Search results for 'networks' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  13
    Iain A. Davies (2009). Alliances and Networks: Creating Success in the UK Fair Trade Market. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 86 (1):109 - 126.
    Data from a longitudinal study into the key management success factors in the fair trade industry provide insights into the essential nature of inter-organizational alliances and networks in creating the profitable and growing fair trade market in the UK. Drawing on three case studies and extensive industry interviews, we provide an interpretive perspective on the organizational relationships and business networks and the way in which these have engendered success for UK fair trade companies. Three types of benefit are (...)
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  2.  56
    Douglas Schuler (2010). Community Networks and the Evolution of Civic Intelligence. AI and Society 25 (3):291-307.
    Although the intrinsic physicality of human beings has not changed in millennia, the species has managed to profoundly reconstitute the physical and social world it inhabits. Although the word “profound” is insufficient to describe the vast changes our world has undergone, it is sufficiently neutral to encompass both the opportunities—and the challenges—that our age provides. It is a premise of my work that technology, particularly information and communication technology (ICT), offers spectacular opportunities for humankind to address its collective problems. The (...)
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  3.  10
    Shaheena Janjuha-Jivraj (2003). The Sustainability of Social Capital Within Ethnic Networks. Journal of Business Ethics 47 (1):31 - 43.
    This paper examines informal networks that support the British Asian business community. Ethnic communities have been crucial to facilitating the economic development of their migrant members, as they make the transition from economic refugees to citizens. The basis of this informal support is the notion of social capital offered to kinsmen who arrived with finite resources. However, as successive generations have become more integrated with the wider community reliance on these resources is forecast to decrease. Research has shown that (...)
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  4.  4
    Mary A. Beckie, Emily Huddart Kennedy & Hannah Wittman (2012). Scaling Up Alternative Food Networks: Farmers' Markets and the Role of Clustering in Western Canada. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 29 (3):333-345.
    Farmers’ markets, often structured as non-profit or cooperative organizations, play a prominent role in emerging alternative food networks of western Canada. The contribution of these social economy organizations to network development may relate, in part, to the process of regional clustering. In this study we explore the nature and significance of farmers’ market clustering in the western Canadian provinces of British Columbia and Alberta, focusing on the possible connection between clustering and a “scaling up” of alternative food networks. (...)
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  5.  21
    Frédéric Vandermoere & Raf Vanderstraeten (2012). Disciplinary Networks and Bounding: Scientific Communication Between Science and Technology Studies and the History of Science. [REVIEW] Minerva 50 (4):451-470.
    This article examines the communication networks within and between science and technology studies (STS) and the history of science. In particular, journal relatedness data are used to analyze some of the structural features of their disciplinary identities and relationships. The results first show that, although the history of science is more than half a century older than STS, the size of the STS network is more than twice that of the history of science network. Further, while a majority of (...)
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  6. Sharon R. Ford (2011). Deriving the Manifestly Qualitative World From a Pure-Power Base: Light-Like Networks. Philosophia Scientiae 15 (3):155-175.
    Seeking to derive the manifestly qualitative world of objects and entities without recourse to fundamental categoricity or qualitativity, I offer an account of how higher-order categorical properties and objects may emerge from a pure-power base. I explore the possibility of ‘fields’ whose fluctuations are force-carrying entities, differentiated with respect to a micro-topology of curled-up spatial dimensions. Since the spacetime paths of gauge bosons have zero ‘spacetime interval’ and no time-like extension, I argue that according them the status of fundamental entities (...)
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  7.  19
    Simone Gittelson, Alex Biedermann, Silvia Bozza & Franco Taroni (2013). Modeling the Forensic Two-Trace Problem with Bayesian Networks. Artificial Intelligence and Law 21 (2):221-252.
    The forensic two-trace problem is a perplexing inference problem introduced by Evett (J Forensic Sci Soc 27:375–381, 1987). Different possible ways of wording the competing pair of propositions (i.e., one proposition advanced by the prosecution and one proposition advanced by the defence) led to different quantifications of the value of the evidence (Meester and Sjerps in Biometrics 59:727–732, 2003). Here, we re-examine this scenario with the aim of clarifying the interrelationships that exist between the different solutions, and in this way, (...)
