Search results for 'obligations' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Ii Hart On Obligations (1999). Obligation and Joint Commitment. Utilitas 11 (2).score: 60.0
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  2. Shyam Nair (forthcoming). Consequences of Reasoning with Conflicting Obligations. Mind.score: 24.0
    Since at least the 1960s, deontic logicians and ethicists have worried about whether there can be normative systems that allow conflicting obligations. Surprisingly however, little direct attention has been paid to questions about how we may reason with conflicting obligations. In this paper, I present a problem for making sense of reasoning with conflicting obligations and argue that no deontic logic can solve this problem. I then develop an account of reasoning based on the popular idea in (...)
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  3. Helga Varden (2008). Kant's Non-Voluntarist Conception of Political Obligations: Why Justice is Impossible in the State of Nature. Kantian Review 13 (2):1-45.score: 24.0
    This paper presents and defends Kant’s non-voluntarist conception of political obligations. I argue that civil society is not primarily a prudential requirement for justice; it is not merely a necessary evil or moral response to combat our corrupting nature or our tendency to act viciously, thoughtlessly or in a biased manner. Rather, civil society is constitutive of rightful relations because only in civil society can we interact in ways reconcilable with each person’s innate right to freedom. Civil society is (...)
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  4. Mark R. Wicclair (2008). Is Conscientious Objection Incompatible with a Physician's Professional Obligations? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 29 (3):171--185.score: 24.0
    In response to physicians who refuse to provide medical services that are contrary to their ethical and/or religious beliefs, it is sometimes asserted that anyone who is not willing to provide legally and professionally permitted medical services should choose another profession. This article critically examines the underlying assumption that conscientious objection is incompatible with a physician’s professional obligations (the “incompatibility thesis”). Several accounts of the professional obligations of physicians are explored: general ethical theories (consequentialism, contractarianism, and rights-based theories), (...)
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  5. Douglas MacKay (2013). Standard of Care, Institutional Obligations, and Distributive Justice. Bioethics 28 (2):352-359.score: 24.0
    The problem of standard of care in clinical research concerns the level of treatment that investigators must provide to subjects in clinical trials. Commentators often formulate answers to this problem by appealing to two distinct types of obligations: professional obligations and natural duties. In this article, I investigate whether investigators also possess institutional obligations that are directly relevant to the problem of standard of care, that is, those obligations a person has because she occupies a particular (...)
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  6. Danny Frederick (forthcoming). Pro-Tanto Obligations and Ceteris-Paribus Rules. Journal of Moral Philosophy.score: 24.0
    I summarise a conception of morality as containing a set of rules which hold ceteris paribus and which impose pro-tanto obligations. I explain two ways in which moral rules are ceteris-paribus, according to whether an exception is duty-voiding or duty-overriding. I defend the claim that moral rules are ceteris-paribus against two qualms suggested by Luke Robinson’s discussion of moral rules and against the worry that such rules are uninformative. I show that Robinson’s argument that moral rules cannot ground pro-tanto (...)
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  7. Anders Schinkel (2012). Filial Obligations: A Contextual, Pluralist Model. [REVIEW] Journal of Ethics 16 (4):395-420.score: 24.0
    In this article I investigate the nature and extent of filial obligations. The question what (adult) children owe their parents is not only philosophically interesting, but also of increasing relevance in ageing societies. Its answer matters to elderly people and their adult children, and is relevant to social policy issues in various ways. I present the strongest arguments for and against three models of filial obligations: the ‘past parental sacrifices’ model, the ‘special relationship’ model, and the conventionalist model. (...)
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  8. Bill Wringe (2005). Needs, Rights, and Collective Obligations. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 80 (57):187-.score: 24.0
    In this paper, I argue that a well-known objection to subsistence rights developed by Onora O'Neill - namely, that such rights would generate obligations without an obligation-bearer, can be answered if we take such rights to impose an objection on the wrold's population, taken collectively.
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  9. William Bülow (2014). The Harms Beyond Imprisonment: Do We Have Special Moral Obligations Towards the Families and Children of Prisoners? Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (4):775-789.score: 24.0
    This paper discusses whether the collateral harm of imprisonment to the close family members and children of prison inmates may give rise to special moral obligations towards them. Several collateral harms, including decreased psychological wellbeing, financial costs, loss of economic opportunities, and intrusion and control over their private lives, are identified. Two competing perspectives in moral philosophy are then applied in order to assess whether the harms are permissible. The first is consequentialist and the second is deontological. It is (...)
