Search results for 'past hypothesis' (try it on Scholar)

1000+ found
Sort by:
  1. Peter Mark Ainsworth (2008). Cosmic Inflation and the Past Hypothesis. Synthese 162 (2):157 - 165.score: 180.0
    The past hypothesis is that the entropy of the universe was very low in the distant past. It is put forward to explain the entropic arrow of time but it has been suggested (e.g. [Penrose, R. (1989a). The emperor’s new mind. London:Vintage Books; Penrose, R. (1989b). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 571, 249–264; Price, H. (1995). In S. F. Savitt (Ed.), Times’s arrows today. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Price, H. (1996). Time’s arrow and Archimedes’ (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. David Wallace (forthcoming). The Logic of the Past Hypothesis. In Barry Loewer, Eric Winsberg & Brad Weslake (eds.), Currently-unnamed volume discussing David Albert's "Time and Chance".score: 120.0
    I attempt to get as clear as possible on the chain of reasoning by which irreversible macrodynamics is derivable from time-reversible microphysics, and in particular to clarify just what kinds of assumptions about the initial state of the universe, and about the nature of the microdynamics, are needed in these derivations. I conclude that while a “Past Hypothesis” about the early Universe does seem necessary to carry out such derivations, that Hypothesis is not correctly understood as a (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Craig Callender, The Past Hypothesis Meets Gravity.score: 120.0
    The Past Hypothesis is the claim that the Boltzmann entropy of the universe was extremely low when the universe began. Can we make sense of this claim when *classical* gravitation is included in the system? I first show that the standard rationale for not worrying about gravity is too quick. If the paper does nothing else, my hope is that it gets the problems induced by gravity the attention they deserve in the foundations of physics. I then try (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Eric Winsberg (2004). Can Conditioning on the “Past Hypothesis” Militate Against the Reversibility Objections? Philosophy of Science 71 (4):489-504.score: 120.0
    In his recent book, Time and Chance, David Albert claims that by positing that there is a uniform probability distribution defined, on the standard measure, over the space of microscopic states that are compatible with both the current macrocondition of the world, and with what he calls the “past hypothesis”, we can explain the time asymmetry of all of the thermodynamic behavior in the world. The principal purpose of this paper is to dispute this claim. I argue that (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. Nick Huggett, Draft the Past Hypothesis and the Knowledge Asymmetry.score: 96.0
    Why is our knowledge of the past so much more ‘expansive’ (to pick a suitably vague term) than our knowledge of the future, and what is the best way to capture the difference(s) (i.e., in what sense is knowledge of the past more ‘expansive’)? One could reasonably approach these questions by giving necessary conditions for different kinds of knowledge, and showing how some were satisfied by certain propositions about the past, and not by corresponding propositions about the (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. Mathias Frisch (2011). From Arbuthnot to Boltzmann: The Past Hypothesis, the Best System, and the Special Sciences. Philosophy of Science 78 (5):1001-1011.score: 90.0
    In recent work on the foundations of statistical mechanics and the arrow of time, Barry Loewer and David Albert have developed a view that defends both a best system account of laws and a physicalist fundamentalism. I argue that there is a tension between their account of laws, which emphasizes the pragmatic element in assessing the relative strength of different deductive systems, and their reductivism or funda- mentalism. If we take the pragmatic dimension in their account seriously, then the laws (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. John Earman (2006). The “Past Hypothesis”: Not Even False. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 37 (3):399-430.score: 90.0
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. Mathias Frisch (2005). Counterfactuals and the Past Hypothesis. Philosophy of Science 72 (5):739-750.score: 90.0
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Douglas Kutach (2007). The Physical Foundations of Causation. In Huw Price & Richard Corry (eds.), Causation, Physics, and the Constitution of Reality: Russell's Republic Revisited. Oxford University Press.score: 66.0
