Search results for 'neutral' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Erik C. Banks (2010). Neutral Monism Reconsidered. Philosophical Psychology 23 (2):173-187.score: 24.0
    Neutral monism is a position in metaphysics defended by Mach, James, and Russell in the early twentieth century. It holds that minds and physical objects are essentially two different orderings of the same underlying neutral elements of nature. This paper sets out some of the central concepts, theses and the historical background of ideas that inform this doctrine of elements. The discussion begins with the classic neutral monism of Mach, James, and Russell in the first part of (...)
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  2. Tom Dougherty (2013). Agent-Neutral Deontology. Philosophical Studies 163 (2):527-537.score: 24.0
    According to the “Textbook View,” there is an extensional dispute between consequentialists and deontologists, in virtue of the fact that only the latter defend “agent-relative” principles—principles that require an agent to have a special concern with making sure that she does not perform certain types of action. I argue that, contra the Textbook View, there are agent-neutral versions of deontology. I also argue that there need be no extensional disagreement between the deontologist and consequentialist, as characterized by the Textbook (...)
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  3. Pauline Kleingeld (1993). The Problematic Status of Gender-Neutral Language in the History of Philosophy: The Case of Kant. Philosophical Forum 25:134-150.score: 24.0
    The increasingly common use of inclusive language (e.g., "he or she") in representing past philosophers' views is often inappropriate. Using Immanuel Kant's work as an example, I compare his use of terms such as "human race" and "human being" with his views on women to show that his use of generic terms does not prove that he includes women. I then discuss three different approaches to this issue, found in recent Kant-literature, and show why each of them is insufficient. I (...)
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  4. Douglas W. Portmore (2001). McNaughton and Rawling on the Agent-Relative/Agent-Neutral Distinction. Utilitas 13 (03):350-356.score: 24.0
    In this paper, I criticize David McNaughton and Piers Rawling's formalization of the agent-relative/agent-neutral distinction. I argue that their formalization is unable to accommodate an important ethical distinction between two types of conditional obligations. I then suggest a way of revising their formalization so as to fix the problem.
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  5. Vaughn E. Huckfeldt (2007). Categorical and Agent-Neutral Reasons in Kantian Justifications of Morality. Philosophia 35 (1):23-41.score: 24.0
    The dispute between Kantians and Humeans over whether practical reason can justify moral reasons for all agents is often characterized as a debate over whether reasons are hypothetical or categorical. Instead, this debate must be understood in terms of the distinction between agent-neutral and agent-relative reasons. This paper considers Alan Gewirth’s Reason and Morality as a case study of a Kantian justification of morality focused on deriving categorical reasons from hypothetical reasons. The case study demonstrates first, the possibility of (...)
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  6. Toni Rønnow-Rasmussen (2009). Normative Reasons and the Agent-Neutral/Relative Dichotomy. Philosophia 37 (2):227-243.score: 24.0
    The distinction between the agent-relative and the agent-neutral plays a prominent role in recent attempts to taxonomize normative theories. Its importance extends to most areas in practical philosophy, though. Despite its popularity, the distinction remains difficult to get a good grip on. In part this has to do with the fact that there is no consensus concerning the sort of objects to which we should apply the distinction. Thomas Nagel distinguishes between agent-neutral and agent-relative values, reasons, and principles; (...)
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  7. Theodore Hailperin (2001). Potential Infinite Models and Ontologically Neutral Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 30 (1):79-96.score: 24.0
    The paper begins with a more carefully stated version of ontologically neutral (ON) logic, originally introduced in (Hailperin, 1997). A non-infinitistic semantics which includes a definition of potential infinite validity follows. It is shown, without appeal to the actual infinite, that this notion provides a necessary and sufficient condition for provability in ON logic.
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  8. Peter Fishburn & Ward Edwards (1997). Discount-Neutral Utility Models for Denumerable Time Streams. Theory and Decision 43 (2):139-166.score: 24.0
    This paper formulates and axiomatizes utility models for denumerable time streams that make no commitment in regard to discounting future outcomes. The models address decision under certainty and decision under risk. Independence assumptions in both contexts lead to additive or multiplicative utilities over time periods that allow unambiguous comparisons of the relative importance of different periods. The models accommodate all patterns of future valuation. This discount-neutral feature is attained by restricting preference comparisons to outcome streams or probability distributions on (...)
