only the victim. Moreover, existing research is often unclear about the relationship between forgiveness and reconciliation. In response, this article proposes a conceptual framework of forgiveness, reconciliation, and their respective antecedents which is both multi-level and interdisciplinary. This framework is used to review the nascent management-related (...)
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  22. Philip Barnard & Tim Dalgleish (2005). Psychological-Level Systems Theory: The Missing Link in Bridging Emotion Theory and Neurobiology Through Dynamic Systems Modeling. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (2):196-197.score: 168.0
    Bridging between psychological and neurobiological systems requires that the system components are closely specified at both the psychological and brain levels of analysis. We argue that in developing his dynamic systems theory framework, Lewis has sidestepped the notion of a psychological level systems model altogether, and has taken a partisan approach to his exposition of a brain-level systems model.
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  23. Samir Okasha (2009). Individuals, Groups, Fitness and Utility: Multi-Level Selection Meets Social Choice Theory. Biology and Philosophy 24 (5):561-584.score: 168.0
    In models of multi-level selection, the property of Darwinian fitness is attributed to entities at more than one level of the biological hierarchy, e.g. individuals and groups. However, the relation between individual and group fitness is a controversial matter. Theorists disagree about whether group fitness should always, or ever, be defined as total (or average) individual fitness. This paper tries to shed light on the issue by drawing on work in social choice theory, and pursuing an analogy between fitness (...)
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  24. Y. Ben-Aryeh, A. Mann & B. C. Sanders (1999). Empirical State Determination of Entangled Two-Level Systems and Its Relation to Information Theory. Foundations of Physics 29 (12):1963-1975.score: 168.0
    Theoretical methods for empirical state determination of entangled two-level systems are analyzed in relation to information theory. We show that hidden variable theories would lead to a Shannon index of correlation between the entangled subsystems which is larger than that predicted by quantum mechanics. Canonical representations which have maximal correlations are treated by the use of Schmidt and Hilbert-Schmidt decomposition of the entangled states, including especially the Bohm singlet state and the GHZ entangled states. We show that quantum mechanics (...)
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  25. Daryl Koehn (2001). Ethical Issues Connected with Multi-Level Marketing Schemes. Journal of Business Ethics 29 (1-2):153 - 160.score: 168.0
    Multi-level marketing (MLM) schemes are one of the fastest growing types of business. However, little has been written about the ethics of MLMs. This oversight is somewhat surprising, especially because some prominent MLMs have been accused of being pyramid schemes. Pyramid schemes were the number one type of internet fraud in 1996, and the fourth most common form of internet fraud in 1997 (National Consumers League, 1997). This paper examines the nature of MLMs and their similarities with and differences (...)
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  26. Tudor Baetu (forthcoming). Defining Species: A Multi-Level Approach. Acta Biotheoretica.score: 168.0
    Abstract Different concepts define species at the pattern-level grouping of organisms into discrete clusters, the level of the processes operating within and between populations leading to the formation and maintenance of these clusters, or the level of the inner-organismic genetic and molecular mechanisms that contribute to species cohesion or promote speciation. I argue that, unlike single-level approaches, a multi-level framework takes into account the complex sequences of cause-effect reinforcements leading to the formation and maintenance of various patterns, and allows (...)
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  27. Hsin-Hua Hsiung (2012). Authentic Leadership and Employee Voice Behavior: A Multi-Level Psychological Process. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 107 (3):349-361.score: 168.0
    This study investigates the psychological process of how authentic leadership affects employee voice behaviors. The theoretical model of this study proposes that employee positive mood and leader–member exchange (LMX) quality mediate the relationship between authentic leadership and voice behavior, while the procedural justice climate moderates the mediation effects of positive mood and LMX quality. Multi-level data from 70 workgroups of a real estate agent company in Taiwan support all hypotheses. This study reveals the cross-level effects of authentic leadership, and (...)
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  28. William C. Wimsatt (1980). The Units of Selection and the Structure of the Multi-Level Genome. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1980:122 - 183.score: 168.0
    The reductionistic vision of evolutionary theory, "the gene's eye view of evolution" is the dominant view among evolutionary biologists today. On this view, the gene is the only unit with sufficient stability to act as a unit of selection, with individuals and groups being more ephemeral units of function, but not of selection. This view is argued to be incorrect, on several grounds. The empirical and theoretical bases for the existence of higher-level units of selection are explored, and alternative analyses (...)