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  10. Douglas Mackay (2014). Standard of Care, Professional Obligations, and Distributive Justice. Bioethics 28 (7):352-359.score: 24.0
    The problem of standard-of-care in clinical research concerns the level of care that investigators ought to provide to research subjects in the control arm of their clinical trials. Commentators differ sharply on whether subjects in trials conducted in lower income countries should be provided with the same level of care as subjects in trials conducted in higher income countries. I consider an argument that commentators have employed on both sides of this debate: professional role arguments. These arguments claim to justify (...)
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  11. Bill Wringe (forthcoming). From Global Collective Obligations to Institutional Obligations. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 38.score: 24.0
    There are a number of reasons for accepting the existence of Global Collective Obligations - in other words, collective obligations which fall on the world’s population as a whole. One such reason - outlined in Wringe 2005 - is that the existence of such obligations provides a plausible solution a problem which is sometimes thought to arise if we think that individuals have a right to have their basic needs satisfied. However, obligations of this sort would (...)
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  12. Earl W. Spurgin (2001). Do Shareholders Have Obligations to Stakeholders? Journal of Business Ethics 33 (4):287 - 297.score: 24.0
    The question of whether, and to what extent, business managers have obligations to stakeholders has been the principal theme in much of recent business ethics literature. The question of whether shareholders have obligations to stakeholders, however, has not been addressed sufficiently. I provide some needed attention to this matter by examining the positions of shareholders in the contemporary world of investing. Their positions are considerably different than that often envisioned by business ethicists and economists where shareholders determine the (...)
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  13. Cecilia Wee (2014). Filial Obligations: A Comparative Study. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 13 (1):83-97.score: 24.0
    The nature of the special obligation that a child has towards her parent(s) is widely discussed in Confucianism. It has also received considerable discussion by analytic commentators. This essay compares and contrasts the accounts of filial obligation found in the two philosophical traditions. The analytic writers mentioned above have explored filial obligations by relating them to other special obligations, such as obligations of debt, friendship, or gratitude. I examine these accounts and try to uncover the implicit assumptions (...)
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  14. Heather Draper (2013). Grandparents' Entitlements and Obligations. Bioethics 27 (6):309-316.score: 24.0
    In this article, it is argued that grandparents' obligations originate from parental obligations (i.e from the relationship they have with their children, the parents of their grandchildren) and not from the role of grandparent per se, and any entitlements flow from the extent to which these obligations are met. The position defended is, therefore, that grandparents qua grandparents are not entitled to form or continue relationships with their grandchildren. A continuation of grandparent-grandchildren relationships may be in the (...)
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  15. Maria C. Stuifbergen & Johannes J. M. Van Delden (2011). Filial Obligations to Elderly Parents: A Duty to Care? [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (1):63-71.score: 24.0
    A continuing need for care for elderly, combined with looser family structures prompt the question what filial obligations are. Do adult children of elderly have a duty to care? Several theories of filial obligation are reviewed. The reciprocity argument is not sensitive to the parent–child relationship after childhood. A theory of friendship does not offer a correct parallel for the relationship between adult child and elderly parent. Arguments based on need or vulnerability run the risk of being unjust to (...)
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  16. David Kelley (2002). What Are the Public Obligations to AIDS Patients? Health Care Analysis 10 (1):37-48.score: 24.0
    The operating assumption in mostdiscussions of health policy is that governmenthas some responsibility for the health of itscitizens and that it may legitimately tax,subsidize, and regulate its citizens in theexercise of that responsibility. On thisassumption, public obligations to HIV/AIDSpatients are a function of their needs inrelationship to other health needs. This paperchallenges the operating assumption by arguingthat it cannot be grounded in the obligationsthat individuals have to each other.The paper rests on its own assumption: themoral theory of individualism. On (...)
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  17. Professor Bozidar Vrhovac (2002). Conflict of Interest in Croatia: Doctors with Dual Obligations. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (3):309-316.score: 24.0
    There is an emerging awareness of the possibility of conflicts of interest in the practice of medicine in Croatia. The paper examines areas within the medical profession where conflicts of interest can and have occurred, probably not only in Croatia. Particularly addressed are situations when a doctor may have dual obligations and how independent ethics committees can help in decreasing the influence of a conflict of interest. The paper also presents extracts from the Croatian Code of Ethics for the (...)
