Search results for 'personhood' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Moral Personhood (2010). 3 Developmental Perspective on the Emergence of Moral Personhood James C. Harris. In Eva Feder Kittay & Licia Carlson (eds.), Cognitive Disability and its Challenge to Moral Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell. 55.score: 180.0
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  2. Martha J. Farah & Andrea S. Heberlein (2007). Personhood and Neuroscience: Naturalizing or Nihilating? American Journal of Bioethics 7 (1):37-48.score: 24.0
    Personhood is a foundational concept in ethics, yet defining criteria have been elusive. In this article we summarize attempts to define personhood in psychological and neurological terms and conclude that none manage to be both specific and non-arbitrary. We propose that this is because the concept does not correspond to any real category of objects in the world. Rather, it is the product of an evolved brain system that develops innately and projects itself automatically and irrepressibly onto the (...)
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  3. Eva Feder Kittay (2005). At the Margins of Moral Personhood. Ethics 116 (1):100-131.score: 24.0
    In this article I examine the proposition that severe cognitive disability is an impediment to moral personhood. Moral personhood, as I understand it here, is articulated in the work of Jeff McMahan as that which confers a special moral status on a person. I rehearse the metaphysical arguments about the nature of personhood that ground McMahan’s claims regarding the moral status of the “congenitally severely mentally retarded” (CSMR for short). These claims, I argue, rest on the view (...)
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  4. Benjamin Vilhauer (2009). Free Will Skepticism and Personhood as a Desert Base. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 39 (3):pp. 489-511.score: 24.0
    In contemporary free will theory, a significant number of philosophers are once again taking seriously the possibility that human beings do not have free will, and are therefore not morally responsible for their actions. Free will theorists commonly assume that giving up the belief that human beings are morally responsible implies giving up all our beliefs about desert. But the consequences of giving up the belief that we are morally responsible are not quite this dramatic. Giving up the belief that (...)
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  5. Arto Laitinen (2007). Sorting Out Aspects of Personhood:Capacities, Normativity and Recognition. Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (s 5-6):248-270.score: 24.0
    This paper examines how three central aspects of personhood -- the capacities of individuals, their normative status, and the social aspect of being recognized -- are related, and how personhood depends on them. The paper defends first of all a 'basic view' that while actual recognition is among the constitutive elements of full personhood, it is the individual capacities (and not full personhood) which ground the basic moral and normative demands concerning treatment of persons. Actual recognition (...)
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  6. Lawrence B. Solum (1992). Legal Personhood for Artificial Intelligences. North Carolina Law Review 70:1231.score: 24.0
    Could an artificial intelligence become a legal person? As of today, this question is only theoretical. No existing computer program currently possesses the sort of capacities that would justify serious judicial inquiry into the question of legal personhood. The question is nonetheless of some interest. Cognitive science begins with the assumption that the nature of human intelligence is computational, and therefore, that the human mind can, in principle, be modelled as a program that runs on a computer. Artificial intelligence (...)
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  7. Robert Lane (2009). Persons, Signs, Animals: A Peircean Account of Personhood. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 45 (1):pp. 1-26.score: 24.0
    In this essay I describe two of the accounts that Peirce provides of personhood: the semiotic account, on which a person is a sequence of thought-signs, and the naturalistic account, on which a person is an animal. I then argue that these disparate accounts can be reconciled into a plausible view on which persons are numerically distinct entities that are nevertheless continuous with each other in an important way. This view would be agreeable to Peirce in some respects, as (...)
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  8. Adam Kadlac (2010). Humanizing Personhood. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 13 (4):421 - 437.score: 24.0
    This paper explores the debate between personists, who argue that the concept of a person if of central importance for moral thought, and personists, who argue that the concept of a human being is of greater moral significance. On the one hand, it argues that normative naturalism, the most ambitious defense of the humanist position, fails to identify moral standards with standards of human behavior and thereby fails to undermine the moral significance of personhood. At the same time, it (...)
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  9. Niels van Dijk (2010). Property, Privacy and Personhood in a World of Ambient Intelligence. Ethics and Information Technology 12 (1):57-69.score: 24.0
    Profiling technologies are the facilitating force behind the vision of Ambient Intelligence in which everyday devices are connected and embedded with all kinds of smart characteristics enabling them to take decisions in order to serve our preferences without us being aware of it. These technological practices have considerable impact on the process by which our personhood takes shape and pose threats like discrimination and normalisation. The legal response to these developments should move away from a focus on entitlements to (...)
