Search results for 'overriding duties' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Danny Frederick (2010). Why Universal Welfare Rights Are Impossible and What It Means. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 9 (4):428-445.score: 84.0
    Cranston argued that scarcity makes universal welfare rights impossible. After showing that this argument cannot be avoided by denying scarcity, I consider four challenges to the argument which accept the possibility of conflicts between the duties implied by rights. The first denies the agglomeration principle; the second embraces conflicts of duties; the third affirms the violability of all rights-based duties; and the fourth denies that duties to compensate are overriding. I argue that all four challenges (...)
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  2. Selene E. Mize (2009). Should the Lawyer's Duty to Keep Confidences Override the Duty to Disclose Material Information to a Client? Legal Ethics 12 (2):171.score: 40.0
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  3. Seth Lazar (2013). Associative Duties and the Ethics of Killing in War. Journal of Practical Ethics 1 (1):3-48.score: 38.0
    this paper advances a novel account of part of what justifies killing in war, grounded in the duties we owe to our loved ones to protect them from the severe harms with which war threatens them. It discusses the foundations of associative duties, then identifies the sorts of relationships, and the specific duties that they ground, which can be relevant to the ethics of war. It explains how those associa- tive duties can justify killing in theory—in (...)
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  4. Danny Frederick (forthcoming). Pro-Tanto Obligations and Ceteris-Paribus Rules. Journal of Moral Philosophy.score: 34.0
    I summarise a conception of morality as containing a set of rules which hold ceteris paribus and which impose pro-tanto obligations. I explain two ways in which moral rules are ceteris-paribus, according to whether an exception is duty-voiding or duty-overriding. I defend the claim that moral rules are ceteris-paribus against two qualms suggested by Luke Robinson’s discussion of moral rules and against the worry that such rules are uninformative. I show that Robinson’s argument that moral rules cannot ground pro-tanto (...)
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  5. Larry Alexander (1996). Affirmative Duties and the Limits of Self-Sacrifice. Law and Philosophy 15 (1):65 - 74.score: 30.0
    American criminal law reflects the absence of any general duty of Good Samaritanism. Nonetheless, there are some circumstances in which it imposes affirmative duties to aid others. In those circumstances, however, the duty to aid is canceled whenever aiding subjects the actor to a certain level of risk or sacrifice, a level that can be less than the risk or sacrifice faced by the beneficiary if not aided. In this article, I demonstrate that this approach to limiting affirmative (...) to aid encounters the same problem of moral arbitrariness as does a moral catastrophe override of deontological side-constraints. (shrink)
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  6. Lara Denis (1997). Kant's Ethics and Duties to Oneself. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 78 (4):321–348.score: 24.0
    This paper investigates the nature and foundation of duties to oneself in Kant's moral theory. Duties to oneself embody the requirement of the formula of humanity that agents respect rational nature in them-selves as well as in others. So understood, duties to oneself are not subject to the sorts of conceptual objections often raised against duties to oneself; nor do these duties support objections that Kant's moral theory is overly demanding or produces agents who are (...)
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  7. Gerald K. Harrison (2012). Antinatalism, Asymmetry, and an Ethic of Prima Facie Duties. South African Journal of Philosophy 31 (1):94-103.score: 24.0
    Benatar’s central argument for antinatalism develops an asymmetry between the pain and pleasure in a potential life. I am going to present an alternative route to the antinatalist conclusion. I argue that duties require victims and that as a result there is no duty to create the pleasures contained within a prospective life but a duty not to create any of its sufferings. My argument can supplement Benatar’s, but it also enjoys some advantages: it achieves a better fit with (...)
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  8. Anthony Robert Booth (2012). All Things Considered Duties to Believe. Synthese 187 (2):509-517.score: 24.0
    To be a doxastic deontologist is to claim that there is such a thing as an ethics of belief (or of our doxastic attitudes in general). In other words, that we are subject to certain duties with respect to our doxastic attitudes, the non-compliance with which makes us blameworthy and that we should understand doxastic justification in terms of these duties. In this paper, I argue that these duties are our all things considered duties, and not (...)
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  9. S. Andrew Schroeder (forthcoming). Imperfect Duties, Group Obligations, and Beneficence. Journal of Moral Philosophy.score: 24.0
    There is virtually no philosophical consensus on what, exactly, imperfect duties are. In this paper, I lay out three criteria which I argue any adequate account of imperfect duties should satisfy. Using beneficence as a leading example, I suggest that existing accounts of imperfect duties will have trouble meeting those criteria. I then propose a new approach: thinking of imperfect duties as duties held by groups, rather than individuals. I show, again using the example of (...)