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  9. John Harvey (2007). Neutral Monism and the Social Character of Consciousness. Philosophy Today 51 (1):52-59.score: 24.0
    After thousands of years of work, the mind-body problem endures as one of the most tantalizing issues in metaphysics. For my purposes I formulate the question as: What is the relation between consciousness and matter? The solution to the mind-body problem that I offer is a version of neutral monism, the view that mental and physical events are both to be derived from some stuff that in itself is neither physical nor mental. This paper specifies the conditions under which (...)
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  10. Robert N. McCauley & J. Henrich (2006). Susceptibility to the Muller-Lyer Illusion, Theory-Neutral Observation, and the Diachronic Penetrability of the Visual Input System. Philosophical Psychology 19 (1):79-101.score: 21.0
    Jerry Fodor has consistently cited the persistence of illusions--especially the M.
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  11. Robert Tully (1988). Russell's Neutral Monism. Russell 8:209-224.score: 21.0
  12. G. Kliewer (1998). Neutral Color Concepts. Philosophical Studies 91 (1):21-41.score: 21.0
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  13. Marc Ebner, Mark Shackleton & Rob Shipman (2001). How Neutral Networks Influence Evolvability. Complexity 7 (2):19-33.score: 21.0
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  14. Michael Kopp (2010). Speciation and the Neutral Theory of Biodiversity. Bioessays 32 (7):564-570.score: 21.0
  15. Dave Speijer (2011). Does Constructive Neutral Evolution Play an Important Role in the Origin of Cellular Complexity? Bioessays 33 (5):344-349.score: 21.0
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  16. Emmett Holman (2008). Panpsychism, Physicalism, Neutral Monism and the Russellian Theory of Mind. Journal of Consciousness Studies 15 (5):48-67.score: 18.0
    As some see it, an impasse has been reached on the mind- body problem between mainstream physicalism and mainstream dualism. So lately another view has been gaining popularity, a view that might be called the 'Russellian theory of mind' (RTM) since it is inspired by some ideas once put forth by Bertrand Russell. Most versions of RTM are panpsychist, but there is at least one version that rejects panpsychism and styles itself as physicalism, and neutral monism is also a (...)
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  17. Daan Evers (2009). Humean Agent-Neutral Reasons? Philosophical Explorations 12 (1):55 – 67.score: 18.0
    In his recent book Slaves of the Passions , Mark Schroeder defends a Humean account of practical reasons ( hypotheticalism ). He argues that it is compatible with 'genuinely agent-neutral reasons'. These are reasons that any agent whatsoever has. According to Schroeder, they may well include moral reasons. Furthermore, he proposes a novel account of a reason's weight, which is supposed to vindicate the claim that agent-neutral reasons ( if they exist), would be weighty irrespective of anyone's desires. (...)
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  18. Dolf Rami, Non‐Standard Neutral Free Logic, Empty Names and Negative Existentials.score: 18.0
    In this paper I am concerned with an analysis of negative existential sentences that contain proper names only by using negative or neutral free logic. I will compare different versions of neutral free logic with the standard system of negative free logic (Burge, Sainsbury) and aim to defend my version of neutral free logic that I have labeled non-standard neutral free logic.
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  19. Kenneth M. Ehrenberg (2009). Defending the Possibility of a Neutral Functional Theory of Law. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 29 (1):91.score: 18.0
    I argue that there is methodological space for a functional explanation of the nature of law that does not commit the theorist to a view about the value of that function for society, nor whether law is the best means of accomplishing it. A functional explanation will nonetheless provide a conceptual framework for a better understanding of the nature of law. First I examine the proper role for function in a theory of law and then argue for the possibility of (...)
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  20. Douglas W. Portmore (forthcoming). Agent-Neutral and Agent-Relative. In J. E. Crimmins & D. C. Long (eds.), Encyclopedia of Utilitarianism.score: 18.0
    This is an introduction to the agent-relative/agent-neutral distinction as it pertains to utilitarianism.