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  10. Erika Yu & Ruiping Fan (2007). A Confucian View of Personhood and Bioethics. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 4 (3):171-179.score: 24.0
    This paper focuses on Confucian formulations of personhood and the implications they may have for bioethics and medical practice. We discuss how an appreciation of the Confucian concept of personhood can provide insights into the practice of informed consent and, in particular, the role of family members and physicians in medical decision-making in societies influenced by Confucian culture. We suggest that Western notions of informed consent appear ethically misguided when viewed from a Confucian perspective.
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  11. E. Christian Brugger (2009). “Other Selves”: Moral and Legal Proposals Regarding the Personhood of Cryopreserved Human Embryos. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (2):105-129.score: 24.0
    This essay has two purposes. The first is to argue that our moral duties towards human embryos should be assessed in light of the Golden Rule by asking the normative question, “how would I want to be treated if I were an embryo?” Some reject the proposition “I was an embryo” on the basis that embryos should not be recognized as persons. This essay replies to five common arguments denying the personhood of human embryos: (1) that early human embryos (...)
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  12. John D. Greenwood (1993). Split Brains and Singular Personhood. Southern Journal of Philosophy 31 (3):285-306.score: 24.0
    In this paper it is argued that the experimental data on commissurotomy patients provide no grounds for denying the singular personhood of commissurotomy patients. This is because, contrary to most philosophical accounts, there is no “unity of consciousness” discriminating condition for singular personhood that is violated in the case of commissurotomy patients, and because no contradictions arise when singular personhood is ascribed to commissurotomy patients.
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  13. Kristin Borgwald (2012). Women's Anger, Epistemic Personhood, and Self-Respect: An Application of Lehrer's Work on Self-Trust. Philosophical Studies 161 (1):69-76.score: 24.0
    I argue in this paper that the work of Keith Lehrer, especially in his book Self-Trust has applications to feminist ethics; specifically care ethics, which has become the leading form of normative sentimentalist ethics. I extend Lehrer's ideas concerning reason and justification of belief beyond what he says by applying the notion of evaluation central to his account of acceptance to the need for evaluation of emotions. The inability to evaluate and attain justification of one's emotions is an epistemic failure (...)
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  14. Sirkku Kristiina Hellsten (2000). Towards an Alternative Approach to Personhood in the End of Life Questions. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 21 (6):515-536.score: 24.0
    Within the Western bioethical framework, we make adistinction between two dominant interpretations of the meaning of moral personhood: thenaturalist and the humanist one. While both interpretations of moral personhood claim topromote individual autonomy and rights, they end up with very different normativeviews on the practical and legal measures needed to realize these values in every daylife. Particularly when we talk about the end of life issues it appears that in general thearguments for euthanasia are drawn from the naturalist (...)
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  15. Michael Gorman (2011). Personhood, Potentiality, and Normativity. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 85 (3):483-498.score: 24.0
    The lives of persons are valuable, but are all humans persons? Some humans—the immature, the damaged, and the defective—are not capable, here and now, of engaging in the rational activities characteristic of persons, and for this reason, one might call their personhood into question. A standard way of defendingit is by appeal to potentiality: we know they are persons because we know they have the potentiality to engage in rational activities. In this paper I develop acomplementary strategy based on (...)
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  16. Renante Pilapil (2012). From Psychologism to Personhood: Honneth, Recognition, and the Making of Persons. Res Publica 18 (1):39-51.score: 24.0
    The paper explores the philosophical anthropology and the moral grammar of recognition. It does so by examining how the formation of the self is informed by social recognition, the result of which can motivate individuals and groups to engage in struggles for recognition. To pursue this task, the discussion focuses on the insights of Honneth, who grounds his theory of recognition in the intersubjective relations between persons. The idea that recognition impacts the formation of personal identity is regarded as susceptible (...)
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  17. Carson Strong (2006). Preembryo Personhood: An Assessment of the President's Council Arguments. [REVIEW] Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (5):433-453.score: 24.0
    The President’s Council on Bioethics has addressed the moral status of human preembryos in its reports on stem cell research and human therapeutic cloning. Although the Council has been criticized for being hand-picked to favor the right-to-life viewpoint concerning human preembryos, it has embraced the idea that the right-to-life position should be defended in secular terms. This is an important feature of the Council’s work, and it demonstrates a recognition of the need for genuine engagement between opposing sides in the (...)