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  18. Lucie White (2010). Euthanasia, Assisted Suicide and the Professional Obligations of Physicians. Emergent Australasian Philosophers 3 (1).score: 24.0
    Euthanasia and assisted suicide have proved to be very contentious topics in medical ethics. Some ethicists are particularly concerned that allowing physicians to carry out these procedures will undermine their professional obligations and threaten the very goals of medicine. However, I maintain that the fundamental goals of medicine not only do not preclude the practice of euthanasia and assisted suicide by physicians, but can in fact be seen to support these practices in some instances. I look at two influential (...)
     
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  19. Christian Kock (2007). Dialectical Obligations in Political Debate. Informal Logic 27 (3):223-247.score: 22.0
    Political debate is a distinctive domain in argumentation, characterized by these features: it is about proposals for action, not about propositions that may have a truth value; there may be good arguments on both sides; neither the proposal nor its rejection follows by necessity or inference; the pros and the cons generally cannot, being multidimensional and hence incommen- surable, be aggregated in an objective way; each audience member must subjectively compare and balance arguments on the two sides; eventual consensus between (...)
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  20. M. Abraham, D. M. Gabbay & U. Schild (2011). Obligations and Prohibitions in Talmudic Deontic Logic. Artificial Intelligence and Law 19 (2-3):117-148.score: 22.0
    This paper examines the deontic logic of the Talmud. We shall find, by looking at examples, that at first approximation we need deontic logic with several connectives: O T A Talmudic obligation F T A Talmudic prohibition F D A Standard deontic prohibition O D A Standard deontic obligation. In classical logic one would have expected that deontic obligation O D is definable by $O_DA \equiv F_D\neg A$ and that O T and F T are connected by $O_TA \equiv F_T\neg (...)
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  21. Anne Schwenkenbecher (2013). Joint Duties and Global Moral Obligations. Ratio 26 (3):310-328.score: 21.0
    In recent decades, concepts of group agency and the morality of groups have increasingly been discussed by philosophers. Notions of collective or joint duties have been invoked especially in the debates on global justice, world poverty and climate change. This paper enquires into the possibility and potential nature of moral duties individuals in unstructured groups may hold together. It distinguishes between group agents and groups of people which – while not constituting a collective agent – are nonetheless capable of performing (...)
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  22. Maria W. Merritt (2011). Health Researchers' Ancillary Care Obligations in Low-Resource Settings: How Can We Tell What is Morally Required? Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 21 (4):311-347.score: 21.0
    Health researchers working in low-resource settings routinely encounter serious unmet health needs for which research participants have, at best, limited treatment options through the local health system (Taylor, Merritt, and Mullany 2011). A recent case discussion features a study conducted in Bamako, Mali (Dickert and Wendler 2009). The study objective was to see whether children with severe malaria develop pulmonary hypertension in order to improve the general understanding of morbidity and mortality associated with malaria. In the study team's interactions with (...)
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  23. J. K. Walter (2011). Supporting Her Autonomy: The Obligations of Guardians and Physicians in Adolescents' Refusals of Care. Journal of Clinical Ethics 23 (1):56-59.score: 21.0
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  24. Bill Wringe (2014). Collective Obligations: Their Existence, Their Explanatory Power, and Their Supervenience on the Obligations of Individuals. European Journal of Philosophy 21 (4).score: 20.0
    In this paper I discuss a number of different relationships between two kinds of (moral) obligation: those which have individuals as their subject, and those which have groups of individuals as their subject. I use the name collective obligations to refer to obligations of the second sort. I argue that there are collective obligations, in this sense; that such obligations can give rise to and explain obligations which fall on individuals; that because of these facts (...)
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  25. Wes Morriston (2009). The Moral Obligations of Reasonable Non-Believers. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 65 (1):1 - 10.score: 20.0
    People who do not believe that there is a God constitute an obvious problem for divine command metaethics. They have moral obligations, and are often enough aware of having them. Yet it is not easy to think of such persons as “hearing” divine commands. This makes it hard to see how a divine command theory can offer a completely general account of the nature of moral obligation. The present paper takes a close look at this issue as it emerges (...)