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  21. Jeremy Fantl (2006). Is Metaethics Morally Neutral? Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 87 (1):24–44.score: 18.0
    I argue, contra Dreier, Blackburn, and others, that there are no morally neutral metaethical positions. Every metaethical position commits you to the denial of some moral statement. So, for example, the metaethical position that there are no moral properties commits you to the denial of the (quite plausible) moral conjunction of 1) it is right to interfere violently when someone is wrongly causing massive suffering and 2) it is wrong to interfere violently when only non-moral properties are at stake. (...)
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  22. Douglas W. Portmore (forthcoming). Agent-Relative Vs. Agent-Neutral. In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley Blackwell.score: 18.0
    This is a general introduction to the agent-relative/agent-neutral distinction.
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  23. Michael Ridge (2001). Agent-Neutral Consequentialism From the Inside-Out: Concern for Integrity Without Self-Indulgence. Utilitas 13 (02):236-.score: 18.0
    Is there a justification of concern for one's own integrity that agent-neutral consequentialism cannot explain? In addressing this question, it is important to be clear about what is meant by 'agent-neutral', 'consequentialism', and 'integrity'. Let 'consequentialism' be constituted by the following two theses.
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  24. Michael Ridge, Reasons for Action: Agent-Neutral Vs. Agent-Relative. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 18.0
    The agent-relative/agent-neutral distintion is widely and rightly regarded as a philosophically important one. Unfortunately, the distinction is often drawn in different and mutually incompatible ways. The agent-relative/agent-neutral distinction has historically been drawn three main ways: the ‘principle-based distinction’, the ‘reason-statement-based distinction’ and the ‘perspective-based distinction’. Each of these approaches has its own distinctive vices (Sections 1-3). However, a slightly modified version of the historically influential principle-based approach seems to avoid most if not all of these vices (Section 4). (...)
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  25. Anita Silvers (2003). On the Possibility and Desirability of Constructing a Neutral Conception of Disability. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (6):471-487.score: 18.0
    Disagreement about the properattitude toward disability proliferates. Yetlittle attention has been paid to an importantmeta-question, namely, whether ``disability'' isan essentially contested concept. If so, recentdebates between bioethicists and the disabilitymovement leadership cannot be resolved. Inthis essay I identify some of the presumptionsthat make their encounters so contentious. Much more must happen, I argue, for anydiscussions about disability policy andpolitics to be productive. Progress depends onconstructing a neutral conception ofdisability, one that neither devaluesdisability nor implies that persons withdisabilities are inadequate. (...)
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  26. Michael R. Dietrich & Roberta L. Millstein (2008). The Role of Causal Processes in the Neutral and Nearly Neutral Theories. Philosophy of Science 75 (5):548-559.score: 18.0
    The neutral and nearly neutral theories of molecular evolution are sometimes characterized as theories about drift alone, where drift is described solely as an outcome, rather than a process. We argue, however, that both selection and drift, as causal processes, are integral parts of both theories. However, the nearly neutral theory explicitly recognizes alleles and/or molecular substitutions that, while engaging in weakly selected causal processes, exhibit outcomes thought to be characteristic of random drift. A narrow focus on (...)
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  27. Patrick Forber, Testing the Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution.score: 18.0
    MacDonald and Kreitman (1991) propose a test of the neutral mutationrandom drift (NM-RD) hypothesis, the central claim of the neutral theory of molecular evolution. The test involves generating predictions from the NM-RD hypothesis about patterns of molecular substitutions. Alternative selection hypotheses predict that the data will deviate from the predictions of the NM-RD hypothesis in specifiable ways. To conduct the test Mac- Donald and Kreitman examine the evolutionary dynamics of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene in three species of (...)
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  28. Eytan Zweig (2009). Number-Neutral Bare Plurals and the Multiplicity Implicature. Linguistics and Philosophy 32 (4):353-407.score: 18.0
    Bare plurals (dogs) behave in ways that quantified plurals (some dogs) do not. For instance, while the sentence John owns dogs implies that John owns more than one dog, its negation John does not own dogs does not mean “John does not own more than one dog”, but rather “John does not own a dog”. A second puzzling behavior is known as the dependent plural reading; when in the scope of another plural, the ‘more than one’ meaning of the plural (...)