    I defend what may loosely be called an eliminativist account of causation by showing how several of the main features of causation, namely asymmetry, transitivity, and necessitation (or sometimes probability-raising), arise from the combination of fundamental dynamical laws and a special constraint on the macroscopic structure of matter in the past. At the microscopic level, the causal features of necessitation and transitivity are grounded, but not the asymmetry. At the coarse-grained level of the macroscopic physics, the causal asymmetry is (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Chris Heathwood (2005). The Real Price of the Dead Past: A Reply to Forrest and to Braddon-Mitchell. Analysis 65 (287):249–251.score: 48.0
    Non-presentist A-theories of time (such as the growing block theory and the moving spotlight theory) seem unacceptable because they invite skepticism about whether one exists in the present. To avoid this absurd implication, Peter Forrest appeals to the "Past is Dead hypothesis," according to which only beings in the objective present are conscious. We know we're present because we know we're conscious, and only present beings can be conscious. I argue that the dead past hypothesis undercuts (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. G. William Moore, Grover M. Hutchins & Robert E. Miller (1986). A New Paradigm for Hypothesis Testing in Medicine, with Examination of the Neyman Pearson Condition. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 7 (3).score: 48.0
    In the past, hypothesis testing in medicine has employed the paradigm of the repeatable experiment. In statistical hypothesis testing, an unbiased sample is drawn from a larger source population, and a calculated statistic is compared to a preassigned critical region, on the assumption that the comparison could be repeated an indefinite number of times. However, repeated experiments often cannot be performed on human beings, due to ethical or economic constraints. We describe a new paradigm for hypothesis (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Peter Forrest (2004). The Real but Dead Past: A Reply to Braddon-Mitchell. Analysis 64 (4):358–362.score: 42.0
    In "How Do We Know It Is Now Now?" David Braddon-Mitchell (Analysis 2004) develops an objection to the thesis that the past is real but the future is not. He notes my response to this, namely that the past, although real, is lifeless and (a fortiori?) lacking in sentience. He argues, however, that this response, which I call 'the past is dead hypothesis', is not tenable if combined with 'special relativity'. My purpose in this reply is (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Helge Malmgren, Why the Past is Sometimes Perceived, and Not Only Remembered. Philosophical Communications.score: 42.0
    This paper first advances and discusses the hypothesis that so-called “iconic” or (for the auditory sphere) “echoic” memory is actually a form of perception of the past. Such perception is made possible by parallel inputs with differential delays which feed independently into the sensorium. This hypothesis goes well together with a set of related psychological and phenomenological facts, as for example: Sperling’s results about the visual sensory buffer, the facts that we seem to see movement and hear (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Patrick Forber (2011). Historical Reconstruction: Gaining Epistemic Access to the Deep Past. Philosophy and Theory in Biology 3 (20130604).score: 42.0
    Of the many tasks undertaken in science, one is striking both in its scope and the epistemic difficulties it faces: the reconstruction of the deep past. Such reconstruction provides the resources to successfully explain puzzling extant traces, from fossils to radiation signatures, often in the absence of extensive and repeatable observations—the hallmark of good epistemic support. Yet good explanations do not come for free. Evidence can fail, in practice or in principle, to support one hypothesis over another (underdetermination). (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Robert M. French & Elizabeth Thomas (1998). The Dynamical Hypothesis: One Battle Behind. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (5):640-641.score: 42.0
    What new implications does the dynamical hypothesis have for cognitive science? The short answer is: None. The _Behavior and Brain Sciences _target article, “The dynamical hypothesis in cognitive science” by Tim Van Gelder is basically an attack on traditional symbolic AI and differs very little from prior connectionist criticisms of it. For the past ten years, the connectionist community has been well aware of the necessity of using (and understanding) dynamically evolving, recurrent network models of cognition.
