Search results for 'ontological categories' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Jan Westerhoff (2004). The Construction of Ontological Categories. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 82 (4):595 – 620.
    I describe an account of ontological categories which does justice to the facts that not all categories are ontological categories and that ontological categories can stand in containment relations. The account sorts objects into different categories in the same way in which grammar sorts expressions . It then identifies the ontological categories with those which play a certain role in the systematization of collections of categories. The paper concludes by (...)
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  2.  59
    Jan Westerhoff (2002). Defining Ontological Categories in an Expansion of Belief Dynamics. Logic and Logical Analysis 10 (3):199-210.
    There have been attempts to get some logic out of belief dynamics, i.e. attempts to define the constants of propositional logic in terms of functions from sets of beliefs to sets of beliefs. It is interesting to see whether something similar can be done for ontological categories, i.e. ontological constants. The theory presented here will be a (modest) expansion of belief dynamics: it will not only incorporate beliefs, but also parts of beliefs, so called belief fragments. On (...)
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  3.  55
    Jan Westerhoff (2005). Ontological Categories: Their Nature and Significance. Oxford University Press.
    The concept of an ontological category is central to metaphysics. Metaphysicians argue about which category of existence an object should be assigned to, whether one category can be reduced to another one, or whether there might be different equally adequate systems of categorization. Answers to these questions presuppose a clear understanding of what precisely an ontological category is, and Jan Westerhoff now provides the first in-depth analysis. After examining a variety of attempted definitions, he proceeds to argue for (...)
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  4.  20
    Giovanni Sartor (2009). Legal Concepts as Inferential Nodes and Ontological Categories. Artificial Intelligence and Law 17 (3):217-251.
    I shall compare two views of legal concepts: as nodes in inferential nets and as categories in an ontology (a conceptual architecture). Firstly, I shall introduce the inferential approach, consider its implications, and distinguish the mere possession of an inferentially defined concept from the belief in the concept’s applicability, which also involves the acceptance of the concept’s constitutive inferences. For making this distinction, the inferential and eliminative analysis of legal concepts proposed by Alf Ross will be connected to the (...)
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  5.  17
    Barbara Heller & Heinrich Herre (2004). Ontological Categories in GOL. Axiomathes 14 (1-3):57-76.
    General Ontological Language (GOL) is a formal framework for representing and building ontologies. The purpose of GOL is to provide a system of top-level ontologies which can be used as a basis for building domain-specific ontologies. The present paper gives an overview about the basic categories of the GOL-ontology. GOL is part of the work of the research group Ontologies in Medicine (Onto-Med) at the University of Leipzig which is based on the collaborative work of the Institute of (...)
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  6.  45
    Ingvar Johansson (1989). Ontological Investigations: An Inquiry Into the Categories of Nature, Man, and Society. Routledge.
    ONTOLOGY This book is a book about the world. I am concerned with ontology, not merely with language. Many ontological treatises concentrate largely on the ...
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  7.  3
    Nancy N. Soja, Susan Carey & Elizabeth S. Spelke (1991). Ontological Categories Guide Young Children's Inductions of Word Meaning: Object Terms and Substance Terms. Cognition 38 (2):179-211.
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  8.  3
    Roderick M. Chisholm (1992). The Basic Ontological Categories. In Kevin Mulligan (ed.), Language, Truth and Ontology. Kluwer 1--13.
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  9.  50
    Sam Cowling (2010). Kantian Humility and Ontological Categories. Analysis 70 (4):659-665.
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  10.  54
    E. J. Lowe (1997). Ontological Categories and Natural Kinds. Philosophical Papers 26 (1):29-46.
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  11.  6
    Heine Hansen (2013). On Determining What There Is: The Identity of Ontological Categories in Aquinas, Scotus, and Lowe (Review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 51 (1):120-121.
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  12.  1
    Nancy N. Soja, Susan Carey & Elizabeth S. Spelke (1993). Ontological Categories Guide Young Children's Inductions of Word Meaning. In Alvin Goldman (ed.), Readings in Philosophy and Cognitive Science. Cambridge: MIT Press
    No categories
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  13.  6
    James D. Madden (2013). On Determining What There Is: The Identity of Ontological Categories in Aquinas, Scotus, and Lowe. By Paul Symington. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 87 (4):804 - 806.
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  14.  23
    Panayot Butchvarov (2007). Ontological Categories: Their Nature and Significance – Jan Westerhoff. Philosophical Quarterly 57 (227):301–303.
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  15. Stephen Mcleod (2008). Jan Westerhoff, Ontological Categories. [REVIEW] Philosophy in Review 28:306-308.