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  26. Sadeq Larijani (2007). Rational and Moral Obligations. Topoi 26 (2):231-245.score: 20.0
    An analysis and criticism of the views of Isfahani, Ha’iri, Tabataba’i and Misbah Yazdi on rational and moral obligations is presented. Each of these authors has offered a different theory about the source of the concept of such obligations, and the relation of obligations to prescriptive statements. The author follows his criticisms of these views with his own theory of rational and moral obligations, according to which obligations are realities that the mind grasps through intuitions (...)
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  27. Frida Kuhlau, Stefan Eriksson, Kathinka Evers & Anna T. Höglund (2008). Taking Due Care: Moral Obligations in Dual Use Research. Bioethics 22 (9):477-487.score: 20.0
    In the past decade, the perception of a bioterrorist threat has increased and created a demand on life scientists to consider the potential security implications of dual use research. This article examines a selection of proposed moral obligations for life scientists that have emerged to meet these concerns and the extent to which they can be considered reasonable. It also describes the underlying reasons for the concerns, how they are managed, and their implications for scientific values. Five criteria for (...)
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  28. Ashley Dressel (forthcoming). “Directed Obligations and the Trouble with Deathbed Promises”. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-13.score: 20.0
    On some popular accounts of promissory obligation, a promise creates an obligation to the person to whom the promise is made (the ‘promisee’). On such accounts, the wrong involved in breaking a promise is a wrong committed against a promisee. I will call such accounts ‘directed obligation’ accounts of promissory obligation. While I concede that directed obligation accounts make good sense of many of our promissory obligations, I aim to show that directed obligation accounts, at least in their current (...)
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  29. Peter Øhrstrøm, Jörg Zeller & Ulrik Sandborg-Petersen (2012). Prior's Defence of Hintikka's Theorem. A Discussion of Prior's 'The Logic of Obligation and the Obligations of the Logician'. Synthese 188 (3):449-454.score: 20.0
    In his paper, The logic of obligation and the obligations of the logician, A.N. Prior considers Hintikka's theorem, according to which a statement cannot be both impossible and permissible. This theorem has been seen as problematic for the very idea of a logic of obligation. However, Prior rejects the view that the logic of obligation cannot be formalised. He sees this resistance against such a view as an important part of what could be called the obligation of the logician. (...)
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  30. Daniel M. Johnson (2012). The Objectivity of Obligations in Divine Motivation Theory: On Imitation and Submission. Journal of Religious Ethics 40 (3):504-517.score: 20.0
    To support her divine motivation theory of the good, which seeks to ground ethics in motives and emphasize the attractiveness of morality over against the compulsion of morality, Linda Zagzebski has proposed an original account of obligations which grounds them in motives. I argue that her account renders obligations objectionably person-relative and that the most promising way to avoid my criticism is to embrace something quite close to a divine command theory of obligation. This requires her to combine (...)
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  31. Facundo M. Alonso (2009). Shared Intention, Reliance, and Interpersonal Obligations. Ethics 119 (3):444-475.score: 18.0
    Shared agency is of central importance in our lives in many ways. We enjoy engaging in certain joint activities with others. We also engage in joint activities to achieve complex goals. Current approaches propose that we understand shared agency in terms of the more basic phenomenon of shared intention. However, they have presented two antagonistic views about the nature of this phenomenon. Some have argued that shared intention should be understood as being primarily a structure of attitudes of individual participants (...)
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  32. Anne Schwenkenbecher (2011). Moral Obligations of States. In Applied Ethics Series. Center of Applied Ethics and Philosophy.score: 18.0
    It is widely accepted that industrialized or wealthy countries in particular have moral obligations or duties of justice to combat world poverty or to shoulder burdens of climate change. But what does it actually mean to say that a state has moral obligations or duties of justice? In this paper I focus on Tony Erskine’s account of moral agency of states. With her, I argue that collectives such as states can hold (collective) moral duties. However, Erskine’s approach does (...)