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  8.  15
    Caterina Marchionni (2013). Playing with Networks: How Economists Explain. [REVIEW] European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3 (3):331-352.
    Network theory is applied across the sciences to study phenomena as diverse as the spread of SARS, the topology of the cell, the structure of the Internet and job search behaviour. Underlying the study of networks is graph theory. Whether the graph represents a network of neurons, cells, friends or firms, it displays features that exclusively depend on the mathematical properties of the graph itself. However, the way in which graph theory is implemented to the modelling of networks (...)
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  9.  20
    Neelke Doorn (2010). A Rawlsian Approach to Distribute Responsibilities in Networks. Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (2):221-249.
    Due to their non-hierarchical structure, socio-technical networks are prone to the occurrence of the problem of many hands. In the present paper an approach is introduced in which people’s opinions on responsibility are empirically traced. The approach is based on the Rawlsian concept of Wide Reflective Equilibrium (WRE) in which people’s considered judgments on a case are reflectively weighed against moral principles and background theories, ideally leading to a state of equilibrium. Application of the method to a hypothetical case (...)
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  10.  4
    David Rooney, Tom Mandeville & Tim Kastelle (2013). Abstract Knowledge and Reified Financial Innovation: Building Wisdom and Ethics Into Financial Innovation Networks. Journal of Business Ethics 118 (3):447-459.
    This article argues that abstract knowledge in the form of formally developed theory plays an increasingly important role in the economy and in financial innovation in particular.knowledge is easily reified, and this is an aspect of knowledge work that is insufficiently researched. In this article, we problematize reification of abstract knowledge in financial innovation from wisdom, ethics, and social network analysis perspectives. This article, therefore, considers the composition and structures of financial innovation networks that help avoid reification by building (...)
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  11.  87
    André Sobczak (2003). Codes of Conduct in Subcontracting Networks: A Labour Law Perspective. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 44 (2-3):225 - 234.
    In the past ten years, many European companies organised into subcontracting networks have decided to adopt codes of conduct to regulate labour relations and to ensure the respect of fundamental social rights. This paper first determines the context and the issues to be addressed by codes of conduct within networks of companies, and second analyses the terms under which they can be implemented. The paper argues that codes of conduct can complement the standards developed by States, the European (...)
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  12.  11
    Stephen Chen (2009). Corporate Responsibilities in Internet-Enabled Social Networks. Journal of Business Ethics 90 (4):523 - 536.
    As demonstrated by the popularity of social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter, Internet-based social networks have become an important part of daily life, and many businesses are now involved in such networks either as service providers or as participants. Furthermore, inter-organizational networks are becoming an increasingly common feature of many industries, not only on the Internet. However, despite the growing importance of networks for businesses, there is little theoretical study on the social responsibilities of (...)
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  13.  2
    Nil Özçaǧlar-Toulouse, Amina Béji-Bécheur & Patrick E. Murphy (2009). Fair Trade in France: From Individual Innovators to Contemporary Networks. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 90 (4):589 - 606.
    Fair trade aims at humanising the capitalist economy by serving the community, instead of simply striving for financial profit. The current fair trade sector is an excellent example of an innovation where networks based on ethical principles can help to effectively serve this market. Our analysis is based on 48 interviews amongst fair trade innovators in France and illustrates the advent of a new type of entrepreneur, one that is grounded in the social and solidarity economy (SSE). Based on (...)
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  14.  7
    Giuseppina Migliore, Giorgio Schifani, Giovanni Dara Guccione & Luigi Cembalo (2014). Food Community Networks as Leverage for Social Embeddedness. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 27 (4):549-567.
    Social embeddedness, defined as the interaction of economic activities and social behavior, is used in this study as a conceptual tool to describe the growing phenomenon of food community networks (FCNs). The aim in this paper was to map the system of relations which the FCNs develop both inside and outside the network and, from the number of relations, it was inferred the influence of each FCN upon the formation of new socially embedded economic realities. A particular form of (...)
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  15.  24
    Alan Baker (2013). Complexity, Networks, and Non-Uniqueness. Foundations of Science 18 (4):687-705.
