Search results for 'parental responsibilities' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  57
    Joseph Millum (2008). How Do We Acquire Parental Responsibilities? Social Theory and Practice 34 (1):71-93.
    It is commonly believed that parents have special duties toward their children—weightier duties than they owe other children. How these duties are acquired, however, is not well understood. This is problematic when claims about parental responsibilities are challenged; for example, when people deny that they are morally responsible for their biological offspring. In this paper I present a theory of the origins of parental responsibilities that can resolve such cases of disputed moral parenthood.
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  2. Colin Macleod (2010). Parental Responsibilities in an Unjust World. In David Archard & David Benatar (eds.), Procreation and Parenthood: The Ethics of Bearing and Rearing Children. Oxford University Press 128.
     
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  3.  33
    Joseph Millum (2008). How Do We Acquire Parental Responsibilities? Social Theory and Practice 34 (1):71-93.
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  4.  28
    Harald Schmidt (2008). Childhood Obesity and Parental Responsibilities. Hastings Center Report 38 (4):p. 3.
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  5. Richard Hull (2009). Projected Disability and Parental Responsibilities. In Kimberley Brownlee & Adam Cureton (eds.), Disability and Disadvantage. OUP Oxford
     
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  6.  5
    Bertha Alvarez Manninen (2011). Parental, Medical, and Sociological Responsibilities: “Octomom” as a Case Study in the Ethics of Fertility Treatments. Journal of Clinical Research and Bioethics 1 (S1).
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  7.  20
    Liezl van Zyl (2002). Intentional Parenthood: Responsibilities in Surrogate Motherhood. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 10 (2):165-175.
    In recent years, a number of writers dealingwith questions over parenthood that arisein the context of reproductive technologies andsurrogate motherhood, have appealed to thenotion of ``intentional parenthood''. Basingtheir argument on liberal values such asindividual autonomy, the freedom to entercontracts, the right to privacy, and individualself-fulfilment, they argue that contractuallystated intentions, rather than genetic orgestational relationships, should form thebasis of parental rights. Against this I arguethat parental rights do not derive fromcontractual agreements, but are based in theirobligations towards the (...)
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  8. Elizabeth Brake (2005). Fatherhood and Child Support: Do Men Have a Right to Choose? Journal of Applied Philosophy 22 (1):55–73.
  9.  21
    Tim Bayne (2003). Gamete Donation and Parental Responsibility. Journal of Applied Philosophy 20 (1):77–87.
    Unlike surrogacy and cloning, reproduction via gamete donation is widely assumed to be morally unproblematic. Recently, a number of authors have argued that this assumption is mistaken: gamete donors, they claim, have parental responsibilities that they typically treat too lightly. In this paper I argue that the ‘parental neglect’ case against gamete donation fails. I begin by examining and rejecting the view that gamete donors have parental responsibilities; I claim that none of the current accounts (...)
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  10.  13
    M. E. Winston (1986). Abortion and Parental Responsibility. Journal of Medical Humanities and Bioethics 7 (1):33-56.
    Standard approaches to the morality of abortion typically founder on the question of the “personhood” of the fetus. This paper attempts to avoid this problem by developing an alternative approach in which philosophical positions are derived not from a presumed right to life but from the special moral obligations of parents to nurture their immature children. After a discussion of the notion of parental responsibility, three leading accounts of the acquisition of parental responsibilities are examined: one based (...)
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  11.  80
    Gunnar Björnsson & Bengt Brülde (forthcoming). Normative Responsibilities: Structure and Sources. In Kristien Hens, Dorothee Horstkötter & Daniela Cutas (eds.), Parental Responsibility in the Context of Neuroscience and Genetics. Springer
    Attributions of what we shall call normative responsibilities play a central role in everyday moral thinking. It is commonly thought, for example, that parents are responsible for the wellbeing of their children, and that this has important normative consequences. Depending on context, it might mean that parents are morally required to bring their children to the doctor, feed them well, attend to their emotional needs, or to see to it that someone else does. Similarly, it is sometimes argued that (...)
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  12.  45
    Lisa Bortolotti & Daniela Cutas (2009). Reproductive and Parental Autonomy: An Argument for Compulsory Parental Education. Reproductive Biomedicine Online 19 (ethics suppl.):5-14.
    In this paper we argue that society should make available reliable information about parenting to everybody from an early age. The reason why parental education is important (when offered in a comprehensive and systematic way) is that it can help young people understand better the responsibilities associated with reproduction, and the skills required for parenting. This would allow them to make more informed life-choices about reproduction and parenting, and exercise their autonomy with respect to these choices. We do (...)