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  33. Carl Gillett (2002). The Varieties of Emergence: Their Purposes, Obligations and Importance. Grazer Philosophische Studien 65 (1):95-121.score: 18.0
    I outline reasons for the recent popularity, and lingering suspicion, about 'emergence' by examining three distinct concepts of property emergence, their purposes and associated obligations. In Part 1, I argue 'Strong' emergence is the grail for many emergentists (and physicalists), since it frames what is needed to block the 'Argument from Realization' (AR) which moves from the truth of physicalism to the inefficacy of special science properties. I then distinguish 'Weak' and 'Ontological' emergence, in Part 2, arguing each is (...)
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  34. Michael Smith (2011). Deontological Moral Obligations and Non-Welfarist Agent-Relative Values. Ratio 24 (4):351-363.score: 18.0
    Many claim that a plausible moral theory would have to include a principle of beneficence, a principle telling us to produce goods that are both welfarist and agent-neutral. But when we think carefully about the necessary connection between moral obligations and reasons for action, we see that agents have two reasons for action, and two moral obligations: they must not interfere with any agent's exercise of his rational capacities and they must do what they can to make sure (...)
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  35. C. Stephen Evans (2004). Kierkegaard's Ethic of Love: Divine Commands and Moral Obligations. Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
    C. Stephen Evans explains and defends Kierkegaard's account of moral obligations as rooted in God's commands, the fundamental command being `You shall love your neighbour as yourself'. The work will be of interest not only to those interested in Kierkegaard, but also to those interested in the relation between ethics and religion, especially questions about whether morality can or must have a religious foundation. As well as providing a comprehensive reading of Kierkegaard as an ethical thinker, Evans puts (...)
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  36. A. John Simmons (1996). Associative Political Obligations. Ethics 106 (2):247-273.score: 18.0
    It is claimed by philosophers as diverse as Burke, Walzer, Dworkin, and MacIntyre that our political obligations are best understood as "associative" or "communal" obligations--that is, as obligations that require neither voluntary undertaking nor justification by "external" moral principles, but rather as "local" moral responsibilities whose normative weight derives entirely from their assignment by social practice. This paper identifies three primary lines of argument that appear to support such assertions: conceptual arguments, the arguments of nonvoluntarist contract theory, (...)
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  37. Andrew Alexandra & Seumas Miller (2009). Ethical Theory, “Common Morality,” and Professional Obligations. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (1):69-80.score: 18.0
    We have two aims in this paper. The first is negative: to demonstrate the problems in Bernard Gert’s account of common morality, in particular as it applies to professional morality. The second is positive: to suggest a more satisfactory explanation of the moral basis of professional role morality, albeit one that is broadly consistent with Gert’s notion of common morality, but corrects and supplements Gert’s theory. The paper is in three sections. In the first, we sketch the main features of (...)
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  38. Joshua Kassner (2009). Completing the Incomplete: A Defense of Positive Obligations to Distant Others. Journal of Global Ethics 5 (3):181 – 193.score: 18.0
    Global justice is, at its core, about moral obligations to distant others. But which obligations ought to be included is a matter of considerable debate. In the discussion that follows I will explicate and challenge two objections to the inclusion of foundationally positive obligations in our account of global justice. The first objection is based on the proposition that negative obligations possess and positive obligations lack a property necessary for a moral demand to be a (...)
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  39. Carol Hay (2005). Whether to Ignore Them and Spin: Moral Obligations to Resist Sexual Harassment. Hypatia 20 (4):94-108.score: 18.0
    : In this essay, I consider the question of whether women have an obligation to confront men who sexually harass them. A reluctance to be guilty of blaming the victims of harassment, coupled with other normative considerations that tell in favor of the unfairness of this sort of obligation, might make us think that women never have an obligation to confront their harassers. But I argue that women do have this obligation, and it is not overridden by many of the (...)
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  40. Shawn Floyd (2009). Aquinas and the Obligations of Mercy. Journal of Religious Ethics 37 (3):449-471.score: 18.0
    Contemporary philosophers often construe mercy as a supererogatory notion or a matter of punitive leniency. Yet it is false that no merciful actions are obligatory. Further, it is questionable whether mercy is really about punitive leniency, either exclusively or primarily. As an alternative to these accounts, I consider the view offered by St. Thomas Aquinas. He rejects the claim that we are never obligated to be merciful. Also, his view of mercy is not restricted to legal contexts. For him, mercy's (...)