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Marius Dumitru (2008). The Extended Mind Hypothesis and Phenomenal Consciousness. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 34:5-13.score: 42.0
    The Extended Mind Hypothesis (EMH) needs a defence of phenomenal externalism in order to be consistent with an indispensable condition for attributing extended beliefs, concerning the conscious past endorsement of information. However, it is difficult, if not impossible, to envisage such a defence. Proponents ofthe EMH are thus confronted with a difficult dilemma: they either accept absurd attributions of belief, and thus deflate EMH, or incorporate, for compatibility reasons, the conscious past endorsement condition for extended belief attribution, (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. Daniel L. Schacter & Donna Rose Addis (2007). On the Constructive Episodic Simulation of Past and Future Events. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (3):331-332.score: 42.0
    We consider the relation between past and future events from the perspective of the constructive episodic simulation hypothesis, which holds that episodic simulation of future events requires a memory system that allows the flexible recombination of details from past events into novel scenarios. We discuss recent neuroimaging and behavioral evidence that support this hypothesis in relation to the theater production metaphor.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. Adam Albright & Bruce Hayes (2003). Rules Vs. Analogy in English Past Tenses: A Computational/Experimental Study. Cognition 90 (2):119-161.score: 42.0
    Are morphological patterns learned in the form of rules? Some models deny this, attributing all morphology to analogical mechanisms. The dual mechanism model (Pinker, S., & Prince, A. (1998). On language and connectionism: analysis of a parallel distributed processing model of language acquisition. Cognition, 28, 73-193) posits that speakers do internalize rules, but that these rules are few and cover only regular processes; the remaining patterns are attributed to analogy. This article advocates a third approach, which uses multiple stochastic rules (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Stefan Linquist & Jordan Bartol (2013). Two Myths About Somatic Markers. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (3):455-484.score: 36.0
    Research on patients with damage to ventromedial frontal cortices suggests a key role for emotions in practical decision making. This field of investigation is often associated with Antonio Damasio’s Somatic Marker Hypothesis—a putative account of the mechanism through which autonomic tags guide decision making in typical individuals. Here we discuss two questionable assumptions—or ‘myths’—surrounding the direction and interpretation of this research. First, it is often assumed that there is a single somatic marker hypothesis. As others have noted, however, (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. Michael Thomas & Annette Karmiloff-Smith (2002). Are Developmental Disorders Like Cases of Adult Brain Damage? Implications From Connectionist Modelling. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (6):727-750.score: 36.0
    It is often assumed that similar domain-specific behavioural impairments found in cases of adult brain damage and developmental disorders correspond to similar underlying causes, and can serve as convergent evidence for the modular structure of the normal adult cognitive system. We argue that this correspondence is contingent on an unsupported assumption that atypical development can produce selective deficits while the rest of the system develops normally (Residual Normality), and that this assumption tends to bias data collection in the field. Based (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. Andrew Naylor (1966). On Remembering an Unreal Past. Analysis 26 (March):122-128.score: 36.0
    Against Russell’s skeptical conjecture, that the world and its entire population came into existence five minutes ago, it is argued that any one of the following is logically incompatible with the conjunction of the other two: ostensible memories of certain events, records of such events, and the non-occurrence of these same events. This conclusion is reached through a critical examination of (1) the arguments advanced by Norman Malcolm in trying to show that Russell’s “hypothesis” does not express a logical (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. Wayne C. Myrvold, Probabilities in Statistical Mechanics: What Are They?score: 30.0
    This paper addresses the question of how we should regard the probability distributions introduced into statistical mechanics. It will be argued that it is problematic to take them either as purely ontic, or purely epistemic. I will propose a third alternative: they are almost objective probabilities, or epistemic chances. The definition of such probabilities involves an interweaving of epistemic and physical considerations, and thus they cannot be classified as either purely epistemic or purely ontic. This conception, it will be argued, (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. David A. Coall & Ralph Hertwig (2010). Grandparental Investment: Past, Present, and Future. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (1):1-19.score: 30.0