     
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  16. Amie Thomasson (1997). Ontological Categories and How to Use Them. Electronic Journal of Analytic Philosophy 5.
     
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  17.  19
    Barry Smith & David M. Mark (2001). Geographical Categories: An Ontological Investigation. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 15 (7):591–612.
    This paper reports the results of a series of experiments designed to establish how non-expert subjects conceptualize geospatial phenomena. Subjects were asked to give examples of geographical categories in response to a series of differently phrased elicitations. The results yield an ontology of geographical categories—a catalogue of the prime geospatial concepts and categories shared in common by human subjects independently of their exposure to scientific geography. When combined with nouns such as feature and object, the adjective geographic (...)
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  18.  1
    Ingvar Johansson (2004). FrontmatterCONTENTSForeword to the Second editionPreface1. Ontology2. Irreductive Materialism3. States of Affairs and Qualities4. Exclusive and Inclusive Qualities5. Actions and Functions6. Patterns, Changes, and Pure Gestalten7. Self-Sustaining Gestalten and Gestalten Causa Sui8. External, Internal, and Grounded Relations9. Existential Dependence10. Container Space and Relational Space11. Tendency12. Efficient Causality13. Intentionality14. Nature: Parts and Wholes Without Intentionality15. Man and Society: Nested Intentionality16. Epistemological PositionsNotesBibliographyIndexAppendix 1: An Aphoristic Summary of Ontological InvestigationsAppendix 2: Determinables as UniversalsAppendix 3: Ontologies and Concepts. Two ProposalsBackmatter: An Inquiry Into the Categories of Nature, Man and Soceity. [REVIEW] In Ontological Investigations: An Inquiry Into the Categories of Nature, Man and Soceity. De Gruyter 1-21.
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  19.  34
    Daniel Nolan (2011). Categories and Ontological Dependence. The Monist 94 (2):277-301.
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  20. Jonas R. B. Arenhart (2012). Ontological Frameworks for Scientific Theories. Foundations of Science 17 (4):339-356.
    A close examination of the literature on ontology may strike one with roughly two distinct senses of this word. According to the first of them, which we shall call traditional ontology , ontology is characterized as the a priori study of various “ontological categories”. In a second sense, which may be called naturalized ontology , ontology relies on our best scientific theories and from them it tries to derive the ultimate furniture of the world. From a methodological point (...)
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  21.  7
    Mutsumi Imai & Reiko Mazuka (2003). Re-Evaluating Linguistic Relativity: Language-Specific Categories and the Role of Universal Ontological Knowledge in the Construal of Individuation. In Dedre Getner & Susan Goldin-Meadow (eds.), Language in Mind: Advances in the Study of Language and Thought. MIT Press 429--464.
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  22.  17
    Jorge J. E. Gracia (1999). The Ontological Status of Categories. International Philosophical Quarterly 39 (3):249-264.
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  23. Lars Bergström (1989). Rec av Ingvar Johansson: Ontological Investigations. An Inquiry into the Categories of Nature, Man and Society. Norsk Filosofisk Tidsskrift 10 (4):34.
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  24.  36
    Nathanael Stein (2014). Causes and Categories. Noûs 49 (3):n/a-n/a.
    Philosophers discussing causation take on, as one of their responsibilities, the task of specifying an ontology of causation. Both standard and non-standard accounts of that ontology make two assumptions: that the ontological category of causal relata admits a unique specification (“Uniqueness”), and that cause and effect are of the same ontological type (“Uniformity”). These assumptions are rarely made explicit, but there is in fact little reason to think them true. It is argued here that, if the question has (...)
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  25.  33
    Ludger Jansen (2007). Dispositions, Laws, and Categories. Metaphysica 8 (2):211-220.
    After a short sketch of Lowe’s account of his four basic categories, I discuss his theory of formal ontological relations and how Lowe wants to account for dispositional predications. I argue that on the ontic level Lowe is a pan-categoricalist, while he is a language dualist and an exemplification dualist with regard to the dispositional/categorical distinction. I argue that Lowe does not present an adequate account of disposition. From an Aristotelian point of view, Lowe conflates dispositional predication with (...)
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  26.  3
    Brice Laurent (forthcoming). Operations for a Problem of Existence: Dealing with the Ontological Uncertainty of Nano Substances. Foundations of Chemistry:1-18.
    This paper discusses the operations meant to act on situations of ontological uncertainties for chemicals. Using examples related to substances developed as part of nanotechnology programs, it analyses technical and social instruments meant to define the existence of these substances, as « new » or « existing » chemicals. Carbon nanotubes developed by a French company offer an illustration of containment, while the legal disputes about nano silver in the U.S. display oppositions about whether or not these compounds are (...)