    The aim of the paper is to introduce some of the history and key concepts of network science to a philosophical audience, and to highlight a crucial—and often problematic—presumption that underlies the network approach to complex systems. Network scientists often talk of “the structure” of a given complex system or phenomenon, which encourages the view that there is a unique and privileged structure inherent to the system, and that the aim of a network model is to delineate this structure. I (...)
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  16.  1
    David J. Spielman, Kristin Davis, Martha Negash & Gezahegn Ayele (2011). Rural Innovation Systems and Networks: Findings From a Study of Ethiopian Smallholders. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 28 (2):195-212.
    Ethiopian agriculture is changing as new actors, relationships, and policies influence the ways in which small-scale, resource-poor farmers access and use information and knowledge in their agricultural production decisions. Although these changes suggest new opportunities for smallholders, too little is known about how changes will ultimately improve the wellbeing of smallholders in Ethiopia. Thus, we examine whether these changes are improving the ability of smallholders to innovate and thus improve their own welfare. In doing so, we analyze interactions between smallholders (...)
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  17.  1
    Kristen C. Nelson, Rachel F. Brummel, Nicholas Jordan & Steven Manson (2014). Social Networks in Complex Human and Natural Systems: The Case of Rotational Grazing, Weak Ties, and Eastern US Dairy Landscapes. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 31 (2):245-259.
    Multifunctional agricultural systems seek to expand upon production-based benefits to enhance family wellbeing and animal health, reduce inputs, and improve environmental services such as biodiversity and water quality. However, in many countries a landscape-level conversion is uneven at best and stalled at worst. This is particularly true across the eastern rural landscape in the United States. We explore the role of social networks as drivers of system transformation within dairy production in the eastern United States, specifically rotational grazing as (...)
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  18.  3
    Thomas M. Gruenenfelder, Gabriel Recchia, Tim Rubin & Michael N. Jones (2015). Graph‐Theoretic Properties of Networks Based on Word Association Norms: Implications for Models of Lexical Semantic Memory. Cognitive Science 40 (1):n/a-n/a.
    We compared the ability of three different contextual models of lexical semantic memory and of a simple associative model to predict the properties of semantic networks derived from word association norms. None of the semantic models were able to accurately predict all of the network properties. All three contextual models over-predicted clustering in the norms, whereas the associative model under-predicted clustering. Only a hybrid model that assumed that some of the responses were based on a contextual model and others (...)
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  19.  13
    Fiachra O’Brolcháin, Tim Jacquemard, David Monaghan, Noel O’Connor, Peter Novitzky & Bert Gordijn (2016). The Convergence of Virtual Reality and Social Networks: Threats to Privacy and Autonomy. Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (1):1-29.
    The rapid evolution of information, communication and entertainment technologies will transform the lives of citizens and ultimately transform society. This paper focuses on ethical issues associated with the likely convergence of virtual realities and social networks, hereafter VRSNs. We examine a scenario in which a significant segment of the world’s population has a presence in a VRSN. Given the pace of technological development and the popularity of these new forms of social interaction, this scenario is plausible. However, it brings (...)
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  20.  4
    R. I. M. Dunbar & M. Spoors (1995). Social Networks, Support Cliques, and Kinship. Human Nature 6 (3):273-290.
    Data on the number of adults that an individual contacts at least once a month in a set of British populations yield estimates of network sizes that correspond closely to those of the typical “sympathy group” size in humans. Men and women do not differ in their total network size, but women have more females and more kin in their networks than men do. Kin account for a significantly higher proportion of network members than would be expected by chance. (...)
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  21.  92
    Christophe Malaterre (2009). Are Self-Organizing Biochemical Networks Emergent? In Maryvonne Gérin & Marie-Christine Maurel (eds.), Origins of Life: Self-Organization and/or Biological Evolution? EDP Sciences 117--123.
    Biochemical networks are often called upon to illustrate emergent properties of living systems. In this contribution, I question such emergentist claims by means of theoretical work on genetic regulatory models and random Boolean networks. If the existence of a critical connectivity Kc of such networks has often been coined “emergent” or “irreducible”, I propose on the contrary that the existence of a critical connectivity Kc is indeed mathematically explainable in network theory. This conclusion also applies to many (...)