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  13. Jason K. M. Hanna (2010). Revisiting Child-Based Objections to Commercial Surrogacy. Bioethics 24 (7):341-347.
    Many critics of commercial surrogate motherhood argue that it violates the rights of children. In this paper, I respond to several versions of this objection. The most common version claims that surrogacy involves child-selling. I argue that while proponents of surrogacy have generally failed to provide an adequate response to this objection, it can be overcome. After showing that the two most prominent arguments for the child-selling objection fail, I explain how the commissioning couple can acquire parental rights by (...)
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  14. Mayra Rafaela Closs Bragotto Barros Peterlevitz (2013). A convergência das responsabilidades parental e política na teoria ética de Hans Jonas. Revista Inquietude 4 (1):110-127.
    Facing the progress of science and technology, Hans Jonas believes that traditional ethical theories are insufficient to guide the actions of contemporary man. To formulate his own theory, the philosopher takes as its basis the responsibilities of parents towards their children and the one the public man has in relation with his community. Despite their differences, these forms of liability are intertwined and complementary. Then arise in jonas' theory the concepts of wholeness, continuity and future, which will cover following (...)
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  15.  57
    Jyotsna Agnihotri Gupta (2007). Private and Public Eugenics: Genetic Testing and Screening in India. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 4 (3):217-228.
    Epidemiologists and geneticists claim that genetics has an increasing role to play in public health policies and programs in the future. Within this perspective, genetic testing and screening are instrumental in avoiding the birth of children with serious, costly or untreatable disorders. This paper discusses genetic testing and screening within the framework of eugenics in the health care context of India. Observations are based on literature review and empirical research using qualitative methods. I distinguish ‘private’ from ‘public’ eugenics. I refer (...)
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  16. T. Takala, P. Herrisone-Kelly & S. Holm (eds.) (2009). Cutting Through the Surface. Philosophical Approaches to Bioethics. Rodopi.
    This book examines the role of philosophy and philosophers in bioethics. Academics often see bioethical studies as too practical while decision makers tend to see them as too theoretical. The purpose of this collection of new essays by an international group of distinguished scholars is to explore the troubled relationship between theory and practice in the ethical assessment of medicine, health care, and new medical and genetic technologies. The book is divided into six parts. In the first part, philosophers consider (...)
     
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  17. Douglas Diekema (2004). Parental Refusals of Medical Treatment: The Harm Principle as Threshold for State Intervention. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 25 (4):243-264.
    Minors are generally considered incompetent to provide legally binding decisions regarding their health care, and parents or guardians are empowered to make those decisions on their behalf. Parental authority is not absolute, however, and when a parent acts contrary to the best interests of a child, the state may intervene. The best interests standard is the threshold most frequently employed in challenging a parent''s refusal to provide consent for a child''s medical care. In this paper, I will argue that (...)
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  18.  58
    William Lauinger (2015). A Framework for Understanding Parental Well-Being. Philosophia 43 (3):847-868.
    Is being a parent prudentially good for one – that is to say, does it enhance one’s well-being? The social-scientific literature is curiously divided when it comes to this question. While some studies suggest that being a parent decreases most people’s well-being, other studies suggest that being a parent increases most people’s well-being. In this paper I will present a framework for thinking about the prudential benefits and costs of parenthood. Four elements are central to this framework: affect, friendship , (...)
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  19. Andrew Botterell & Carolyn McLeod, Can a Right to Reproduce Justify the Status Quo on Parental Licensing?
    The status quo on parental licensing in most Western jurisdictions is that licensing is required in the case of adoption but not in the case of assisted or unassisted biological reproduction. To have a child via adoption, one must fulfill licensing requirements, which, beyond the usual home study, can include mandatory participation in parenting classes. One is exempt from these requirements, however, if one has a child via biological reproduction, including assisted reproduction involving donor gametes or a contract pregnancy. (...)
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  20.  40
    Hugh Lacey (2016). Science, Respect for Nature, and Human Well-Being: Democratic Values and the Responsibilities of Scientists Today. Foundations of Science 21 (1):51-67.