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  10. Toby Svoboda (2014). A Reconsideration of Indirect Duties Regarding Non-Human Organisms. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (2):311-323.score: 24.0
    According to indirect duty views, human beings lack direct moral duties to non-human organisms, but our direct duties to ourselves and other humans give rise to indirect duties regarding non-humans. On the orthodox interpretation of Kant’s account of indirect duties, one should abstain from treating organisms in ways that render one more likely to violate direct duties to humans. This indirect duty view is subject to several damaging objections, such as that it misidentifies the moral (...)
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  11. Robert Huseby (2008). Duties and Responsibilities Towards the Poor. Res Publica 14 (1):1-18.score: 24.0
    Thomas Pogge has argued that we have strong negative duties to assist the global poor because we harm them through our contribution to the global economic order. I argue that Pogge’s concept of harm is indeterminate. The resources of any group will typically be affected by at least two economic schemes. Pogge suggests that the responsibility for any affected group’s shortfall from a minimum standard ought to be shared between the contributing schemes. I argue that shared responsibility can be (...)
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  12. Anne Schwenkenbecher (2013). Joint Duties and Global Moral Obligations. Ratio 26 (3):310-328.score: 24.0
    In recent decades, concepts of group agency and the morality of groups have increasingly been discussed by philosophers. Notions of collective or joint duties have been invoked especially in the debates on global justice, world poverty and climate change. This paper enquires into the possibility and potential nature of moral duties individuals in unstructured groups may hold together. It distinguishes between group agents and groups of people which – while not constituting a collective agent – are nonetheless capable (...)
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  13. Michael Robinson (2010). Are Some Prima Facie Duties More Binding Than Others? Utilitas 22 (1):26-32.score: 24.0
    In The Right and the Good, W. D. Ross commits himself to the view that, in addition to being distinct and defeasible, some prima facie duties are more binding than others. David McNaughton has argued that there appears to be no way of making sense of this claim that is both coherent and consistent with Ross's overall picture. I offer an alternative way of understanding Ross's remarks about the comparative stringency of prima facie duties, which, in addition to (...)
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  14. Lara Denis (2000). Kant's Conception of Duties Regarding Animals: Reconstruction and Reconsideration. History of Philosophy Quarterly 17 (4):405-23.score: 24.0
    In Kant’s moral theory, we do not have duties to animals, though we have duties with regard to them. I reconstruct Kant’s arguments for several types of duties with regard to animals and show that Kant’s theory imposes far more robust requirements on our treatment of animals than one would expect. Kant’s duties regarding animals are perfect and imperfect; they are primarily but not exclusively duties to oneself; and they condemn not merely cruelty to animals (...)
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  15. Stephanie Collins & Holly Lawford-Smith, The Transfer of Duties: From Individuals to States and Back Again.score: 24.0
    Individuals sometimes pass their duties on to collectives, which is one way in which collectives can come to have duties. The collective discharges its duties by acting through its members, which involves distributing duties back out to individuals. Individuals put duties in and get (transformed) duties out. In this paper we consider whether (and if so, to what extent) this general account can make sense of states' duties. Do some of the duties (...)
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  16. Robert Heeger & Frans W. A. Brom (2001). Intrinsic Value and Direct Duties: From Animal Ethics Towards Environmental Ethics? [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 14 (2):241-252.score: 24.0
    Three types of concern for animal welfare are widelyheld: Animals should feel well, they should function well, andthey should lead natural lives. The paper deals with a well-knownanswer to the question of why such concerns are morallyappropriate: Human beings have direct duties towards animals,because animals are beings that can flourish, the flourishing ofanimals is intrinsically or inherently valuable, and that whichis conducive to their flourishing is a legitimate object of moralconcern. Looking for a tenable conception of direct dutiestowards animals, (...)
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  17. Steven Daskal (2013). Confining Pogge's Analysis of Global Poverty to Genuinely Negative Duties. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (2):369-391.score: 24.0
    Thomas Pogge has argued that typical citizens of affluent nations participate in an unjust global order that harms the global poor. This supports his conclusion that there are widespread negative institutional duties to reform the global order. I defend Pogge’s negative duty approach, but argue that his formulation of these duties is ambiguous between two possible readings, only one of which is properly confined to genuinely negative duties. I argue that this ambiguity leads him to shift illicitly (...)