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  18. Hon-Lam Li (1997). &Quot;abortion and Degrees of Personhood: Understanding the Impasse of the Abortion Problem (and the Animal Rights Problem)&Quot;. Public Affairs Quarterly 11 (1):1-19.score: 24.0
    I argue that the personhood of a fetus is analogous to the the heap. If this is correct, then the moral status or intrinsic value of a fetus would be supervenient upon the fetus's biological development. Yet to compare its claim vis-a-vis its mother's, we need to consider not only their moral status, but also the type of claim they each have. Thus we have to give weight to the two factors or variables of the mother's moral status and (...)
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  19. C. D. Meyers (forthcoming). Automatic Behavior and Moral Agency: Defending the Concept of Personhood From Empirically Based Skepticism. Acta Analytica:1-17.score: 24.0
    Empirical evidence indicates that much of human behavior is unconscious and automatic. This has led some philosophers to be skeptical of responsible agency or personhood in the moral sense. I present two arguments defending agency from these skeptical concerns. My first argument, the “margin of error” argument, is that the empirical evidence is consistent with the possibility that our automatic behavior deviates only slightly from what we would do if we were in full conscious control. Responsible agency requires only (...)
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  20. Mitchell Travis (forthcoming). We’Re All Infected: Legal Personhood, Bare Life and The Walking Dead. International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique:1-14.score: 24.0
    This article argues that greater theoretical attention should be paid to the figure of the zombie in the fields of law, cultural studies and philosophy. Using The Walking Dead as a point of critical departure concepts of legal personhood are interrogated in relation to permanent vegetative states, bare life and the notion of the third person. Ultimately, the paper recommends a rejection of personhood; instead favouring a legal and philosophical engagement with humanity and embodiment. Personhood, it is (...)
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  21. Alison Shaw (2014). Rituals of Infant Death: Defining Life and Islamic Personhood. Bioethics 28 (2):84-95.score: 24.0
    This article is about the recognition of personhood when death occurs in early life. Drawing from anthropological perspectives on personhood at the beginnings and ends of life, it examines the implications of competing religious and customary definitions of personhood for a small sample of young British Pakistani Muslim women who experienced miscarriage and stillbirth. It suggests that these women's concerns about the lack of recognition given to the personhood of their fetus or baby constitute a challenge (...)
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  22. Mahon O'Brien (2011). The Future of Humanity: Heidegger, Personhood and Technology. Comparative Philosophy 2 (2).score: 24.0
    This paper argues that a number of entrenched posthumanist positions are seriously flawed as a result of their dependence on a technical interpretive approach that creates more problems than it solves. During the course of our discussion we consider in particular the question of personhood. After all, until we can determine what it means to be a person we cannot really discuss what it means to improve a person. What kinds of enhancements would even constitute improvements? This in turn (...)
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  23. Kristin Zeiler (forthcoming). A Philosophical Defense of the Idea That We Can Hold Each Other in Personhood: Intercorporeal Personhood in Dementia Care. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy:1-11.score: 24.0
    Since John Locke, regnant conceptions of personhood in Western philosophy have focused on individual capabilities for complex forms of consciousness that involve cognition such as the capability to remember past events and one’s own past actions, to think about and identify oneself as oneself, and/or to reason. Conceptions of personhood such as Locke's qualify as cognition-oriented, and they often fail to acknowledge the role of embodiment for personhood. This article offers an alternative conception of personhood from (...)
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  24. [deleted]Nils-Frederic Wagner & Georg Northoff (2014). Habits: Bridging the Gap Between Personhood and Personal Identity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.score: 24.0
    In philosophy, the criteria for personhood (PH) at a specific point in time (synchronic), and the necessary and sufficient conditions of personal identity (PI) over time (diachronic) are traditionally separated. Hence, the transition between both timescales of a person’s life remains largely unclear. Personal habits reflect a decision-making (DM) process that binds together synchronic and diachronic timescales. Despite the fact that the actualization of habits takes place synchronically, they presuppose, for the possibility of their generation, time in a diachronic (...)
     
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  25. Niels Dijk (2010). Property, Privacy and Personhood in a World of Ambient Intelligence. Ethics and Information Technology 12 (1):57-69.score: 24.0
    Profiling technologies are the facilitating force behind the vision of Ambient Intelligence in which everyday devices are connected and embedded with all kinds of smart characteristics enabling them to take decisions in order to serve our preferences without us being aware of it. These technological practices have considerable impact on the process by which our personhood takes shape and pose threats like discrimination and normalisation. The legal response to these developments should move away from a focus on entitlements to (...)