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  27.  39
    Phillip Bricker (2009). Review of The Four-Category Ontology: A Metaphysical Foundation for Natural Science. [REVIEW] Australasian Journal of Philosophy 87 (4):675-678.
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  28. Jan Westerhoff (2002). Defining 'Ontological Category'. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 102 (3):287–293.
    Although a considerable degree of precision has been introduced both into the formulation and the discussion of ontological theories by the use of formal methods there is still a remarkable indefiniteness about foundational issues. In particular it is not clear what an ontological category is and why we regard something as an ontological category. This is amazing given that the notion of ontological category is in fact the most basic of the whole of ontology: it is (...)
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  29.  50
    Mohan Matthen (1978). The Categories and Aristotle's Ontology. Dialogue 17 (02):228-243.
    Much recent work on Aristotle's Categories assumes that there is an ontological theory presented in that work and tries to reconstruct it on the basis of the slender evidence in the book. I claim that this is misguided. Using a distinction made by G.E.L. Owen between theory and the "phaenomena", I argue that the Categories is mainly concerned with setting out the phenomena -- the intuitions that any ontology must explain. This thesis has consequences for the interpretation (...)
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  30.  75
    Tuomas E. Tahko (ed.) (2012). Contemporary Aristotelian Metaphysics. Cambridge University Press.
    Aristotelian (or neo-Aristotelian) metaphysics is currently undergoing something of a renaissance. This volume brings together fourteen new essays from leading philosophers who are sympathetic to this conception of metaphysics, which takes its cue from the idea that metaphysics is the first philosophy. The primary input from Aristotle is methodological, but many themes familiar from his metaphysics will be discussed, including ontological categories, the role and interpretation of the existential quantifier, essence, substance, natural kinds, powers, potential, and the development (...)
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  31.  9
    Nicolai Hartmann & Keith R. Peterson (2012). How Is Critical Ontology Possible? Toward the Foundation of the General Theory of the Categories, Part One (1923). Axiomathes 22 (3):315-354.
    This is a translation of an early essay by the German philosopher Nicolai Hartmann (1882–1950). In this 1923 essay Hartmann presents many of the fundamental ideas of his new critical ontology. He summarizes some of the main points of his critique of neo-Kantian epistemology, and provides the point of departure for his new approach in an extensive criticism of the errors of the classical ontological tradition. Some of these errors concern the definition of an ontological category or principle, (...)
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  32. R. Brown, J. F. Glazebrook & I. C. Baianu (2007). A Conceptual Construction of Complexity Levels Theory in Spacetime Categorical Ontology: Non-Abelian Algebraic Topology, Many-Valued Logics and Dynamic Systems. [REVIEW] Axiomathes 17 (3-4):409-493.
    A novel conceptual framework is introduced for the Complexity Levels Theory in a Categorical Ontology of Space and Time. This conceptual and formal construction is intended for ontological studies of Emergent Biosystems, Super-complex Dynamics, Evolution and Human Consciousness. A claim is defended concerning the universal representation of an item’s essence in categorical terms. As an essential example, relational structures of living organisms are well represented by applying the important categorical concept of natural transformations to biomolecular reactions and relational structures (...)
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  33.  26
    Barry Smith (1999). Ontology with Human Subjects Testing: An Empirical Investigation of Geographic Categories. American Journal of Economics and Sociology 58 (2):245–272.
    Ontology, since Aristotle, has been conceived as a sort of highly general physics, a science of the types of entities in reality, of the objects, properties, categories and relations which make up the world. At the same time ontology has been for some two thousand years a speculative enterprise. It has rested methodologically on introspection and on the construction and analysis of elaborate world-models and of abstract formal-ontological theories. In the work of Quine and others this ontological (...)
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  34.  47
    Roderick M. Chisholm (1996). A Realistic Theory of Categories: An Essay on Ontology. Cambridge University Press.
    Roderick Chisholm has been for many years one of the most important and influential philosophers contributing to metaphysics, philosophy of mind, and epistemology. This book can be viewed as a summation of his views on an enormous range of topics in metaphysics and epistemology. Yet it is written in the terse, lucid, unpretentious style that has become a hallmark of Chisholm's work. The book is an original treatise designed to defend an original, non-Aristotelian theory of categories. Chisholm argues that (...)
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  35. Ronald P. Endicott (2010). Realization, Reductios, and Category Inclusion. Journal of Philosophy 107 (4):213-219.