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  29. Samir Okasha (2004). Multi-Level Selection, Covariance and Contextual Analysis. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (3):481-504.score: 168.0
    Two alternative statistical approaches to modelling multi-level selection in nature, both found in the contemporary biological literature, are contrasted. The simple covariance approach partitions the total selection differential on a phenotypic character into within-group and between-group components, and identifies the change due to group selection with the latter. The contextual approach partitions the total selection differential into different components, using multivariate regression analysis. The two approaches have different implications for the question of what constitutes group selection and what does (...)
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  30. Elliott Sober & David Sloan Wilson (2002). Perspectives and Parameterizations Commentary on Benjamin Kerr and Peter Godfrey-Smith's ``Individualist and Multi-Level Perspectives on Selection in Structured Populations''. Biology and Philosophy 17 (4):529-537.score: 168.0
    We have two main objections to Kerr and Godfrey-Smith's (2002) meticulous analysis. First, they misunderstand the position we took in Unto Others – we do not claim that individual-level statements about the evolution of altruism are always unexplanatory and always fail to capture causal relationships. Second, Kerr and Godfrey-Smith characterize the individual and the multi-level perspectives in terms of different sets of parameters. In particular, they do not allow the multi-level perspective to use the individual fitness parameters i (...)
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  31. J. D. R. de Raadt (1996). What the Prophet and the Philosopher Told Their Nations: A Multi-Modal Systems View of Norms and Civilisation. World Futures 47 (1):53-67.score: 168.0
    (1996). What the prophet and the philosopher told their nations: A multi‐modal systems view of norms and civilisation. World Futures: Vol. 47, Unity and Diversity in Contemporary Systems Tinking: Systematic Pictures at an Exhibition, pp. 53-67.
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  32. Stephen Gorard (2003). What Is Multi-Level Modelling For? British Journal of Educational Studies 51 (1):46 - 63.score: 168.0
    This paper is intended to be a consideration of the role of multi-level modelling in educational research. It is not a guide on how to design or perform such an analysis. There are several references in the text to sources that teach the practicalities perfectly well, and the technique is anyway similar to other forms of regression and to analysis of variance. Rather, the paper describes what multi-level modelling is, why it is used, and what its limitations are. (...)
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  33. Karl Tuyls, Ann Nowe, Tom Lenaerts & Bernard Manderick (2004). An Evolutionary Game Theoretic Perspective on Learning in Multi-Agent Systems. Synthese 139 (2):297 - 330.score: 168.0
    In this paper we revise Reinforcement Learning and adaptiveness in Multi-Agent Systems from an Evolutionary Game Theoretic perspective. More precisely we show there is a triangular relation between the fields of Multi-Agent Systems, Reinforcement Learning and Evolutionary Game Theory. We illustrate how these new insights can contribute to a better understanding of learning in MAS and to new improved learning algorithms. All three fields are introduced in a self-contained manner. Each relation is discussed in detail with the necessary (...)
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  34. Ron Sun (2001). Cognitive Science Meets Multi-Agent Systems: A Prolegomenon. Philosophical Psychology 14 (1):5 – 28.score: 168.0
    In the current research on multi-agent systems (MAS), many theoretical issues related to sociocultural processes have been touched upon. These issues are in fact intellectually profound and should prove to be significant for MAS. Moreover, these issues should have equally significant impact on cognitive science, if we ever try to understand cognition in the broad context of sociocultural environments in which cognitive agents exist. Furthermore, cognitive models as studied in cognitive science can help us in a substantial way to (...)
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  35. Edward R. Balotsky (2012). Just How Much Does Business Ethics Education Influence Practitioner Attitudes? An Empirical Investigation of a Multi-Level Ethical Learning Model. Journal of Business Ethics Education 9:101-128.score: 168.0
    The impact of business ethics education on socially responsible practitioner behavior is not a new concern. A sizable extant literature base questions pedagogies used and outcomes achieved by the few early studies done in this area. Ensuing research has not produced definitive answers; measurement, methodological, and generalizability issues are prevalent due to the fragmented nature of most work. Given little pre-existing structure, an empirically-based model is needed which both sheds more awareness on the ethics education-business conduct relationship and quantifies the (...)