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  18. Steve Cooke (2011). Duties to Companion Animals. Res Publica 17 (3):261-274.score: 24.0
    This paper outlines the moral contours of human relationships with companion animals. The paper details three sources of duties to and regarding companion animals: (1) from the animal’s status as property, (2) from the animal’s position in relationships of care, love, and dependency, and (3) from the animal’s status as a sentient being with a good of its own. These three sources of duties supplement one another and not only differentiate relationships with companion animals from wild animals and (...)
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  19. Cam Caldwell (2011). Duties Owed to Organizational Citizens – Ethical Insights for Today's Leader. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 102 (3):343-356.score: 24.0
    Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) has been widely recognized as a contributor to improving organizational performance and wealth creation. The purpose of this article is to briefly summarize the motives of many employees who exercise OCB and to identify the ethical duties owed by organizational leaders to the highly committed employees with whom they work. After reviewing the nature of OCB and the psychological contracts made with highly committed employees, we then use Hosmer’s framework of ten ethical perspectives to identify (...)
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  20. David M. Douglas (2011). A Bundle of Software Rights and Duties. Ethics and Information Technology 13 (3):185-197.score: 24.0
    Like the ownership of physical property, the issues computer software ownership raises can be understood as concerns over how various rights and duties over software are shared between owners and users. The powers of software owners are defined in software licenses, the legal agreements defining what users can and cannot do with a particular program. To help clarify how these licenses permit and restrict users’ actions, here I present a conceptual framework of software rights and duties that is (...)
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  21. Anne Schwenkenbecher (forthcoming). Joint Moral Duties. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 38.score: 24.0
    There are countless circumstances under which random individuals could act together to prevent something morally bad from happening or to remedy a morally bad situation. But when ought individuals to act together in order to bring about a morally important outcome? This paper seeks to answer that question. Building on Philip Pettit’s and David Schweikard’s account of joint action, I will put forward the notion of joint duties: duties to perform an action together that individuals in so-called random (...)
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  22. Stephanie Collins (2013). Duties to Make Friends. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (5):907-921.score: 24.0
    Why, morally speaking, ought we do more for our family and friends than for strangers? In other words, what is the justification of special duties? According to partialists, the answer to this question cannot be reduced to impartial moral principles. According to impartialists, it can. This paper briefly argues in favour of impartialism, before drawing out an implication of the impartialist view: in addition to justifying some currently recognised special duties, impartialism also generates new special duties that (...)
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  23. Alec Walen & David Wasserman (2012). Agents, Impartiality, and the Priority of Claims Over Duties: Diagnosing Why Thomson Still Gets the Trolley Problem Wrong by Appeal to the “Mechanics of Claims”. [REVIEW] Journal of Moral Philosophy 9 (4):545-571.score: 24.0
    Judith Jarvis Thomson recently argued that it is impermissible for a bystander to turn a runaway trolley from five onto one. But she also argues that a trolley driver is required to do just that. We believe that her argument is flawed in three important ways. She fails to give proper weight to (a) an agent¹s claims not to be required to act in ways he does not want to, (b) impartiality in the weighing of competing patient-claims, and (c) the (...)
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  24. David E. Ohreen & Roger A. Petry (2012). Imperfect Duties and Corporate Philanthropy: A Kantian Approach. Journal of Business Ethics 106 (3):367-381.score: 24.0
    Nonprofit organizations play a crucial role in society. Unfortunately, many such organizations are chronically underfunded and struggle to meet their objectives. These facts have significant implications for corporate philanthropy and Kant’s notion of imperfect duties. Under the concept of imperfect duties, businesses would have wide discretion regarding which charities receive donations, how much money to give, and when such donations take place. A perceived problem with imperfect duties is that they can lead to moral laxity; that is, (...)
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  25. Cam Caldwell, Larry A. Floyd, Ryan Atkins & Russell Holzgrefe (2012). Ethical Duties of Organizational Citizens: Obligations Owed by Highly Committed Employees. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 110 (3):285-299.score: 24.0
    Individuals who demonstrate organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) contribute to their organization’s ability to create wealth, but they also owe their organizations a complex set of ethical duties. Although, the academic literature has begun to address the ethical duties owed by organizational leaders to organizational citizens, very little has been written about the duties owed by those who practice OCB to their organizations. In this article, we identify an array of ethical duties owed by those who engage (...)