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  22.  25
    Lothar Philipps & Giovanni Sartor (1999). Introduction: From Legal Theories to Neural Networks and Fuzzy Reasoning. [REVIEW] Artificial Intelligence and Law 7 (2-3):115-128.
    Computational approaches to the law have frequently been characterized as being formalistic implementations of the syllogistic model of legal cognition: using insufficient or contradictory data, making analogies, learning through examples and experiences, applying vague and imprecise standards. We argue that, on the contrary, studies on neural networks and fuzzy reasoning show how AI & law research can go beyond syllogism, and, in doing that, can provide substantial contributions to the law.
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  23.  19
    Peter Csermely (2009). Weak Links: The Universal Key to the Stability of Networks and Complex Systems. Springer.
    A principle is born: the Granovetter study -- Why do we like networks? -- Network stability -- Weak links as stabilizers of complex systems -- Atoms, molecules, and macromolecules -- Weak links and cellular stability -- Weak links and the stability of organisms -- Social nets -- Networks of human culture -- The global web -- The Ecoweb -- Conclusions and perspectives.
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  24.  18
    John Bessant & George Tsekouras (2001). Developing Learning Networks. AI and Society 15 (1-2):82-98.
    Considerable interest has been shown in models of inter-organisational collaboration including clusters, networks and recently supply chains. Arguably effective configurations of enterprises can work together to achieve some form of what is termed ‘collective efficiency’ which enables them to cope with the challenges of the current competitive encironment. This paper addresses one aspect of such collective efficiency: the potential acceleration and improvement of the process of knowledge acquisition and capacity building through shared learning. It explores the concept of formal (...)
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  25.  4
    Carla C. J. M. Millar & Chong Ju Choi (2009). Networks, Social Norms and Knowledge Sub-Networks. Journal of Business Ethics 90 (4):565 - 574.
    Networks and the World Wide Web seem to provide an answer to efficiently creating and disseminating knowledge resources. Knowledge, however, is ambiguous in character, and contains both explicit (information) and tacit dimensions - the latter being difficult to value as well as to transfer. Participant identity, commitment and behaviour within the network also affect the sharing of knowledge. Hence, existing laws and norms (including property rights) which have been established on the basis of discrete transactions and monetary value-oriented exchange (...)
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  26.  4
    Jennifer Kleiner Fausett, Eleanor Gilmore-Szott & D. Micah Hester (forthcoming). Networking Ethics: A Survey of Bioethics Networks Across the U.S. HEC Forum:1-15.
    Ethics networks have emerged over the last few decades as a mechanism for individuals and institutions over various regions, cities and states to converge on healthcare-related ethical issues. However, little is known about the development and nature of such networks. In an effort to fill the gap in the knowledge about such networks, a survey was conducted that evaluated the organizational structure, missions and functions, as well as the outcomes/products of ethics networks across the country. Eighteen (...)
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  27.  3
    Jeanne M. Logsdon & Karen D. W. Patterson (2009). Deception in Business Networks: Is It Easier to Lie Online? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 90 (4):537 - 549.
    This article synthesizes research presented in several models of unethical behavior to develop propositions about the factors that facilitate and mitigate deception in online business communications. The work expands the social network perspective to incorporate the medium of communication as a significant influence on deception. We go beyond existing models by developing seven propositions that identify how social network and issue moral intensity characteristics influence the probability of deception in online business communication in comparison to traditional communication channels. Remedies to (...)
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  28.  3
    Peter J. Taylor, Michael Hoyler & David M. Evans (2008). A Geohistorical Study of 'The Rise of Modern Science': Mapping Scientific Practice Through Urban Networks, 1500–1900. [REVIEW] Minerva 46 (4):391-410.
    Using data on the ‘career’ paths of one thousand ‘leading scientists’ from 1450 to 1900, what is conventionally called the ‘rise of modern science’ is mapped as a changing geography of scientific practice in urban networks. Four distinctive networks of scientific practice are identified. A primate network centred on Padua and central and northern Italy in the sixteenth century expands across the Alps to become a polycentric network in the seventeenth century, which in turn dissipates into a weak (...)
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  29.  20
    Sean M. Quinlan (2009). Monstrous Births and Medical Networks: Debates Over Forensic Evidence, Generation Theory, and Obstetrical Authority in France, Ca. 1780-1815. Early Science and Medicine 14 (5):599-629.