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  36. Ronald Tinnevelt & Helder Schutteder (2008). Global Justice as Justice for a World of Largely Independent Nations? From Dualism to a Multi-Level Ethical Position. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 11 (4):519-538.score: 168.0
    Can global justice simply be seen as social justice writ large? According to Miller it cannot. Seen from the viewpoint of justice there are fundamental differences between the national and international sphere. Just like Nagel he strongly rejects monism. Yet unlike Nagel, Miller does not confine duties of justice to sovereign states. Different forms of human association require different principles of justice. Strangely enough, however, Miller does not replace Nagel?s dualism with a multi?level ethical position, but with a split?level one. (...)
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  37. Jan Vanhoof, Sven De Maeyer & Peter Van Petegem (2010). Variation in the Conduct and the Quality of Self‐Evaluations: A Multi‐Level Path Analysis. Educational Studies 37 (3):277-287.score: 168.0
    While self?evaluation leads to valuable results in some schools, it appears that in other schools this is true only to a lesser extent or not at all. This raises the question of how differences in the results of self?evaluations can be explained. This study looks at to what extent the results of self?evaluation are determined by the way in which self?evaluation is conducted, by characteristics relating to the general functioning of the school and by the support which schools enjoy. One (...)
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  38. G. B. Roest & N. B. Szirbik (2009). Escape and Intervention in Multi-Agent Systems. AI and Society 24 (1):25-34.score: 168.0
    This paper describes the escape/intervention concept as it is used in the agent growing environment framework. The Escape and Intervention is used in many multi-disciplinary areas, including agent research, artificial intelligence, groupware and workflow, process support, software engineering, and social sciences. Based on an ontological perspective, this paper explains how an interaction-oriented agent architecture and language (used for modelling, simulation, and development) makes use of an interaction pattern that is inspired from social contexts seen as multi-agent systems.
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  39. [deleted]Mark Scully, Blake Anderson, Terran Lane, Charles Gasparovic, Vince Magnotta, Wilmer Sibbitt, Carlos Roldan, Ron Kikinis & Henry Jeremy Bockholt (2010). An Automated Method for Segmenting White Matter Lesions Through Multi-Level Morphometric Feature Classification with Application to Lupus. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4:27.score: 168.0
    We demonstrate an automated, multi-level method to segment white matter brain lesions and apply it to lupus. The method makes use of local morphometric features based on multiple MR sequences, including T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery. After preprocessing, including co-registration, brain extraction, bias correction, and intensity standardization, 49 features are calculated for each brain voxel based on local morphometry. At each level of segmentation a supervised classifier takes advantage of a different subset of the features to conservatively (...)
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  40. Sharmila Savarimuthu, Maryam Purvis, Martin Purvis & Bastin Tony Roy Savarimuthu (2013). Gossip-Based Self-Organising Agent Societies and the Impact of False Gossip. Minds and Machines 23 (4):419-441.score: 165.0
    The objective of this work is to demonstrate how cooperative sharers and uncooperative free riders can be placed in different groups of an electronic society in a decentralised manner. We have simulated an agent-based open and decentralised P2P system which self-organises itself into different groups to avoid cooperative sharers being exploited by uncooperative free riders. This approach encourages sharers to move to better groups and restricts free riders into those groups of sharers without needing centralised control. Our approach is suitable (...)
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  41. Joeri Engelfriet, Catholijn M. Jonker & Jan Treur (2002). Compositional Verification of Multi-Agent Systems in Temporal Multi-Epistemic Logic. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 11 (2):195-225.score: 164.0
    Compositional verification aims at managing the complexity of theverification process by exploiting compositionality of the systemarchitecture. In this paper we explore the use of a temporal epistemiclogic to formalize the process of verification of compositionalmulti-agent systems. The specification of a system, its properties andtheir proofs are of a compositional nature, and are formalized within acompositional temporal logic: Temporal Multi-Epistemic Logic. It isshown that compositional proofs are valid under certain conditions.Moreover, the possibility of incorporating default persistence ofinformation in a system, (...)