    Thomas Polger and Laurence Shapiro argue that Carl Gillett's much publicized dimensioned theory of realization is incoherent, being subject to a reductio. Their argument turns on the fact that Gillett's definition of realization makes property instances the exclusive relata of the realization relation, while his belief in multiple realization implies its denial, namely, that properties are the relata of the realization relation on occasions of multiple realization. Others like Sydney Shoemaker have also expressed their view of realization in terms of (...)
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  36.  8
    O. Bueno, S. A. Shalkowski & J. Busch, The No-Category Ontology.
    In this paper we argue that there are no categories of being⎯at least not in the robust metaphysical sense of something fundamental. Central arguments that metaphysicians provide in support of fundamental categories, such as indispensability and theoretical utility arguments, are not adequate to guarantee their existence. We illustrate this point by examining Jonathan Lowe’s [2006] four-category ontology, and indicating its shortcomings. In contrast, we offer an alternative, no-category ontology, which dispenses with any fundamental categories of being, and (...)
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  37.  13
    Ulrich Reichard (2013). Grammar, Ontology, and the Unity of Meaning. Dissertation, University of Durham
    Words have meaning. Sentences also have meaning, but their meaning is different in kind from any collection of the meanings of the words they contain. I discuss two puzzles related to this difference. The first is how the meanings of the parts of a sentence combine to give rise to a unified sentential meaning, as opposed to a mere collection of disparate meanings (UP1). The second is why the formal ontology of linguistic meaning changes when grammatical structure is built up (...)
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  38.  99
    E. J. Lowe (2006). The Four-Category Ontology: A Metaphysical Foundation for Natural Science. Oxford University Press.
    E. J. Lowe, a prominent figure in contemporary metaphysics, sets out and defends his theory of what there is. His four-category ontology is a metaphysical system which recognizes four fundamental categories of beings: substantial and non-substantial particulars and substantial and non-substantial universals. Lowe argues that this system has an explanatory power which is unrivaled by more parsimonious theories and that this counts decisively in its favor. He shows that it provides a powerful explanatory framework for a unified account of (...)
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  39.  58
    Max Kistler (2004). Some Problems for Lowe's Four-Category Ontology. Analysis 64 (2):146–151.
    In E.J. Lowe's ontology, (individual) objects are property-bearers which 1) have identity and 2) are countable. This makes it possible to become or cease to be an object, by beginning or ceasing to fulfil one of these conditions. But the possibility of switching fundamental ontological categories should be excluded. Furthermore, Lowe does not show that “quasi-individuals” (which are not countable) can exist. I argue against Lowe that kinds cannot be property-bearers in a more genuine sense than properties, that (...)
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  40.  5
    Wolfgang Degen, Barbara Heller, Heinrich Herre & Barry Smith (2001). GOL: A General Ontological Language. In C. Welty B. Smith (ed.), Formal Ontology and Information Systems. Acm Press
    Every domain-specific ontology must use as a framework some upper-level ontology which describes the most general, domain-independent categories of reality. In the present paper we sketch a new type of upper-level ontology, which is intended to be the basis of a knowledge modelling language GOL (for: 'General Ontological Language'). It turns out that the upper- level ontology underlying standard modelling languages such as KIF, F-Logic and CycL is restricted to the ontology of sets. Set theory has considerable mathematical (...)
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  41.  33
    Jennifer McWeeny (2012). The Feminist Phenomenology of Excess: Ontological Multiplicity, Auto-Jealousy, and Suicide in Beauvoir's L'Invitée. Continental Philosophy Review 45 (1):41-75.
    In this paper, I present a new reading of Simone de Beauvoir’s first major work, L’Invitée ( She Came to Stay ), in order to reveal the text as a vital place of origin for feminist phenomenological philosophy. My reading of L’Invitée departs from most scholarly interpretations of the text in three notable respects: (1) it is inclusive of the “two unpublished chapters” that were excised from the original manuscript at the publisher’s request, (2) it takes seriously Beauvoir’s claim that (...)
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  42.  7
    Seremeti Lambrini & Kameas Achilles (2015). Composable Relations Induced in Networks of Aligned Ontologies: A Category Theoretic Approach. Axiomathes 25 (3):285-311.
    A network of aligned ontologies is a distributed system, whose components are interacting and interoperating, the result of this interaction being, either the extension of local assertions, which are valid within each individual ontology, to global assertions holding between remote ontology syntactic entities through a network path, or to local assertions holding between local entities of an ontology, but induced by remote ontologies, through a cycle in the network. The mechanism for achieving this interaction is the composition of relations. In (...)
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  43.  51
    Uwe Meixner (1998). Actual Existence, Identity and Ontological Priority. Erkenntnis 48 (2-3):209-226.