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  26. Sharon Kaur & Choong Yeow Choy (2012). Ethical Considerations in Clinical Trials: A Critique of the ICH-GCP Guideline. Developing World Bioethics 12 (3):20-28.score: 24.0
    This article examines issues relating to ethics decision-making in clinical trials. The overriding concern is to ensure that the well being and the interests of human subjects are adequately safeguarded. In this respect, this article will embark on a critical analysis of the ICH-GCP Guideline. The purpose of such an undertaking is to highlight areas of concern and the shortcomings of the existing ICH-GCP Guideline. Particular emphasis is made on how ethics committees perform their duties and responsibilities in (...)
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  27. Eric Brown (2013). Vulnerability and the Basis of Business Ethics: From Fiduciary Duties to Professionalism. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 113 (3):489-504.score: 24.0
    This paper examines the role of vulnerability in the basis of business ethics by criticizing its role in giving a moral substantial character to fiduciary duties to shareholders. The target is Marcoux’s (Bus Ethics Q 13(1):1–24, 2003) argument for morally substantial fiduciary duties vis-à-vis the multifiduciary stakeholder theory. Rather than proceed to support the stakeholder paradigm, a conception of vulnerability is combined with Heath’s 2004) “market failure” view of the ethical obligations of managers as falling out of their (...)
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  28. Wim Dubbink & Bert van de Ven (2012). On the Duties of Commission in Commercial Life. A Kantian Criticism of Moral Institutionalism. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (2):221-238.score: 24.0
    In latter-day discussions on corporate morality, duties of commission are fiercely debated. Moral institutionalists argue that duties of commission—such as a duty of assistance—overstep the boundaries of moral duty owed by economic agents. “Moral institutionalism” is a newly coined term for a familiar position on market morality. It maintains that market morality ought to be restricted, excluding all duties of commission. Neo-Classical thinkers such as Baumol and Homann defend it most eloquently. They underpin their position with concerns (...)
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  29. Scott Stapleford (2013). Imperfect Epistemic Duties and the Justificational Fecundity of Evidence. Synthese 190 (18):4065-4075.score: 24.0
    Mark Nelson argues that we have no positive epistemic duties. His case rests on the evidential inexhaustibility of sensory and propositional evidence—what he calls their ‘infinite justificational fecundity’. It is argued here that Nelson’s reflections on the richness of sensory and propositional evidence do make it doubtful that we ever have an epistemic duty to add any particular beliefs to our belief set, but that they fail to establish that we have no positive epistemic duties whatsoever. A theory (...)
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  30. John Kekes (1995). Pluralism, Scientific Knowledge, and the Fallacy of Overriding Values. Argumentation 9 (4):577-594.score: 24.0
    The paper examines one implication of pluralism, the view that all values are conditional and none are overriding. This implication is that since scientific knowledge is one of the conditional values, there are circumstances in which the pursuit of even the most basic scientific knowledge is legitimately curtailed. These circumstances occur when the pursuit of scientific knowledge conflicts with moral and political values which, in that context, are more important than it. The argument focuses on the case for and (...)
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  31. Ivar Kolstad (2009). Human Rights and Assigned Duties: Implications for Corporations. [REVIEW] Human Rights Review 10 (4):569-582.score: 24.0
    Human rights imply duties. The question is, duties for whom? Without a well-defined scheme for assigning duties correlative to human rights, these rights remain illusory. This paper develops core elements of a general scheme of duty assignment and studies the implications for corporations. A key distinction in such an assignment is between unconditional and conditional duties. Unconditional duties apply to every agent regardless of the conduct of others. Conditional duties reflect a division of moral (...)
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  32. William DeAngelis (2014). Academic Deans, Codes of Ethics, and……Fiduciary Duties? Journal of Academic Ethics 12 (3):209-225.score: 24.0
    College and university academic deans must comply with two sets of professional regulations. As faculty members, they must adhere to their institution's internally generated code of ethics. As administrators and agents of their institution, they must meet the fiduciary duties of diligence and loyalty. Both sets of regulations are similar in the obligations they impose on a dean, the degree of care they demand of a dean in the execution of those obligations, the nature of a breach of those (...)