    In France between 1780 and 1815, doctors opened a broad correspondence with medical faculties and public officials about foetal anomalies . Institutional and legal reforms forced doctors to encounter monstrous births with greater frequency, and they responded by developing new ideas about heredity and embryology to explain malformations to public officials. Though doctors achieved consensus on pathogenesis, they struggled to apply these ideas in forensic cases, especially with doubtful sex. Medical networks simultaneously allowed doctors to explore obstetrical techniques, as (...)
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  30.  8
    Carleen Maitland (1999). Global Diffusion of Interactive Networks: The Impact of Culture. [REVIEW] AI and Society 13 (4):341-356.
    The Internet and other interactive networks are diffusing across the globe at rates that vary from country to country. Typically, economic and market structure variables are used to explain these differences. The addition of culture to these variables will provide a more robust understanding of the differences in Internet and interactive network diffusion. Existing analyses that identify culture as a predictor of diffusion do not adequately specify the dimensions of culture and their impacts.This paper presents a set of propositions (...)
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  31.  12
    Sonja Grabner-Kräuter (2009). Web 2.0 Social Networks: The Role of Trust. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 90 (4):505 - 522.
    Online social networks (OSNs) have gained enormous popularity in recent years. Hundreds of millions of social network users reveal great amounts of personal information in the Web 2.0 environment that is largely devoid of security standards and practices. The central question in this article is why so many social network users are being so trusting. The focus is on theory-building on trust as a critical issue in OSNs. A theoretical framework is developed, which facilitates a multi-level and multi-dimensional analysis (...)
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  32.  3
    Trond Haga (2005). Action Research and Innovation in Networks, Dilemmas and Challenges: Two Cases. [REVIEW] AI and Society 19 (4):362-383.
    Innovation plays a central role in economic development, at regional and national level. The paper takes a practical approach to innovation and the support of entrepreneurship, based on experience of facilitating two contrasting networks of enterprises. Action research is seen as having a central role, but with different approaches according to the innovation process concerned, and the part of the process.
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  33. Mark Buchanan (2002). Small World: Uncovering Nature's Hidden Networks. Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
    Most of us have had the experience of running into a friend of a friend far away from home - and feeling that the world is somehow smaller than it should be. We usually write off such unlikely encounters as coincidence, even though it seems to happen with uncanny frequency. According to a handful of physicists at Los Alamos and other cutting-edge research labs around the world, it turns out that this 'small-world' phenomenon is no coincidence at all. Rather, it (...)
     
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  34.  20
    Philip Brey (1999). Worker Autonomy and the Drama of Digital Networks in Organizations. Journal of Business Ethics 22 (1):15 - 25.
    This essay considers the impact of digital networks in organizations on worker autonomy. Worker autonomy, the control that workers have over their own work situation, is claimed in this essay to be a key determinant for the quality of work, as well as an important moral goal. Digital networks pose significant threats to worker autonomy as well as opportunities for its enhancement. In this essay, the notion of worker autonomy is analyzed and evaluated for (...)
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  35.  16
    Ulrich J. Frey & Hannes Rusch (2013). Using Artificial Neural Networks for the Analysis of Social-Ecological Systems. Ecology and Society 18 (2).
    The literature on common pool resource (CPR) governance lists numerous factors that influence whether a given CPR system achieves ecological long-term sustainability. Up to now there is no comprehensive model to integrate these factors or to explain success within or across cases and sectors. Difficulties include the absence of large-N-studies (Poteete 2008), the incomparability of single case studies, and the interdependence of factors (Agrawal and Chhatre 2006). We propose (1) a synthesis of 24 success factors based on the current SES (...)
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  36.  31
    Hanna Krasnova, Oliver Günther, Sarah Spiekermann & Ksenia Koroleva (2009). Privacy Concerns and Identity in Online Social Networks. Identity in the Information Society 2 (1):39-63.
    Driven by privacy-related fears, users of Online Social Networks may start to reduce their network activities. This trend can have a negative impact on network sustainability and its business value. Nevertheless, very little is understood about the privacy-related concerns of users and the impact of those concerns on identity performance. To close this gap, we take a systematic view of user privacy concerns on such platforms. Based on insights from focus groups and an empirical study with 210 subjects, we (...)