    The central question addressed is: How should scientific research be conducted so as to ensure that nature is respected and the well being of everyone everywhere enhanced? After pointing to the importance of methodological pluralism for an acceptable answer and to obstacles posed by characterizing scientific methodology too narrowly, which are reinforced by the ‘commercial-scientific ethos’, two additional questions are considered: How might research, conducted in this way, have impact on—and depend on—strengthening democratic values and practices? And: What is thereby (...)
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  21. Carolyn McLeod & Andrew Botterell (2014). Not For the Faint of Heart: Assessing the Status Quo on Adoption and Parental Licensing. In Francoise Baylis & Carolyn McLeod (eds.), Family Making: Contemporary Ethical Challenges. Oxford University Press 151-167.
    The process of adopting a child is “not for the faint of heart.” This is what we were told the first time we, as a couple, began this process. Part of the challenge lies in fulfilling the licensing requirements for adoption, which, beyond the usual home study, can include mandatory participation in parenting classes. The question naturally arises for many people who are subjected to these requirements whether they are morally justified. We tackle this question in this paper. In our (...)
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  22. Donald C. Hubin (1999). Parental Rights and Due Process. The Journal of Law and Family Studies 1 (2):123-150.
    The U.S. Supreme Court regards parental rights as fundamental. Such a status should subject any legal procedure that directly and substantively interferes with the exercise of parental rights to strict scrutiny. On the contrary, though, despite their status as fundamental constitutional rights, parental rights are routinely suspended or revoked as a result of procedures that fail to meet even minimal standards of procedural and substantive due process. This routine and cavalier deprivation of parental rights takes place (...)
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  23.  52
    Robert McGinn (2010). Ethical Responsibilities of Nanotechnology Researchers: A Short Guide. [REVIEW] NanoEthics 4 (1):1-12.
    Little if any of the scholarly literature on nanotechnology (NT) and ethics is directed at NT researchers. Many of these practitioners believe that having clear ethical guidelines for the conduct of NT research is necessary. This work attempts to provide such guidelines. While no qualitatively new ethical issues unique to NT have yet been identified, the ethical responsibilities identified below merit serious attention by NT researchers. Thirteen specific ethical responsibilities arising at three levels are identified. They are derived (...)
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  24.  56
    Sally Sheldon (2001). Unmarried Fathers and Parental Responsibility: A Case for Reform? [REVIEW] Feminist Legal Studies 9 (2):93-118.
    Following a Consultation exercise conducted by the Lord Chancellor's Department, the U.K. Government has announced its intention to amend the Children Act 1989 so that the unmarried father who jointly registers the birth with the mother will acquire parental responsibility automatically. In this paper, I draw on the responses made to the L.C.D. Consultation, in order critically to evaluate the arguments for and against reform. A poverty of relevant empirical research makes it impossible to reach a properly informed view (...)
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  25. Arash Abizadeh & Pablo Gilabert (2008). Is There a Genuine Tension Between Cosmopolitan Egalitarianism and Special Responsibilities? Philosophical Studies 138 (3):349 - 365.
    Samuel Scheffler has recently argued that some relationships are non-instrumentally valuable; that such relationships give rise to “underived” special responsibilities; that there is a genuine tension between cosmopolitan egalitarianism and special responsibilities; and that we must consequently strike a balance between the two. We argue that there is no such tension and propose an alternative approach to the relation between cosmopolitan egalitarianism and special responsibilities. First, while some relationships are non-instrumentally valuable, no relationship is unconditionally valuable. Second, (...)
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  26. M. C. Pang (1999). Protective Truthfulness: The Chinese Way of Safeguarding Patients in Informed Treatment Decisions. Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (3):247-253.
    The first part of this paper examines the practice of informed treatment decisions in the protective medical system in China today. The second part examines how health care professionals in China perceive and carry out their responsibilities when relaying information to vulnerable patients, based on the findings of an empirical study that I had undertaken to examine the moral experience of nurses in practice situations. In the Chinese medical ethics tradition, refinement [jing] in skills and sincerity [cheng] in relating (...)
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  27.  6
    Heiko Puls (2016). Kant’s Justification of Parental Duties. Kantian Review 21 (1):53-75.
    In his applied moral philosophy, Kant formulates the parents and hence also having created her need for happiness s considerations regarding parental duties and human reproduction in general imply arguments for an ethically justified anti-natalism, but that this position is abolished in his teleology for meta-ethical reasons.
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  28.  13
    Stephen Chen (2009). Corporate Responsibilities in Internet-Enabled Social Networks. Journal of Business Ethics 90 (4):523 - 536.