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  42. Valentin Goranko & Wojciech Jamroga (2004). Comparing Semantics of Logics for Multi-Agent Systems. Synthese 139 (2):241 - 280.score: 164.0
    We draw parallels between several closely related logics that combine — in different proportions — elements of game theory, computation tree logics, and epistemic logics to reason about agents and their abilities. These are: the coalition game logics CL and ECL introduced by Pauly 2000, the alternating-time temporal logic ATL developed by Alur, Henzinger and Kupferman between 1997 and 2002, and the alternating-time temporal epistemic logic ATEL by van der Hoek and Wooldridge (2002). In particular, we establish some subsumption and (...)
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  43. Chad Sessions, Bidding in Reinforcement Learning: A Paradigm for Multi-Agent Systems.score: 164.0
    The paper presents an approach for developing multi-agent reinforcement learning systems that are made up of a coalition of modular agents. We focus on learning to segment sequences (sequential decision tasks) to create modular structures, through a bidding process that is based on reinforcements received during task execution. The approach segments sequences (and divides them up among agents) to facilitate the learning of the overall task. Notably, our approach does not rely on a priori knowledge or a priori structures. (...)
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  44. Francien Dechesne, Gennaro Di Tosto, Virginia Dignum & Frank Dignum (2013). No Smoking Here: Values, Norms and Culture in Multi-Agent Systems. [REVIEW] Artificial Intelligence and Law 21 (1):79 - 107.score: 152.0
    We use the example of the introduction of the anti-smoking legislation to model the relationship between the cultural make-up, in terms of values, of societies and the acceptance of and compliance with norms. We present two agent-based simulations and discuss the challenge of modeling sanctions and their relation to values and culture.
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  45. Christoph Möllers (2011). Multi-Level Democracy. Ratio Juris 24 (3):247-266.score: 146.0
    Modern democratic polities regularly operate at several political levels. In the case of the EU at the level of the member-states and the EU itself, and in addition at federal, regional, and municipal levels. Is there any democratic rule to determine which level is more legitimate than the others? The article argues that from a majoritarian perspective there is none. Individual citizens may have quite different preferences with regard to the level that is of particular political importance for them. The (...)
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  46. Stefan Vogt & Heiko Hecht (2001). Multi-Level Sensorimotor Interactions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (5):906-907.score: 146.0
    We share the authors' general approach to the study of perception and action, but rather than singling out a particular level of “late perceptual” and “early motor” processing for sensorimotor interactions, we argue that these can arise at multiple levels during action preparation and execution. Recent data on action-perception transfer are used to illustrate this perspective.
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  47. Stephan Hartmann & Gabriella Pigozzi (2007). Aggregation in Multi-Agent Systems and the Problem of Truth-Tracking. In AAMAS 07 (ed.), Proceedings of The Sixth International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems.score: 146.0
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  48. Anders Strand & Gry Oftedal (2009). Functional Stability and Systems Level Causation. Philosophy of Science 76 (5):809-820.score: 144.0
    A wide range of gene knockout experiments shows that functional stability is an important feature of biological systems. On this backdrop, we present an argument for higher‐level causation based on counterfactual dependence. Furthermore, we sketch a metaphysical picture providing resources to explain the metaphysical nature of functional stability, higher‐level causation, and the relevant notion of levels. Our account aims to clarify the role empirical results and philosophical assumptions should play in debates about reductionism and higher‐level causation. It thereby contributes (...)
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  49. Maximiliano Martínez & Andrés Moya (2011). Natural Selection and Multi-Level Causation. Philosophy and Theory in Biology 3 (20130604).score: 144.0
    In this paper, using a multilevel approach, we defend the positive role of natural selection in the generation of organismal form. Despite the currently widespread opinion that natural selection only plays a negative role in the evolution of form, we argue, in contrast, that the Darwinian factor is a crucial (but not exclusive) factor in morphological organization. Analyzing some classic arguments, we propose incorporating the notion of ‘downward causation’ into the concept of ‘natural selection.’ In our opinion, this kind of (...)
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  50. Birgitta Bergvall-Kåreborn & Anita Grahn (1996). Multi-Modal Thinking in Soft Systems Methodology's Rich Pictures. World Futures 47 (1):79-92.score: 144.0
    (1996). Multi‐modal thinking in soft systems methodology's rich pictures. World Futures: Vol. 47, Unity and Diversity in Contemporary Systems Tinking: Systematic Pictures at an Exhibition, pp. 79-92.
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