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  33. Indrė Špokienė (2012). The Catalogue of Patients' Duties in Lithuania: The Legal Analysis of Contents. Jurisprudence 19 (4):1529-1550.score: 24.0
    Lithuania was one of the first states in Europe to approve a comprehensive list of patients’ duties under a special Law on the Rights of Patients of 2010. The approval of the catalogue of patients’ duties at the level of a law is based on the restatement of the principle of equal rights of the parties participating in health care relations, and the prevention of consumerism in these relations. The paper distinguishes between general and special patients’ duties. (...)
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  34. Aaron Maltais (2008). Global Warming and Our Natural Duties of Justice. Dissertation, Uppsala Universityscore: 22.0
    Compelling research in international relations and international political economy on global warming suggests that one part of any meaningful effort to radically reverse current trends of increasing green house gas (GHG) emissions is shared policies among states that generate costs for such emissions in many if not most of the world’s regions. Effectively employing such policies involves gaining much more extensive global commitments and developing much stronger compliance mechanism than those currently found in the Kyoto Protocol. In other words, global (...)
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  35. Simon Căbulea May (2012). Moral Status and the Direction of Duties. Ethics 123 (1):113-128.score: 22.0
    Gopal Sreenivasan’s “hybrid theory” states that a moral duty is directed toward an individual because her interests justify the assignment of control over the duty. An alternative “plain theory” states that the individual’s interests justify the duty itself. I argue that a strong moral status constraint explains Sreenivasan’s instrumentalization objection to a Razian plain theory but that his own model violates this constraint. I suggest how both approaches can be reformulated to satisfy the constraint, and I argue that a reformulated (...)
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  36. Julio Montero (2008). Global Deprivation—Whose Duties? Some Problems with the Contribution Principle. Metaphilosophy 39 (4-5):612-620.score: 22.0
    Abstract: In this brief article, I claim that the Contribution Principle invoked by Christian Barry as a key principle for determining who owes what to the global destitute is mistaken as a definitive principle and unjustified as a provisional principle for dealing with global poverty. This principle assumes that merely causing, or contributing to the cause of, a state of affairs may be sufficient to have a special responsibility to bear the costs that this state of affairs entails. I argue (...)
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  37. Vicente Medina (1994). HIV and Entrenched Social Roles: Patients' Rights Vs. Physicians' Duties. Public Affairs Quarterly 8 (4):359-375.score: 22.0
    Physicians, so it will be argued have by virtue of their profession a weightier obligation than patients to disclose their HIV infection, and also have a duty to refrain from performing exposure-prone invasive procedures. This argument supports both the AMA and CDC guidelines on HIV infected health care workers (HCWS), while undermining the recommendations against disclosure suggested by the National Commission on AIDS (NCA). The argument is divided into three parts. First, a distinction is made between entrenched and fuzzy roles. (...)
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  38. Jonathan Seglow (2010). Associative Duties and Global Justice. Journal of Moral Philosophy 7 (1):54-73.score: 21.0
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  39. Javier Hidalgo (2013). Associative Duties and Immigration. Journal of Moral Philosophy 10 (6):697-722.score: 21.0
  40. Louis-Jacques van Bogaert (2006). Rights of and Duties to Non‐Consenting Patients–Informed Refusal in the Developing World. Developing World Bioethics 6 (1):13-22.score: 21.0
  41. Carl Wellman (ed.) (2002). Rights and Duties. Routledge.score: 20.0
    Volume Six of the Six-Volume set, Rights and Duties joins the most significant writings in two crucial areas of ethical reflection and behavior. This collection provides students and scholars with the history of how humanity has argued for and against entitlements, rights, and protections for itself, and how humanity has argued for and against obligations, duties, and social responsibilities toward others.
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  42. Chase B. Wrenn (2007). Why There Are No Epistemic Duties. Dialogue: The Canadian Philosophical Review 46 (01):115-136.score: 20.0
    An epistemic duty would be a duty to believe, disbelieve, or withhold judgment from a proposition, and it would be grounded in purely evidential or epistemic considerations. If I promise to believe it is raining, my duty to believe is not epistemic. If my evidence is so good that, in light of it alone, I ought to believe it is raining, then my duty to believe supposedly is epistemic. I offer a new argument for the claim that there are no (...)