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  29. A. Wertheimer (2012). Voluntary Consent: Why a Value-Neutral Concept Won't Work. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 37 (3):226-254.score: 18.0
    Some maintain that voluntariness is a value-neutral concept. On that view, someone acts involuntarily if subject to a controlling influence or has no acceptable alternatives. I argue that a value-neutral conception of voluntariness cannot explain when and why consent is invalid and that we need a moralized account of voluntariness. On that view, most concerns about the voluntariness of consent to participate in research are not well founded.
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  30. Sarben Sarkar (2010). Implications of Space-Time Foam for Entanglement Correlations of Neutral Kaons. Foundations of Physics 40 (7):978-1003.score: 18.0
    The role of CPT invariance and consequences for bipartite entanglement of neutral (K) mesons are discussed. A relaxation of CPT leads to a modification of the entanglement which is known as the ω effect. The relaxation of assumptions required to prove the CPT theorem are examined within the context of models of space-time foam. It is shown that the evasion of the EPR type entanglement implied by CPT (which is connected with spin statistics) is rather elusive. Relaxation of locality (...)
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  31. Robert Stern (2006). Hegel's Doppelsatz: A Neutral Reading. Journal of the History of Philosophy 44 (2):235-266.score: 18.0
    : This paper offers a distinctive interpretation of Hegel's Doppelsatz from the Preface to the Philosophy of Right: 'What is rational is actual; and what is actual is rational'. This has usually been interpreted either conservatively (as claiming that everything that is, is right or good) or progressively (that if the world were actual, it would be right or good, but that there is a distinction that can be drawn between existence and actuality). My aim in this paper is to (...)
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  32. A. Romannikov (2011). Ehrenfest's Paradox and Radial Electric Field in Quasi-Neutral Tokamak Plasma. Foundations of Physics 41 (8):1331-1337.score: 18.0
    A relation between physical consequences of the so-called Ehrenfest’s Paradox and the radial electric field E r (r) in the classical quasi-neutral tokamak plasma is shown. Basic author’s approach to the relativistic nature of the tokamak E r (r) has been described in Romannikov (J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 108:340–348, 2009). The experiment which can resolve the Ehrenfest’s Paradox is presented.
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  33. Hans Oberdiek (1990). Technology: Autonomous or Neutral. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 4 (1):67 – 77.score: 18.0
    Abstract Two conflicting visions of technology nevertheless agree that scientists and engineers bear little moral responsibility for their inventions. According to one vision, technology is largely autonomous,? that is, self?determinative operating according to its own blind laws independently of human will. According to the other, technology is fully controllable, but control rests solely with ?end?users? as technology is, in itself, value?neutral. After a brief characterization of the domain of technology, each vision of technology is criticized in turn. Despite the (...)
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  34. Justin Klocksiem (2011). Perspective-Neutral Intrinsic Value. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 92 (3):323-337.score: 18.0
    Is it possible to do a good thing, or to make the world a better place? Some argue that it is not possible, because perspective-neutral value does not exist. Some argue that ‘good’ does not play the right grammatical role; or that all good things are good ‘in a way’; or that goodness is inherently perspective-dependent. I argue that the logical and semantic properties of ‘good’ are what we should expect of an evaluative predicate; that the many ways of (...)
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  35. Paul Wennekes, James Rosindell & Rampal Etienne (forthcoming). The Neutral—Niche Debate: A Philosophical Perspective. Acta Biotheoretica.score: 18.0
    Abstract Ecological communities around the world are under threat while a consensus theory of community structure remains elusive. In the last decade ecologists have struggled with two seemingly opposing theories: niche-based theory that explains diversity with species’ differences and the neutral theory of biodiversity that claims that much of the diversity we observe can be explained without explicitly invoking species’ differences. Although ecologists are increasingly attempting to reconcile these two theories, there is still much resistance against the neutral (...)