    As demonstrated by the popularity of social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter, Internet-based social networks have become an important part of daily life, and many businesses are now involved in such networks either as service providers or as participants. Furthermore, inter-organizational networks are becoming an increasingly common feature of many industries, not only on the Internet. However, despite the growing importance of networks for businesses, there is little theoretical study on the social responsibilities of businesses in such (...)
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  29.  35
    Tineke Abma, Anne Bruijn, Tinie Kardol, Jos Schols & Guy Widdershoven (2012). Responsibilities in Elderly Care: Mr Powell's Narrative of Duty and Relations. Bioethics 26 (1):22-31.
    In Western countries a considerable number of older people move to a residential home when their health declines. Institutionalization often results in increased dependence, inactivity and loss of identity or self-worth (dignity). This raises the moral question as to how older, institutionalized people can remain autonomous as far as continuing to live in line with their own values is concerned. Following Walker's meta-ethical framework on the assignment of responsibilities, we suggest that instead of directing all older people towards more (...)
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  30.  67
    Gabriel Eweje (2006). Environmental Costs and Responsibilities Resulting From Oil Exploitation in Developing Countries: The Case of the Niger Delta of Nigeria. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 69 (1):27 - 56.
    Interest shown on the environmental impact of operations of multinational enterprises in developing countries has grown significantly recently, and has fuelled a heated public policy debate. In particular, there has been interest in the environmental degradation of host communities and nations resulting from the operations of multinational oil companies in developing countries. This article examines the issue of environmental costs and responsibilities resulting from oil exploitation and production in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The case study is based, (...)
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  31.  42
    Lawrence Blum (2010). Secularism, Multiculturalism and Same-Sex Marriage: A Comment on Brenda Almond's 'Education for Tolerance'. Journal of Moral Education 39 (2):145-160.
    Although Almond argues that the contemporary West has lost touch with the value of tolerance, I argue that that value applied to those of different religions and sexual orientations is too minimal a standard for a pluralistic society. I suggest, in the spirit of the work of Charles Taylor and Tariq Modood, the more robust standard of respect and acceptance. In addition, I have criticised Almond?s privileging of parental values over school values, seeing in that privileging a failure to (...)
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  32.  13
    Kristin Zeiler, Lisa Guntram & Anette Lennerling (2010). Moral Tales of Parental Living Kidney Donation: A Parenthood Moral Imperative and its Relevance for Decision Making. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 13 (3):225-236.
    Free and informed choice is an oft-acknowledged ethical basis for living kidney donation, including parental living kidney donation. The extent to which choice is present in parental living kidney donation has, however, been questioned. Since parents can be expected to have strong emotional bonds to their children, it has been asked whether these bonds make parents unable to say no to this donation. This article combines a narrative analysis of parents’ stories of living kidney donation with a philosophical (...)
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  33.  6
    Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi (forthcoming). The Debate on the Moral Responsibilities of Online Service Providers. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-29.
    Online service providers —such as AOL, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, and Twitter—significantly shape the informational environment and influence users’ experiences and interactions within it. There is a general agreement on the centrality of OSPs in information societies, but little consensus about what principles should shape their moral responsibilities and practices. In this article, we analyse the main contributions to the debate on the moral responsibilities of OSPs. By endorsing the method of the levels of abstract, we first analyse the (...)
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  34.  9
    Anca Gheaus (2014). The Parental Love Argument Against 'Designing' Babies: The Harm in Knowing That One has Been Selected or Enhanced. In Ruth Chadwick, Mairi Levitt & Darren Shickle (eds.), The Right to Know and the Right Not to Know Genetic Privacy and Responsibility. Cambridge University Press 151-164.
    In this chapter, I argue that children who were selected for particular traits or genetically enhanced might feel, for this reason, less securely, spontaneously and fairly loved by their parents, which would constitute significant harm. ‘Parents’ refers, throughout this chapter, to the people who perform the social function of rearing children, rather than to procreators. I rely on an understanding of adequate parental love which includes several characteristics: parents should not make children feel they are loved conditionally, for features (...)
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  35.  28
    Edwin Hui (2011). Adolescent and Parental Perceptions of Medical Decision‐Making in Hong Kong. Bioethics 25 (9):516-526.