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  41. Bas van der Vossen (2011). Associative Political Obligations: Their Potential. Philosophy Compass 6 (7):488-496.score: 18.0
    This article adopts the framework set out in ‘Associative Political Obligations’ to ask two further questions about the theory of associative political obligation. (i) Which of the different interpretations of the theory of associative political obligation is most plausible? And (ii) what would be the implications of such a view? It is argued that (i) the most attractive version of the argument is one according to which such obligations obtain only in morally acceptable communities, and only between what (...)
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  42. R. Routley & V. Routley (1978). Nuclear Energy and Obligations to the Future. Inquiry 21 (1-4):133 – 179.score: 18.0
    The paper considers the morality of nuclear energy development as it concerns future people, especially the creation of highly toxic nuclear wastes requiring long?term storage. On the basis of an example with many parallel moral features it is argued that the imposition of such costs and risks on the future is morally unacceptable. The paper goes on to examine in detail possible ways of escaping this conclusion, especially the escape route of denying that moral obligations of the appropriate type (...)
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  43. George Klosko (2004). Duties to Assist Others and Political Obligations. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 3 (2):143-159.score: 18.0
    In response to recent criticisms of traditional theories of political obligation, scholars have advanced moral reasons for complying with the law that focus on natural duties to assist other people who are in need. In discussions of political obligation, these ‘rescue principles’ are presented as alternatives to traditional principles. I argue that theories of political obligation based on rescue principles are not able to fulfill the role theorists assign them. If the underlying assumptions of rescue theories are uncovered, they can (...)
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  44. Mary Lyn Stoll (2006). Infotainment and the Moral Obligations of the Multimedia Conglomerate. Journal of Business Ethics 66 (2/3):253 - 260.score: 18.0
    When the Federal Communications Commission considered revamping its policies, many political activists argued that media conglomerates had failed to meet their duties to protect freedom of speech. Moveon's dispute with CBS over its proposed Superbowl advertisement and Michael Moore's quarrel over distribution of his documentary, Fahrenheit 911, are cases in point. In matters of pure entertainment, the public expect companies to avoid offensive programming. The press, on the other hand, may well be forced to offend some audience members in order (...)
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  45. Tim Mulgan (2006). Future People: A Moderate Consequentialist Account of Our Obligations to Future Generations. Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
    What do we owe to our descendants? How do we balance their needs against our own? Tim Mulgan develops a new theory of our obligations to future generations, based on a new rule-consequentialist account of the morality of individual reproduction. He also brings together several different contemporary philosophical discussions, including the demands of morality and international justice. His aim is to produce a coherent, intuitively plausible moral theory that is not unreasonably demanding, even when extended to cover future people. (...)
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  46. Bill Wringe (2010). Global Obligations and the Agency Objection. Ratio 23 (2):217-231.score: 18.0
    Many authors hold that collectives, as well as individuals can be the subjects of obligations. Typically these authors have focussed on the obligations of highly structured groups, and (less often) of small, informal groups. One might wonder, however, whether there could also be collective obligations which fall on everyone – what I shall call 'global collective obligations'. One reason for thinking that this is not possible has to do with considerations about agency: it seems as though (...)
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  47. M. L. J. Wissenburg (2011). Parenting and Intergenerational Justice: Why Collective Obligations Towards Future Generations Take Second Place to Individual Responsibility. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 24 (6):557-573.score: 18.0
    Theories of intergenerational obligations usually take the shape of theories of distributive (social) justice. The complexities involved in intergenerational obligations force theorists to simplify. In this article I unpack two popular simplifications: the inevitability of future generations, and the Hardinesque assumption that future individuals are a burden on society but a benefit to parents. The first assumption obscures the fact that future generations consist of individuals whose existence can be a matter of voluntary choice, implying that there are (...)
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  48. C. Lafont (2009). Religion and the Public Sphere: What Are the Deliberative Obligations of Democratic Citizenship? Philosophy and Social Criticism 35 (1-2):127-150.score: 18.0
    In this article I analyze Rawls' and Habermas' accounts of the role of religion in political deliberations in the public sphere. After pointing at some difficulties involved in the unequal distribution of deliberative rights and duties among religious and secular citizens that follow from their proposals, I argue for a way to structure political deliberation in the public sphere that imposes the same deliberative obligations on all democratic citizens, whether religious or secular. These obligations derive from the ideal (...)
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