    What motivates grandparents to their altruism? We review answers from evolutionary theory, sociology, and economics. Sometimes in direct conflict with each other, these accounts of grandparental investment exist side-by-side, with little or no theoretical integration. They all account for some of the data, and none account for all of it. We call for a more comprehensive theoretical framework of grandparental investment that addresses its proximate and ultimate causes, and its variability due to lineage, values, norms, institutions (e.g., inheritance laws), and (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24. Daniel Parker (2005). Thermodynamic Irreversibility: Does the Big Bang Explain What It Purports to Explain? Philosophy of Science 72 (5):751-763.score: 30.0
    In this paper I examine Albert’s (2000) claim that the low entropy state of the early universe is sufficient to explain irreversible thermodynamic phenomena. In particular, I argue that conditionalising on the initial state of the universe does not have the explanatory power it is presumed to have. I present several arguments to the effect that Albert’s ‘past hypothesis’ alone cannot justify the belief in past non-equilibrium conditions or ground the veracity of records of the past.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. Richard Schlegel (1965). The Problem of Infinite Matter in Steady-State Cosmology. Philosophy of Science 32 (1):21-31.score: 24.0
    The creation-of-matter hypothesis of the Bondi-Gold-Hoyle steady-state cosmology requires that in an infinite time to which the first transfinite number may be assigned the number of atoms of matter produced would be equal to the cardinal number of the set of mathematical points in the continuum. The existence of a set of finite atoms with that cardinal number is physically unacceptable. The argument for the production of a non-denumerable set of atoms, in infinite time, is given in terms of (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. Joshua Alexander, Chad Gonnerman & John Waterman (forthcoming). Salience and Epistemic Egocentrism: An Empirical Study. In James Beebe (ed.), Advances in Experimental Epistemology. Continuum.score: 24.0
    Jennifer Nagel (2010) has recently proposed a fascinating account of the decreased tendency to attribute knowledge in conversational contexts in which unrealized possibilities of error have been mentioned. Her account appeals to epistemic egocentrism, or what is sometimes called the curse of knowledge, an egocentric bias to attribute our own mental states to other people (and sometimes our own future and past selves). Our aim in this paper is to investigate the empirical merits of Nagel’s hypothesis about the (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. Jose M. Arcaya (1989). Memory and Temporality: A Phenomenological Alternative. Philosophical Psychology 2 (1):101-110.score: 24.0
    The notion of memory storage, central to most contemporary theories of remembering, is challenged from a philosophical perspective as being contradictory and untenable. It criticizes this storage hypothesis as relying upon a linear explanation of time, an assumption which results in infinite regression, solipsism, and a failure to contact the real past. A model based on the phenomenological viewpoints of Edmund Husserl and Maurice Merleau-Ponty is offered as an alternative paradigm. Finally, a research method suggested by this descriptive (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. Cian Dorr (2010). The Eternal Coin: A Puzzle About Self-Locating Conditional Credence. Philosophical Perspectives 24 (1):189-205.score: 24.0
    The Eternal Coin is a fair coin has existed forever, and will exist forever, in a region causally isolated from you. It is tossed every day. How confident should you be that the Coin lands heads today, conditional on (i) the hypothesis that it has landed Heads on every past day, or (ii) the hypothesis that it will land Heads on every future day? I argue for the extremely counterintuitive claim that the correct answer to both questions (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  29. Yuval Dolev (2008). Semantic Externalism and Presentism. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 16 (4):533 – 557.score: 24.0
    In this paper I discuss an unconventional form of presentism which, I claim, captures better than all other versions of the doctrine the fundamental notion underpinning it, namely, the notion that 'only what is present is real'. My proposal is to take this maxim as stating, not the rather uncontroversial view that past things are not real now, but the more radical idea that they never were. This rendition of presentism is, I argue, the only one that is neither (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. Nicholas Shea & Cecilia Heyes (2010). Metamemory as Evidence of Animal Consciousness: The Type That Does the Trick. Biology and Philosophy 25 (1):95-110.score: 24.0
    The question of whether non-human animals are conscious is of fundamental importance. There are already good reasons to think that many are, based on evolutionary continuity and other considerations. However, the hypothesis is notoriously resistant to direct empirical test. Numerous studies have shown behaviour in animals analogous to consciously-produced human behaviour. Fewer probe whether the same mechanisms are in use. One promising line of evidence about consciousness in other animals derives from experiments on metamemory. A study by Hampton (Proc (...)