    The paper first distinguishes ontological priority from epistemological priority and unilateral ontic dependence. Then explications of ontological priority are offered in terms of the reducibility of the actual existence or identity of entities in one ontological category to the actual existence or identity of entities in another. These explications lead to incompatible orders of ontological priority for individuals, properties of individuals and states of affairs. Common to those orders is, however, that the primacy of the category (...)
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  44. Philip J. Bartok (2004). Perceiving Structure: Phenomenological Method and Categorial Ontology in Brentano, Husserl, and Sartre. Dissertation, University of Notre Dame
    Phenomenologists call for the abandoning of all philosophical theorizing in favor of a descriptive study of the "things themselves" as they are given. On its face, such a study of appearances would appear to have little to contribute to ontology, traditionally understood as the science of being and its most fundamental categories. But phenomenologists have not hesitated to draw ontological conclusions from their phenomenological investigations. Phenomenology and its ontological pretensions have come under attack, however, from philosophers of (...)
     
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  45. Catherine Legg & Samuel Sarjant (2012). Bill Gates is Not a Parking Meter: Philosophical Quality Control in Automated Ontology Building. Proceedings of the Symposium on Computational Philosophy, AISB/IACAP World Congress 2012 (Birmingham, England, July 2-6).
    The somewhat old-fashioned concept of philosophical categories is revived and put to work in automated ontology building. We describe a project harvesting knowledge from Wikipedia’s category network in which the principled ontological structure of Cyc was leveraged to furnish an extra layer of accuracy-checking over and above more usual corrections which draw on automated measures of semantic relatedness.
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  46.  27
    Joshua Hoffman (1994). Substance Among Other Categories. Cambridge University Press.
    This book revives a neglected but important topic in philosophy: the nature of substance. The belief that there are individual substances, for example, material objects and persons, is at the core of our common-sense view of the world yet many metaphysicians deny the very coherence of the concept of substance. The authors develop a novel account of what an individual substance is in terms of independence from other beings. In the process many other important ontological categories are explored: (...)
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  47.  14
    Peter Simons (1994). New Categories for Formal Ontology. Grazer Philosophische Studien 49:77-99.
    What primitive concepts does formal ontology require? Forsaking as too indirect the linguistic way of discerning the categories of being, this paper considers what primitives might be required for representing things in themselves (noumena) and representations of them in a thoroughly crafted large autonomous multi-purpose database. Leaving logical concepts and material ontology aside, the resulting 32 categories in 13 families range from the obvious (identity/difference, existence/non-existence) through the fairly obvious (part/whole, one/many, sequential order) and the surprisingly familiar (illocutionary (...)
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  48.  20
    Roberto Poli (2010). Spheres of Being and the Network of Ontological Dependencies. Polish Journal of Philosophy 4 (2):171-182.
    Ontological categories form a network of ties of dependence. In this regard, the richest source of distinctions consists in the medieval discussion on the divisions of being. After a preliminary examination of some of those divisions, the paper pays attention to Roman Ingarden’s criteria for classifying the various types of ontological dependence. The following are the main conclusions that can be drawn from this exercise. Ingarden suggests that (1) the most general principles framing the categories of (...)
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  49.  37
    E. J. Lowe (2004). Some Formal Ontological Relations. Dialectica 58 (3):297–316.
    Some formal ontological relations are identified, in the context of an account of ontological categorization. It is argued that neither formal ontological relations nor ontological categories should themselves be regarded as elements of being, but that this does not undermine the claim of formal ontology to be a purely objective science. It is also argued that some formal ontological relations, like some ontological categories, are more basic than others. A four‐category ontology is (...)
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  50.  8
    Barry Smith & Bert R. E. Klagges (2005). Philosophie und biomedizinische Forschung. Allgemeine Zeitschrift für Philosophie 30 (1):5–26.
    Die bahnbrechenden wissenschaftlichen Ergebnisse der letzten Jahre erzwingen eine neue philosophische Auseinandersetzung mit den Grundkategorien der Biologie und der benachbarten Disziplinen. Insbesondere die Anwendung neuer informationstechnischer Mittel in der biomedizinischen Forschung und die damit verbundene, kontinuierlich zunehmende Datenflut sowie die Notwendigkeit, ihrer Herr zu werden, erfordern ein konsequentes Nachdenken darüber, wie biologische Daten systematisiert und klassifiziert werden können. Dafür wiederum bedarf es robuster Theorien von Grundbegriffen wie Art, Spezies, Teil, Ganzes, Funktion, Prozess, Fragment, Sequenz, Expression, Grenze, Locus, Umwelt, System usw. (...)
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