    ABSTRACTObjectives: To investigate whether Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong share similar perceptions with their Western counterparts regarding their capacity for autonomous decision‐making, and secondarily whether Chinese parents underestimate their adolescent children's desire and capacity for autonomous decision‐making.Method:‘Healthy Adolescents’ and their parents were recruited from four local secondary schools, and ‘Sick Adolescents’ and their parents from the pediatric wards and outpatient clinics. Their perceptions of adolescents' understanding of illnesses and treatments, maturity in judgment, risk‐taking, openness to divergent opinions, pressure from parents (...)
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  36.  17
    Joy A. Schneer & Frieda Reitman (2002). Managerial Life Without a Wife: Family Structure and Managerial Career Success. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 37 (1):25 - 38.
    The model of the successful manager was based on the 1950's family. Thus career demands assumed the presence of a spouse at home to handle family responsibilities. This study seeks to determine whether women and men in alternate family structures will be able to succeed in managerial careers. Data were analyzed from two MBA alumni cohorts: one older cohort with three waves of data collected over a thirteen-year period and a second younger cohort with data collected in the most (...)
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  37.  21
    Christine Overall (2015). Reproductive ‘Surrogacy’ and Parental Licensing. Bioethics 29 (5):353-361.
    A serious moral weakness of reproductive ‘surrogacy’ is that it can be harmful to the children who are created. This article presents a proposal for mitigating this weakness. Currently, the practice of commercial ‘surrogacy’ operates only in the interests of the adults involved , not in the interests of the child who is created. Whether ‘surrogacy’ is seen as the purchase of a baby, the purchase of parental rights, or the purchase of reproductive labor, all three views share the (...)
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  38.  13
    Thomas Douglas (2015). Parental Partiality and the Intergenerational Transmission of Advantage. Philosophical Studies 172 (10):2735-2756.
    Parents typically favour their own children over others’. For example, most parents invest more time and money in their own children than in other children. This parental partiality is usually regarded as morally permissible, or even obligatory, but it can have undesirable distributive effects. For example, it may create unfair or otherwise undesirable advantages for the favoured child. A number of authors have found it necessary to justify parental partiality in the face of these distributive concerns, and they (...)
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  39.  14
    Simon Woods, Lynn E. Hagger & Pauline McCormack (2012). Therapeutic Misconception: Hope, Trust and Misconception in Paediatric Research. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis (1):1-19.
    Although the therapeutic misconception (TM) has been well described over a period of approximately 20 years, there has been disagreement about its implications for informed consent to research. In this paper we review some of the history and debate over the ethical implications of TM but also bring a new perspective to those debates. Drawing upon our experience of working in the context of translational research for rare childhood diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, we consider the ethical and legal (...)
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  40.  31
    Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Cristina Lopez-del Burgo, Silvia Carlos, Maria Calatrava, Carlos Beltramo, Alfonso Osorio & Jokin de Irala (2013). Observational Research with Adolescents: A Framework for the Management of the Parental Permission. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):2-.
    Background: Waiving parent permission can be an option in some epidemiological and social research with adolescents. However, exemptions have not been uniformly considered or applied. Our aim is to critically assess the different factors that could be taken into account when making decisions about waiving active parental permission in observational research with adolescents.DiscussionIn some cases alternatives to parental permission could be applied to protect the rights of both adolescents and parents and also to assure the benefits to adolescents (...)
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  41.  34
    Klaus M. Leisinger (2009). Corporate Responsibilities for Access to Medicines. Journal of Business Ethics 85 (1):3 - 23.
    Today there is a growing wave of demands being placed upon the pharmaceutical industry to contribute to improved access to medicines for poor patients in the developing countries. 1 This article aims to contribute to the development of a systematic approach and broad consensus about shared benchmarks for good corporate practices in this area. A consensus corridor on what constitutes an appropriate portfolio of corporate responsibilities for access to medicines -especially under conditions of 'failing states' and 'market failure' 2 (...)
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  42.  51
    Frederick Bird (2009). The Ethical Responsibilities of Businesses in Developing Areas. Journal of Business Ethics 89 (2):85 - 97.
    This article reviews the responsibilities of businesses in relation to the ongoing debates with respect to ethical issues related to economic development. The article addresses four questions: (1) What are the most appropriate ways of thinking about economic development and its relation to human development? (2) What policies are most likely to foster fitting forms of development? (3) What are the best ways of managing the inevitable social disruptions that accompany economic development? And (4) what roles should governments play (...)
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  43.  1
    Judith Semon Dubas, Marianne Heijkoop & Marcel A. G. Van Aken (2009). A Preliminary Investigation of Parent–Progeny Olfactory Recognition and Parental Investment. Human Nature 20 (1):80-92.