    Direct download (11 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. Roberta Bampton & Patrick Maclagan (2009). Does a 'Care Orientation' Explain Gender Differences in Ethical Decision Making? A Critical Analysis and Fresh Findings. Business Ethics 18 (2):179-191.score: 24.0
    Over the past two decades there has been a great deal of research conducted into the question of gender differences in ethical decision making in organisations. Much of this has been based on questionnaire surveys, typically asking respondents (often students, sometimes professionals) to judge the moral acceptability of actions as described in short cases or vignettes. Overall the results seem inconclusive, although what differences have been noted tend to show women as 'more ethical' than men. The authors of this (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. Gayle E. Woloschak (2004). The New Biology and its Impact in Biomedical Strategies Against HIV/AIDS. Zygon 39 (2):481-486.score: 24.0
    . The sequencing of the human genome and the initiation of the structural genomics projects have ushered in a new age of biology that involves multi-lab, high-cost projects with broad task-oriented goals rather than the more conventional hypothesis-driven approach of the past. The new biology has led to the development of new sets of tools for the scientist to use in the quest to solve mysteries of human disease, biomolecular structure-function relationships, and other burning biological questions. Nevertheless, the (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. Roland Breeur & Arnold Burms (2008). Persons and Relics. Ratio 21 (2):134–146.score: 24.0
    We describe a number of puzzling phenomena and use them as evidence for a hypothesis about why bodily continuity matters for personal identity. The phenomena all belong to a particular kind of symbolisation: each of them illustrates how an entity (object or person) sometimes acquires symbolic significance in virtue of a material link with the symbolised entity. Relics are the most obvious example of what happens here: they are cherished, desired or respected, not because of their intrinsic features, but (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  34. Daniel C. Dennett, Who's On First?score: 24.0
    There is a pattern of miscommunication bedeviling the people working on consciousness that is reminiscent of the classic Abbott and CostelloWhos on First?’ routine. With (...)the best of intentions, people are talking past each other, seeing major disagreements when there are only terminological or tactical preferencesor even just matters of emphasisthat divide the sides. Since some substantive differences also lurk in this confusion, it is well worth trying to sort out. Much of the problem seems to have been caused by some misdirection in my apologia for heterophenomenology (Dennett, 1982; 1991), advertised as an explicitly third-person approach to human consciousness, so I will try to make amends by first removing those misleading signposts and sending us back to the real issues. On the face of it, the study of human consciousness involves phenomena that seem to occupy something rather like another dimension: the private, subjective, ‘first-persondimension. Everybody agrees that this is where we start. What, then, is the relation between the standardthird-personobjective methodologies for studying meteors or magnets (or human metabolism or bone density), and the methodologies for studying human consciousness? Can the standard methods be extended in such a way as to do justice to the phenomena of human consciousness? Or do we have to find some quite radical or revolutionary alternative science? I have defended the hypothesis that there is a straightforward, conservative extension of objective science that handsomely covers the groundall the groundof human consciousness, doing justice to all the data without ever having to abandon the rules and constraints of the experimental method that have worked so well in the rest of science. This third-person methodology, dubbed heterophenomenology (phenomenology of another not oneself), is, I have claimed, the sound way to take the first person point of view as seriously as it can be taken.. (shrink)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. Sven Walter (2010). Cognitive Extension: The Parity Argument, Functionalism, and the Mark of the Cognitive. Synthese 177 (2):285-300.score: 24.0
    During the past decade, the so-called “hypothesis of cognitive extension,” according to which the material vehicles of some cognitive processes are spatially distributed over the brain and the extracranial parts of the body and the world, has received lots of attention, both favourable and unfavourable. The debate has largely focussed on three related issues: (1) the role of parity considerations, (2) the role of functionalism, and (3) the importance of a mark of the cognitive. This paper critically assesses (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36. Matthias Steup, Knowledge and Skepticism.score: 24.0
    Skeptics claim that we know radically less than we think we do. For example, skeptics might claim that we have next to no knowledge of the past, the future, or other minds. Here we will consider the skeptical claim that we have next to no knowledge of the external world: the world of physical objects that we at least seem to perceive. One well-known argument in support of this claim appeals to the possibility of being a BIV: a brain (...)