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  26. Lalit Kumar Radha Krishna & Rayan Alsuwaigh (2014). Understanding the Fluid Nature of Personhood – the Ring Theory of Personhood. Bioethics 29 (1):n/a-n/a.score: 24.0
    Familial determination, replete with its frequent usurping of patient autonomy, propagation of collusion, and circumnavigation of direct patient involvement in their own care deliberations, continues to impact clinical practice in many Asian nations. Suggestions that underpinning this practice, in Confucian-inspired societies, is the adherence of the populace to the familial centric ideas of personhood espoused by Confucian ethics, provide a novel means of understanding and improving patient-centred care at the end of life. Clinical experience in Confucian-inspired Singapore, however, suggests (...)
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  27. Simon Cushing (2003). Against "Humanism&Quot;: Speciesism, Personhood, and Preference. Journal of Social Philosophy 34 (4):556–571.score: 21.0
    Article responds to the criticism of speciesism that it is somehow less immoral than other -isms by showing that this is a mistake resting on an inadequate taxonomy of the various -isms. Criticizes argument by Bonnie Steinbock that preference to your own species is not immoral by comparison with racism of comparable level.
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  28. John P. Christman (2004). Narrative Unity as a Condition of Personhood. Metaphilosophy 35 (5):695-713.score: 21.0
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  29. Jerry Goodenough (1997). The Achievement of Personhood. Ratio 10 (2):141-156.score: 21.0
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  30. Robert K. Garcia (2002). Artificial Intelligence and Personhood. In John Kilner, Diane Uustal & Christopher Hook (eds.), Cutting Edge Bioethics: A Christian Exploration of Technology and Trends.score: 21.0
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  31. Kathleen Wallace (2000). Agency, Personhood, and Identity: Carol Rovane's The Bounds of Agency. Metaphilosophy 31 (3):311-322.score: 21.0
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  32. Jan Deckers (2007). Why Eberl is Wrong. Reflections on the Beginning of Personhood. Bioethics 21 (5):270–282.score: 21.0
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  33. Kevin Gibson (2011). Toward an Intermediate Position on Corporate Moral Personhood. Journal of Business Ethics 101 (S1):71-81.score: 21.0
    Models of moral responsibility rely on foundational views about moral agency. Many scholars believe that only humans can be moral agents, and therefore business needs to create models that foster greater receptivity to others through ethical dialog. This view leads to a difficulty if no specific person is the sole causal agent for an act, or if something comes about through aggregated action in a corporate setting. An alternate approach suggests that corporations are moral agents sufficiently like humans to be (...)
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  34. Philip Cushman (2002). How Psychology Erodes Personhood. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 22 (2):103-113.score: 21.0
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  35. Lisa Bortolotti (2009). Review of Evnine, Simon J.,Epistemic Dimensions of Personhood, New York: Oxford University Press, 2008, Pp. Viii + 176, £32.50 (Cloth). [REVIEW] Australasian Journal of Philosophy 87 (2):349-352.score: 21.0
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  36. David C. Malloy & Thomas Hadjistavropoulos (2004). The Problem of Pain Management Among Persons with Dementia, Personhood, and the Ontology of Relationships. Nursing Philosophy 5 (2):147-159.score: 21.0
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  37. John Chambers Christopher (2007). Culture, Moral Topographies, and Interactive Personhood. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 27 (2-1):170-191.score: 21.0
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  38. Elselijn Kingma & Mary Margaret McCabe (2012). Interdisciplinary Workshop Report: Methodology and 'Personhood and Identity in Medicine'. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):1057-1063.score: 21.0
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  39. Daniel Lim (2014). Brain Simulation and Personhood: A Concern with the Human Brain Project. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 16 (2):77-89.score: 21.0
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  40. Gavin J. Fairbairn (2002). Brain Transplants and the Orthodox View of Personhood. In R.N. Fisher (ed.), Suffering, Death, and Identity. New York: Rodopi.score: 21.0
     
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  41. Hon-Lam Li & Anthony Yeung (eds.) (2007). New Essays in Applied Ethics: Animal Rights, Personhood and the Ethics of Killing. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 21.0
    This collection of new essays aims to address some of the most perplexing issues arising from death and dying, as well as the moral status of persons and animals. Leading scholars, including Peter Singer and Gerald Dworkin, investigate diverse topics such as animal rights, vegetarianism, lethal injection, abortion and euthanasia.
     
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  42. Lisa Bortolotti & John Harris (2005). Stem Cell Research, Personhood and Sentience. Reproductive Biomedicine Online 10:68-75.score: 18.0
    In this paper the permissibility of stem cell research on early human embryos is defended. It is argued that, in order to have moral status, an individual must have an interest in its own wellbeing. Sentience is a prerequisite for having an interest in avoiding pain, and personhood is a prerequisite for having an interest in the continuation of one's own existence. Early human embryos are not sentient and therefore they are not recipients of direct moral consideration. Early human (...)