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  43. Henry S. Richardson (2012). Moral Entanglements: Ad Hoc Intimacies and Ancillary Duties of Care. Journal of Moral Philosophy 9 (3):376-409.score: 20.0
    This paper develops and explores the idea of moral entanglements: the ways in which, through innocent transactions with others, we can unintendedly accrue special obligations to them. More particularly, the paper explains intimacy-based moral entanglements, to which we become liable by accepting another's waiver of privacy rights. Sometimes, having entered into others' private affairs for innocent or even helpful reasons, one discovers needs of theirs that then become the focus of special duties of care. The general duty to warn (...)
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  44. Gary Seay (2001). Do Physicians Have an Inviolable Duty Not to Kill? Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (1):75 – 91.score: 20.0
    An important part of the debate over physician-assisted suicide concerns moral duties that are specific to physicians. It is sometimes argued that physicians, by virtue of special commitments rooted in the nature of their profession, may never intentionally kill a patient, and that therefore, whether or not assisted suicide may be justifiable, it can never be right for a physician to take part in such an act. I examine four types of argument that have been offered in support of (...)
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  45. Chalmers C. Clark (2005). In Harm's Way: AMA Physicians and the Duty to Treat. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 30 (1):65 – 87.score: 20.0
    In June 2001, the American Medical Association (AMA) issued a revised and expanded version of the Principles of Medical Ethics (last published in 1980). In light of the new and more comprehensive document, the present essay is geared to consideration of a longstanding tension between physician's autonomy rights and societal obligations in the AMA Code. In particular, it will be argued that a duty to treat overrides AMA autonomy rights in social emergencies, even in cases that involve personal risk to (...)
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  46. Scott Stapleford (forthcoming). Why There May Be Epistemic Duties. Dialogue.score: 20.0
    Chase Wrenn argues that there are no epistemic duties. When it appears that we have an epistemic duty to believe, disbelieve or suspend judgement about some proposition P, we are really under a moral obligation to adopt the attitude towards P that our evidence favours. The argument appeals to theoretical parsimony: our conceptual scheme will be simpler without epistemic duties and we should therefore drop them. I argue that Wrenn’s strategy is flawed. There may well be things that (...)
     
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  47. Pablo Gilabert (2006). Basic Positive Duties of Justice and Narveson's Libertarian Challenge. Southern Journal of Philosophy 44 (2):193-216.score: 18.0
    Are positive duties to help others in need mere informal duties of virtue or can they also be enforceable duties of justice? In this paper I defend the claim that some positive duties (which I call basic positive duties) can be duties of justice against one of the most important prin- cipled objections to it. This is the libertarian challenge, according to which only negative duties to avoid harming others can be duties (...)
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  48. Richard J. Arneson (2005). Do Patriotic Ties Limit Global Justice Duties? Journal of Ethics 9 (1-2):127 - 150.score: 18.0
    Some theorists who accept the existence of global justice duties to alleviate the condition of distant needy strangers hold that these duties are significantly constrained by special ties to fellow countrymen. The patriotic priority thesis holds that morality requires the members of each nation-state to give priority to helping needy fellow compatriots over more needy distant strangers. Three arguments for constraint and patriotic priority are examined in this essay: an argument from fair play, one from coercion, another from (...)
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  49. Dale Jamieson (2005). Duties to the Distant: Aid, Assistance, and Intervention in the Developing World. [REVIEW] Journal of Ethics 9 (1-2):151 - 170.score: 18.0
    In his classic article, Famine, Affluence, and Morality (Philosophy and Public Affairs 1 (1972), pp. 229–243), Peter Singer claimed that affluent people in the developed world are morally obligated to transfer large amounts of resources to poor people in the developing world. For present purposes I will not call Singers argument into question. While people can reasonably disagree about exactly how demanding morality is with respect to duties to the desperate, there is little question in my mind that it (...)
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  50. Lawrence Masek (2005). How Kant's View of Perfect and Imperfect Duties Resolves an Alleged Moral Dilemma for Judges. Ratio Juris 18 (4):415-428.score: 18.0
    I clarify Kant's classification of duties and criticize the apocryphal tradition that, according to Kant, perfect duties trump imperfect duties. I then use Kant's view to argue that judges who believe that an action is immoral and should be illegal need not set aside their beliefs in order to comply with binding precedents that permit the action. The same view of morality that causes some people to oppose certain actions, including abortion, requires lower–court judges to comply with (...)
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