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37. Daniel Kelly (2013). Moral Disgust and The Tribal Instincts Hypothesis. In Kim Sterelny, Richard Joyce, Brett Calcott & Ben Fraser (eds.), Cooperation and its Evolution. MIT Press.score: 24.0
    Psychological research has been discovering a number of puzzling features of morality and moral cognition recently.2 Zhong & Liljenquist (2006) found that when people are asked to think about an unethical deed or recall one they themselves have committed in the past, issues of physical cleanliness become salient. Zhong & Liljenquist cleverly designate this phenomenon the “Macbeth Effect,” and it takes some interesting forms. For instance, reading a story describing an immoral deed increased people’s desire for products related to (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. Nicholas Shea Æ Cecilia Heyes, Metamemory as Evidence of Animal Consciousness: The Type That Does the Trick.score: 24.0
    The question of whether non-human animals are conscious is of fundamental importance. There are already good reasons to think that many are, based on evolutionary continuity and other considerations. However, the hypothesis is notoriously resistant to direct empirical test. Numerous studies have shown behaviour in animals analogous to consciously-produced human behaviour. Fewer probe whether the same mechanisms are in use. One promising line of evidence about consciousness in other animals derives from experiments on metamemory. A study by Hampton (Proc (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  39. James Robert Brown (2007). Thought Experiments in Science, Philosophy, and Mathematics. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 7 (1):3-27.score: 24.0
    Most disciplines make use of thought experiments, but physics and philosophy lead the pack with heavy dependence upon them. Often this is for conceptual clarification, but occasionally they provide real theoretical advances. In spite of their importance, however, thought experiments have received rather little attention as a topic in their own right until recently. The situation has improved in the past few years, but a mere generation ago the entire published literature on thought experiments could have been mastered in (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  40. Christophe Malaterre (2009). Can Synthetic Biology Shed Light on the Origin of Life? Biological Theory 4 (4):357-367.score: 24.0
    It is a most commonly accepted hypothesis that life originated from inanimate matter, somehow being a synthetic product of organic aggregates, and as such, a result of some sort of prebiotic synthetic biology. In the past decades, the newly formed scientific discipline of synthetic biology has set ambitious goals by pursuing the complete design and production of genetic circuits, entire genomes or even whole organisms. In this paper, I argue that synthetic biology might also shed some novel and (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  41. Kirk Fitzhugh (2006). The 'Requirement of Total Evidence' and its Role in Phylogenetic Systematics. Biology and Philosophy 21 (3):309-351.score: 24.0
    The question of whether or not to partition data for the purposes of inferring phylogenetic hypotheses remains controversial. Opinions have been especially divided since Kluge's (1989, Systematic Zoology 38, 7–25) claim that data partitioning violates the requirement of total evidence (RTE). Unfortunately, advocacy for or against the RTE has not been based on accurate portrayals of the requirement. The RTE is a basic maxim for non-deductive inference, stipulating that evidence must be considered if it has relevance to an inference. Evidence (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  42. Jason Grossman (2008). A Couple of the Nasties Lurking in Evidence-Based Medicine. Social Epistemology 22 (4):333 – 352.score: 24.0
    The Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) movement is an ideological force in health research and health policy which asks for allegiance to two types of methodological doctrine. The first is the highly quotable motherhood statement: for example, that we should make conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence (paraphrasing Sackett). The second type of doctrine, vastly more specific and in practice more important, is the detailed methodology of design and analysis of experiments. This type of detailed methodological doctrine tends to (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  43. Daniel A. Pollen (2006). Brain Stimulation and Conscious Experience: Electrical Stimulation of the Cortical Surface at a Threshold Current Evokes Sustained Neuronal Activity Only After a Prolonged Latency. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (3):560-565.score: 24.0
    Libet demonstrated that a substantial duration (>0.5-1.0 s) of direct electrical stimulation of the surface of a sensory cortex at a threshold or liminal current is required before a subject can experience a percept. Libet and his co-workers originally proposed that the result could be due either to spatial and temporal facilitation of the underlying neurons or additionally to a prolonged central processing time. However, over the next four decades, Libet chose to attribute the prolonged latency for evoking conscious experience (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  44. Paul Russell (2004). Responsibility and the Condition of Moral Sense. Philosophical Topics 32 (1-2):287-305.score: 24.0