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  36. Bruce Raymond Long (forthcoming). Information is Intrinsically Semantic but Alethically Neutral. Synthese:1-21.score: 18.0
    In this paper I argue that, according to a particular physicalist conception of information, information is both alethically neutral or non-alethic, and is intrinsically semantic. The conception of information presented is physicalist and reductionist, and is contrary to most current pluralist and non-reductionist philosophical opinion about the nature of information. The ontology assumed for this conception of information is based upon physicalist non-eliminative ontic structural realism. However, the argument of primary interest is that information so construed is intrinsically semantic (...)
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  37. Anita Silvers (2001). A Neutral Ethical Framework for Understanding the Role of Disability in the Life Cycle. American Journal of Bioethics 1 (3):57-58.score: 18.0
    (2001). A Neutral Ethical Framework for Understanding the Role of Disability in the Life Cycle. The American Journal of Bioethics: Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 57-58.
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  38. Rex Ahdar (2013). Is Secularism Neutral? Ratio Juris 26 (3):404-429.score: 18.0
    This article argues that secularism is not neutral. Secularization is a process, the secular state is a structure, whereas secularism is a political philosophy. Secularism takes two main forms: first, a “benevolent” secularism that endeavours to treat all religious and nonreligious belief systems even-handedly, and, second, a “hostile” kind that privileges unbelief and excludes religion from the public sphere. I analyze the European Court of Human Rights decision in Lautsi v Italy, which illustrates these types. The article concludes that (...)
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  39. Reinhard Selten, Abdolkarim Sadrieh & Klaus Abbink (1999). Money Does Not Induce Risk Neutral Behavior, but Binary Lotteries Do Even Worse. Theory and Decision 46 (3):213-252.score: 18.0
    If payoffs are tickets for binary lotteries, which involve only two money prizes, then rationality requires expected value maximization in tickets. This payoff scheme was increasingly used to induce risk neutrality in experiments. The experiment presented here involved lottery choice and evaluation tasks. One subject group was paid in binary lottery tickets, another directly in money. Significantly greater deviations from risk neutral behavior are observed with binary lottery payoffs. This discrepancy increases when subjects have easy access to the alternatives' (...)
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  40. A. S. Iltis (2009). The Failed Search for the Neutral in the Secular: Public Bioethics in the Face of the Culture Wars. Christian Bioethics 15 (3):220-233.score: 18.0
    Public bioethics focuses on deliberating about, recommending, or establishing social policies or practices concerning health care and biotechnology. A brace of premises underlies much of the work of public bioethics. First, there is the view that, if one approaches reality and human life as if both were without ultimate significance, one will find that one shares a common public bioethics. That is, if one abstains not only from any religious concerns, but even from philosophical reflections on the circumstance that life (...)
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  41. Andrei Marmor (2006). Legal Positivism: Still Descriptive and Morally Neutral. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 26 (4):683-704.score: 18.0
    It has become increasingly popular to argue that legal positivism is actually a normative theory, and that it cannot be purely descriptive and morally neutral as H.L.A. Hart has suggested. This article purports to disprove this line of thought. It argues that legal positivism is best understood as a descriptive, morally neutral, theory about the nature of law. The article distinguishes between five possible views about the relations between normative claims and legal positivism, arguing that some of them (...)
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  42. Roland Pierik & Wibren van der Burg (2011). The Neutral State and the Mandatory Crucifix. Religion and Human Rights 6 (3):259–264.score: 18.0
    In this article we present a conceptual overview of relevant interpretations of what state neutrality may imply; we suggest a distinction between inclusive neutrality and exclusive neutrality. This distinction provides a useful framework for understanding the several positions as presented by the parties in the Lautsi case. We conclude by suggesting a solution of the Lautsi case that might provide a more viable solution.
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  43. Mark Israelit (2007). Creation of Neutral Fundamental Particles in the Weyl–Dirac Version of Wesson's IMT. Foundations of Physics 37 (11):1628-1642.score: 18.0
    Spherically symmetric entities filled with matter and induced by the 5D bulk may be built in the empty 4D space-time. The substance of the entity, the latter regarded as a fundamental particle, is characterized by the prematter equation of state P=−ρ. The particle is covered in a Schwarzschild-like envelope and from the outside it is characterized by mass and radius. One can regard these entities as neutral fundamental particles being constituents of quarks and leptons. The presented classical models are (...)