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  37.  7
    Seremeti Lambrini & Kameas Achilles (2015). Composable Relations Induced in Networks of Aligned Ontologies: A Category Theoretic Approach. Axiomathes 25 (3):285-311.
    A network of aligned ontologies is a distributed system, whose components are interacting and interoperating, the result of this interaction being, either the extension of local assertions, which are valid within each individual ontology, to global assertions holding between remote ontology syntactic entities through a network path, or to local assertions holding between local entities of an ontology, but induced by remote ontologies, through a cycle in the network. The mechanism for achieving this interaction is the composition of relations. In (...)
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  38.  17
    Dan Hunter (1999). Out of Their Minds: Legal Theory in Neural Networks. [REVIEW] Artificial Intelligence and Law 7 (2-3):129-151.
    This paper examines the use of connectionism (neural networks) in modelling legal reasoning. I discuss how the implementations of neural networks have failed to account for legal theoretical perspectives on adjudication. I criticise the use of neural networks in law, not because connectionism is inherently unsuitable in law, but rather because it has been done so poorly to date. The paper reviews a number of legal theories which provide a grounding for the use of neural networks (...)
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  39.  19
    Judith Schrempf (2011). Nokia Siemens Networks: Just Doing Business – or Supporting an Oppressive Regime? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 103 (1):95-110.
    This case study examines the relevance of taking social and political factors into consideration when a corporation is making a key business decision. In September 2009, Simon Beresford-Wylie, the outgoing CEO of Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN), was reviewing the company’s achievements – while acknowledging the latest public criticism regarding NSN’s business relationship with the Iranian government. In the summer of 2009, NSN was accused of complicity in human rights violations linked to Iran’s presidential election. The company sold network infrastructure (...)
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  40.  19
    Paul Skokowski (2007). Networks with Attitudes. Artificial Intelligence and Society 22 (3):461-470.
    Does connectionism spell doom for folk psychology? I examine the proposal that cognitive representational states such as beliefs can play no role if connectionist models - - interpreted as radical new cognitive theories -- take hold and replace other cognitive theories. Though I accept that connectionist theories are radical theories that shed light on cognition, I reject the conclusion that neural networks do not represent. Indeed, I argue that neural networks may actually give us a better working notion (...)
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  41.  6
    Dieter Merkl, Erich Schweighoffer & Werner Winiwarter (1999). Exploratory Analysis of Concept and Document Spaces with Connectionist Networks. Artificial Intelligence and Law 7 (2-3):185-209.
    Exploratory analysis is an area of increasing interest in the computational linguistics arena. Pragmatically speaking, exploratory analysis may be paraphrased as natural language processing by means of analyzing large corpora of text. Concerning the analysis, appropriate means are statistics, on the one hand, and artificial neural networks, on the other hand. As a challenging application area for exploratory analysis of text corpora we may certainly identify text databases, be it information retrieval or information filtering systems. With this paper we (...)
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  42.  21
    Andreas W. Falkenberg & Joyce Falkenberg (2009). Ethics in International Value Chain Networks: The Case of Telenor in Bangladesh. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 90 (3):355 - 369.
    What is the responsibility of multinational enterprises in international value chain networks in countries with inadequate institutions? In this article, we present an ethical framework that allows for evaluation of institutions at the macro, mezzo, and micro levels. This framework is used to analyze the case of Telenor in Bangladesh. Telenor is a telecommunications company based in Norway. It is the majority owner (62%) in Grameenphone in Bangladesh. The minority owner is Grameen Telecom, which is part of the Grameen (...)
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  43.  17
    Thomas R. Shultz & Alan C. Bale (2006). Neural Networks Discover a Near-Identity Relation to Distinguish Simple Syntactic Forms. Minds and Machines 16 (2):107-139.
    Computer simulations show that an unstructured neural-network model [Shultz, T. R., & Bale, A. C. (2001). Infancy, 2, 501–536] covers the essential features␣of infant learning of simple grammars in an artificial language [Marcus, G. F., Vijayan, S., Bandi Rao, S., & Vishton, P. M. (1999). Science, 283, 77–80], and generalizes to examples both outside and inside of the range of training sentences. Knowledge-representation analyses confirm that these networks discover that duplicate words in the sentences are nearly identical and that (...)