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  43. Tom L. Beauchamp (1999). The Failure of Theories of Personhood. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 9 (4):309-324.score: 18.0
    : The belief persists in philosophy, religion, science, and popular culture that some special cognitive property of persons like self-consciousness confers a unique moral standing. However, no set of cognitive properties confers moral standing, and metaphysical personhood is not sufficient for either moral personhood or moral standing. Cognitive theories all fail to capture the depth of commitments embedded in using the language of "person." It is more assumed than demonstrated in these theories that nonhuman animals lack a relevant (...)
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  44. John Hacker-Wright (2009). Human Nature, Personhood, and Ethical Naturalism. Philosophy 84 (3):413-427.score: 18.0
    John McDowell has argued that for human needs to matter in practical deliberation, we must have already acquired the full range of character traits that are imparted by an ethical upbringing. Since our upbringings can diverge considerably, his argument makes trouble for any Aristotelian ethical naturalism that wants to support a single set of moral virtues. I argue here that there is a story to be told about the normal course of human life according to which it is no coincidence (...)
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  45. Timothy Chappell (2011). On the Very Idea of Criteria for Personhood. Southern Journal of Philosophy 49 (1):1-27.score: 18.0
    I examine the familiar criterial view of personhood, according to which the possession of personal properties such as self-consciousness, emotionality, sentience, and so forth is necessary and sufficient for the status of a person. I argue that this view confuses criteria for personhood with parts of an ideal of personhood. In normal cases, we have already identified a creature as a person before we start looking for it to manifest the personal properties, indeed this pre-identification is part (...)
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  46. Robin S. Dillon (2007). Arrogance, Self-Respect and Personhood. Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (s 5-6):101-126.score: 18.0
    This essay aims to show that arrogance corrupts the very qualities that make persons persons. The corruption is subtle but profound, and the key to understanding it lies in understanding the connections between different kinds of arrogance, self-respect, respect for others and personhood. Making these connections clear is the second aim of this essay. It will build on Kant's claim that self-respect is central to living our human lives as persons and that arrogance is, at its core, the failure (...)
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  47. Steve Matthews (1998). Personal Identity, Multiple Personality Disorder, and Moral Personhood. Philosophical Psychology 11 (1):67-88.score: 18.0
    Marya Schechtman argues that psychological continuity accounts of personal identity, as represented by Derek Parfit's account, fail to escape the circularity objection. She claims that Parfit's deployment of quasi-memory (and other quasi-psychological) states to escape circularity implicitly commit us to an implausible view of human psychology. Schechtman suggests that what is lacking here is a coherence condition, and that this is something essential in any account of personal identity. In response to this I argue first that circularity may be escaped (...)
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  48. Marya Schechtman (2010). Personhood and the Practical. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (4):271-283.score: 18.0
    Traditionally, it has been assumed that metaphysical and practical questions about personhood and personal identity are inherently linked. Neo-Lockean views that draw such a link have been problematic, leading to an opposing view that metaphysical and ethical questions about persons should be sharply distinguished. This paper argues that consideration of this issue suffers from an overly narrow conception of the practical concerns associated with persons that focuses on higher-order capacities and fails to appreciate basic practical concerns more directly connected (...)
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  49. Catriona Mackenzie (2007). Bare Personhood? Velleman on Selfhood. Philosophical Explorations 10 (3):263 – 282.score: 18.0
    In the Introduction to Self to Self, J. David Velleman claims that 'the word "self" does not denote any one entity but rather expresses a reflexive guise under which parts or aspects of a person are presented to his own mind' (Velleman 2006, 1). Velleman distinguishes three different reflexive guises of the self: the self of the person's self-image, or narrative self-conception; the self of self-sameness over time; and the self as autonomous agent. Velleman's account of each of these different (...)
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  50. Luke Russell (2010). Dispositional Accounts of Evil Personhood. Philosophical Studies 149 (2):231 - 250.score: 18.0
    It is intuitively plausible that not every evildoer is an evil person. In order to make sense of this intuition we need to construct an account of evil personhood in addition to an account of evil action. Some philosophers have offered aggregative accounts of evil personhood, but these do not fit well with common intuitions about the explanatory power of evil personhood, the possibility of moral reform, and the relationship between evil and luck. In contrast, a dispositional (...)
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