    Recent work in contemporary compatibilist theory displays considerable sophistication and subtlety when compared with the earlier theories of classical compatibilism. Two distinct lines of thought have proved especially influential and illuminating. The first developed around the general hypothesis that moral sentiments or reactive attitudes are fundamental for understanding the nature and conditions of moral responsibility. The other important development is found in recent compatibilist accounts of rational self-control or reason responsiveness. Strictly speaking, these two lines of thought have developed (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  45. Dylan Evans, From Moods to Modules: Preliminary Remarks for an Evolutionary Theory of Mood Phenomena.score: 24.0
    In the past few decades, research in the psychology of emotion has benefited greatly from being located in a firm evolutionary framework. It is argued that research in the psychology of mood might attain equal rigour by taking a similar approach. An evolutionary framework for mood research would be based on evolutionary psychology, the main thesis of which is the Massive Modularity Hypothesis. Translating the folk-psychological language of moods into the scientific language of modules might clarify many theoretical (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  46. Peter Lipton, The Medawar Lecture 2004 the Truth About Science.score: 24.0
    The attitudes of scientists towards the philosophy of science is mixed and includes considerable indifference and some hostility. This may be due in part to unrealistic expectation and to misunderstanding. Philosophy is unlikely directly to improve scientific practices, but scientists may find the attempt to explain how science works and what it achieves of considerable interest nevertheless. The present state of the philosophy of science is illustrated by recent work on the ‘truth hypothesis’, according to which, science is generating (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  47. Johanna Seibt & Marco Nørskov (2012). “Embodying” the Internet: Towards the Moral Self Via Communication Robots? [REVIEW] Philosophy and Technology 25 (3):285-307.score: 24.0
    Abstract Internet communication technology has been said to affect our sense of self by altering the way we construct “personal identity,” understood as identificatory valuative narratives about the self; in addition, some authors have warned that internet communication creates special conditions for moral agency that might gradually change our moral intuitions. Both of these effects are attributed to the fact that internet communication is “disembodied.” Our aim in this paper is to establish a link between this complex of claims and (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  48. Josep Call & Michael Tomasello (2005). What Chimpanzees Know About Seeing, Revisited: An Explanation of the Third Kind. In Naomi Eilan, Christoph Hoerl, Teresa McCormack & Johannes Roessler (eds.), Joint Attention: Communication and Other Minds. Issues in Philosophy and Psychology. Oxford University Press. 45--64.score: 24.0
    Chimpanzees follow the gaze of conspecifics and humans — follow it past distractors and behind barriers, ‘check back’ with humans when gaze following does not yield interesting sights, use gestures appropriately depending on the visual access of their recipient, and select different pieces of food depending on whether their competitor has visual access to them. Taken together, these findings make a strong case for the hypothesis that chimpanzees have some understanding of what other individuals can and cannot see. (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  49. Giovanna Borradori (1994). The American Philosopher: Conversations with Quine, Davidson, Putnam, Nozick, Danto, Rorty, Cavell, Macintyre, and Kuhn. University of Chicago Press.score: 24.0
    In this lively look at current debates in American philosophy, leading philosophers talk candidly about the changing character of their discipline. In the spirit of Emerson's The American Scholar , this book explores the identity of the American philosopher. Through informal conversations, the participants discuss the rise of post-analytic philosophy in America and its relations to European thought and to the American pragmatist tradition. They comment on their own intellectual development as well as each others' work, charting the course of (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  50. Peter J. Richerson & Robert Boyd, Complex Societies: The Evolutionary Origins of a Crude Superorganism.score: 24.0
    The complexity of human societies of the past few thousand years rivals that of social insect societies. We hypothesize that two sets of social “instincts” underpin and constrain the evolution of complex societies. One set is ancient and shared with other social primate species, and one is derived and unique to our lineage. The latter evolved by the late Pleistocene, and led to the evolution of institutions of intermediate complexity in acephalous societies. The institutions of complex societies often conflict (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
1 — 50 / 1000