    The role of olfaction in kin recognition and parental investment is documented in many mammalian/vertebrate species. Research on humans, however, has only focused on whether parents are able to recognize their children by smell, not whether humans use these cues for investment decisions. Here we show that fathers exhibit more affection and attachment and fewer ignoring behaviors toward children whose smell they can identify than toward those whose smell they cannot recognize. Thus, olfaction might serve as a means for (...)
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  44.  24
    Shari Collins & Eric Comerford (2012). Anonymous Sperm Donation. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 26 (2):213-230.
    Anonymous sperm donation offspring often yearn for information about their biological fathers, and as they come of age that yearning increases in intensity. We first explore will and interest theory regarding this desire to know one’s heritage and argue that both theories lead to a right of the offspring to know. We then turn to the donor contract, look at the inconsistencies between donor ability to eschew parental responsibility compared to other biological fathers, and argue that there should be (...)
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  45.  5
    Ryan Tonkens (2015). Parental Virtue and Prenatal Genetic Alteration Research. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (4):651-664.
    Although the philosophical literature on the ethics of human prenatal genetic alteration purports to inform us about how to act, it rarely explicitly recognizes the perspective of those who will be making the PGA decision in practice. Here I approach the ethics of PGA from a distinctly virtue-based perspective, taking seriously what it means to be a good parent making this decision for one’s child. From this perspective, I generate a sound verdict on the moral standing of human PGA : (...)
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  46.  5
    Dawn B. Neill (2011). Urbanization and Daughter-Biased Parental Investment in Fiji. Human Nature 22 (1-2):139-155.
    Parental investment decisions guide parental actions regarding children’s productive work and are shaped by ecological context. Urban ecology enhances long-term payoffs to investment in human capital, increasing opportunity costs for work performed by children, and decreased workload should result. Using an embodied capital framework, self-reported data on urban and rural Indo-Fijian children’s work activities are compared. Results show higher workloads for older children, rural children, and girls. High scholastic achievement is associated with lower workloads for girls, but not (...)
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  47.  2
    Lee Cronk (1991). Preferential Parental Investment in Daughters Over Sons. Human Nature 2 (4):387-417.
    Female-biased parental investment is unusual but not unknown in human societies. Relevant explanatory models include Fisher’s principle, the Trivers-Willard model, local mate and resource competition and enhancement, and economic rational actor models. Possible evidence of female-biased parental investment includes sex ratios, mortality rates, parents’ stated preferences for offspring of one sex, and direct and indirect measurements of actual parental behavior. Possible examples of female-biased parental investment include the Mukogodo of Kenya, the Ifalukese of Micronesia, the Cheyenne (...)
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  48.  36
    Sonja Grover (2003). On the Limits of Parental Proxy Consent: Children's Right to Non-Participation in Non-Therapeutic Research. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 1 (4):349-383.
    This paper considers what are the appropriate limits of parental or guardian proxy consent for a child's participation in medical or social science research. Such proxy consent, it is proposed, is invalid in regards “non-therapeutic research.” The latter research may add to scientific knowledge and/or benefit others, but any benefit to the child research participant is but a coincidental theoretical possibility and not a primary objective. Research involving children, without intended and acceptable prospect of beneficial outcome to the individual (...)
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  49.  2
    Michelle Ciurria (2011). Tolerance, Acceptance and the Virtue of Orthonomy: A Reply to Lawrence Blum and Brenda Almond. Journal of Moral Education 40 (2):255-264.
    In the Journal of Moral Education, 39(2), Brenda Almond and Lawrence Blum debate the importance of tolerance versus acceptance in sex education. Blum defines acceptance as ?positive regard?, in contradistinction to mere tolerance, ?a live and let live attitude toward others, an acceptance of coexistence, but with a disapproval of that ?other??. Employing consequentialist and definitional arguments, he defends an acceptant educational policy. I shore up this defence by addressing the issue of autonomy: specifically, I refute the claim that acceptance (...)
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  50.  33
    William Ruddick, Parenthood: Three Concepts and a Principle.
    Summary. Disputes about pediatric, educational, and other child-related matters may reflect more general concepts of parenthood, including parental rights and responsibilities. These concepts may be child-centered, focusing either on a child’s needs or on a child’s development. Needs and development are not wholly distinct or in competition, but some parents may emphasize one or the other and, in case of conflict, favor one over the other. Such emphasis and preference tends to distinguish parents as child-carers and parents as (...)
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