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  44.  5
    Hedi Amor, Fabien Corblin, Eric Fanchon, Adrien Elena & Laurent Trilling (2013). Formal Methods for Hopfield-Like Networks. Acta Biotheoretica 61 (1):21-39.
    Building a meaningful model of biological regulatory network is usually done by specifying the components and their interactions, by guessing the values of parameters, by comparing the predicted behaviors to the observed ones, and by modifying in a trial-error process both architecture and parameters in order to reach an optimal fitness. We propose here a different approach to construct and analyze biological models avoiding the trial-error part, where structure and dynamics are represented as formal constraints. We apply the method to (...)
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  45.  14
    Heidrun Åm (2011). Trust as Glue in Nanotechnology Governance Networks. NanoEthics 5 (1):115-128.
    This paper reflects on the change of relations among participants in nanotechnology governance through their participation in governance processes such as stakeholder dialogues. I show that policymaking in practice—that is, the practice of coming and working together in such stakeholder dialogues—has the potential for two-fold performative effects: it can contribute to the development of trust and mutual responsibility on the part of the involved actors, and it may bring about effects on the formation of boundaries of what is sayable and (...)
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  46.  16
    Sarah Jastram (2010). Transnational Norm-Building Networks and the Legitimacy of Corporate Social Responsibility Standards. Journal of Business Ethics 97 (2):223 - 239.
    In the following article, we propose an analytical framework for the analysis of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Standards based on the paradigmatic nexus of voice and entitlement. We follow the theory of decentration and present the concept of Transnational Norm-Building Networks (TNNs), which — as we argue — comprise a new nexus of voice and entitlement beyond the nation—state level. Furthermore, we apply the analytical framework to the ISO 26000 initiative and the Global Compact. We conclude the article with (...)
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  47. Georges Thill (1994). The Relevance of Association Networks for/in a Sustainable Information and Communication Society. AI and Society 8 (1):70-77.
    This contribution deals with taking up the challenge of sustainable development through human centred systems which aim at the creation and repatriation of global quality in each society, and which are seen to operate as a whole, on a local, regional or even a planetary scale. The paper argues that, particularly in a field such as information, communication, environment, technological processes and innovations, which have structurally revolutionised first of all manufacturing but also education and daily living at the same time. (...)
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  48.  1
    Alberto Testolin, Ivilin Stoianov, Alessandro Sperduti & Marco Zorzi (2015). Learning Orthographic Structure With Sequential Generative Neural Networks. Cognitive Science 39 (8):n/a-n/a.
    Learning the structure of event sequences is a ubiquitous problem in cognition and particularly in language. One possible solution is to learn a probabilistic generative model of sequences that allows making predictions about upcoming events. Though appealing from a neurobiological standpoint, this approach is typically not pursued in connectionist modeling. Here, we investigated a sequential version of the restricted Boltzmann machine, a stochastic recurrent neural network that extracts high-order structure from sensory data through unsupervised generative learning and can encode contextual (...)
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  49.  5
    Fiorella de Cindio & Laura Anna Ripamonti (2010). Nature and Roles for Community Networks in the Information Society. AI and Society 25 (3):265-278.
    This paper draws on the authors more than 10 years of involvement in the action research experience of the Milan Community Network. It discusses the roles that community networks play in the Information Society: starting from a neat characterization of “online community”, community networks are presented as ICT learning communities, as local online communities and as complementary to Digital Cities. Finally, critical insights into institutional aspects of community networks are considered from the perspective of their sustainability.
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  50.  14
    Daisuke Okamoto (2009). Social Relationship of a Firm and the Csp–Cfp Relationship in Japan: Using Artificial Neural Networks. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 87 (1):117 - 132.
    As a criterion of a good firm, a lucrative and growing business has been said to be important. Recently, however, high profitability and high growth potential are insufficient for the criteria, because social influences exerted by recent firms have been extremely significant. In this paper, high social relationship is added to the list of the criteria. Empirical corporate social performance versus corporate financial performance (CSP–CFP) relationship studies that consider social relationship are very limited in Japan, and there are no definite (...)
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