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  44. Bat-Ami Bar On (1987). Could There Be a Humean Sex-Neutral General Idea of Man? Philosophy Research Archives 13:367-377.score: 18.0
    In this paper I suggest that the Humean male and Humean female of Hume’s Treatise would have different mental lives due to a great extent to what Hume takes to be the socio-culture in place. Specifically, I show that the Humean male would be incapable but the Humean female would be capable of forming a Humean sex-neutral general idea of man. The Humean male’s inability is not innate but the result of the trauma he experiences when discovering sexuality, reproduction (...)
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  45. H. Gash (2014). Radical Constructivism Is Neutral. Constructivist Foundations 9 (2):271-273.score: 18.0
    Open peer commentary on the article “Ethics: A Radical-constructivist Approach” by Andreas Quale. Upshot: Andreas Quale in his article defends radical constructivism (RC) from the accusation of being guilty of being ethically neutral. His defence is based on a distinction between clearly communicable cognitive knowledge and less easily communicable value-laden non-cognitive knowledge. The position taken in this commentary is that RC is a process and provides a way of understanding values. To condemn RC for ethical neutrality is to confuse (...)
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  46. Jiaxin Peng, Chen Qu, Ruolei Gu & Yue-Jia Luo (2012). Description-Based Reappraisal Regulate the Emotion Induced by Erotic and Neutral Images in a Chinese Population. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 18.0
    Previous emotion-regulation research has shown that the late positive potential (LPP) is sensitive to the down-regulation of emotion; however, whether LPP is also sensitive to the up-regulation of emotion remains unclear. The present study examined the description-based reappraisal effects on the up-regulation of positive emotions induced by erotic and neutral images in a Chinese population. Self-reported ratings and event-related potential (ERP) were recorded when subjects viewed pleasant and neutral images, which were shown after either a neutral or (...)
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  47. Yue-Jia Luo Jiaxin Peng, Chen Qu, Ruolei Gu (2012). Description-Based Reappraisal Regulate the Emotion Induced by Erotic and Neutral Images in a Chinese Population. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 18.0
    Previous emotion-regulation research has shown that the late positive potential (LPP) is sensitive to the down-regulation of emotion; however, whether LPP is also sensitive to the up-regulation of emotion remains unclear. The present study examined the description-based reappraisal effects on the up-regulation of positive emotions induced by erotic and neutral images in a Chinese population. Self-reported ratings and event-related potential (ERP) were recorded when subjects viewed pleasant and neutral images, which were shown after either a neutral or (...)
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  48. Jari K. Hietanen Laura M. Pönkänen (2012). Eye Contact with Neutral and Smiling Faces: Effects on Autonomic Responses and Frontal EEG Asymmetry. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 18.0
    In our previous studies we have shown that seeing another person “live” with a direct vs. averted gaze results in greater relative left-sided frontal asymmetry in the electroencephalography (EEG), associated with approach motivation, and in enhanced skin conductance responses indicating autonomic arousal. In our studies, however, the stimulus persons had a neutral expression. In real-life social interaction, eye contact is often associated with a smile, which is another signal of the sender’s approach-related motivation. A smile could therefore enhance the (...)
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  49. Per Sundström (1998). Interpreting the Notion That Technology is Value-Neutral. Medicine, Healthcare and Philosophy 1 (1):41-45.score: 17.0
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  50. R. Audi (2009). Religion and the Politics of Science: Can Evolutionary Biology Be Religiously Neutral? Philosophy and Social Criticism 35 (1-2):23-50.score: 16.0
    This article examines the permissibility of teaching evolution in the public schools of a religiously diverse society. Science is committed to methodological naturalism, which is a limited epistemological position that is silent on issues of religious importance. The article argues that it is possible to teach evolution under the assumptions of methodological naturalism without violating the principle, of secular rationale or the neutrality principle which apply to religion in a pluralistic democracy. However, neither creationism nor Intelligent Design qualify for inclusion (...)
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