Search results for 'phenotypes' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Daniela Plesa Skwerer & Helen Tager-Flusberg (2013). Innovative Approaches to the Study of Social Phenotypes in Neurodevelopmental Disorders: An Introduction to the Research Topic. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 18.0
    Innovative approaches to the study of social phenotypes in neurodevelopmental disorders: An introduction to the research topic.
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  2. Gloria G. Fortes, Camilla F. Speller, Michael Hofreiter & Turi E. King (2013). Phenotypes From Ancient DNA: Approaches, Insights and Prospects. Bioessays 35 (8):690-695.score: 15.0
  3. Massimo Pigliucci (2003). Phenotypic Integration: Studying the Ecology and Evolution of Complex Phenotypes. Ecology Letters 6:265-272.score: 14.0
    Phenotypic integration refers to the study of complex patterns of covariation among functionally related traits in a given organism. It has been investigated throughout the 20th century, but has only recently risen to the forefront of evolutionary ecological research. In this essay, I identify the reasons for this late flourishing of studies on integration, and discuss some of the major areas of current endeavour: the interplay of adaptation and constraints, the genetic and molecular bases of integration, the role of phenotypic (...)
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  4. Amelia Walter Valsamma Eapen, Rudi Črnčec (2013). Exploring Links Between Genotypes, Phenotypes, and Clinical Predictors of Response to Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 14.0
    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is amongst the most familial of psychiatric disorders. Twin and family studies have demonstrated a monozygotic concordance rate of 70–90%, dizygotic concordance of around 10% and more than a 20-fold increase in risk for first-degree relatives. Despite major advances in the genetics of autism, the relationship between different aspects of the behavioural and cognitive phenotype and their underlying genetic liability is still unclear. This is complicated by the heterogeneity of autism, which exists at both genetic and (...)
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  5. Massimo Pigliucci (ed.) (2004). Phenotypic Integration: Studying the Ecology and Evolution of Complex Phenotypes. Oxford University Press.score: 12.0
    A new voice in the nature-nurture debate can be heard at the interface between evolution and development. Phenotypic integration is a major growth area in research.
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  6. Massimo Pigliucci & Katherine Preston (eds.) (2004). Phenotypic Integration: Studying the Ecology and Evolution of Complex Phenotypes. Oxford University Press.score: 12.0
    A new voice in the nature-nurture debate can be heard at the interface between evolution and development. Phenotypic integration is a major growth area in research.
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  7. Magdalena Berkowska & Simone Dalla Bella (2013). Uncovering Phenotypes of Poor-Pitch Singing: The Sung Performance Battery (SPB). Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 12.0
    Singing is as natural as speaking for humans. Increasing evidence shows that the layman can carry a tune (e.g., when asked to sing a well-known song or to imitate single pitches, intervals and short melodies). Yet, important individual differences exist in the general population with regard to singing proficiency. Some individuals are particularly inaccurate or imprecise in producing or imitating pitch information (poor-pitch singers), thus showing a variety of singing phenotypes. Unfortunately, so far there is not a standard set (...)
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  8. Michael W. Kaplan (1995). Linking Genotypes with Phenotypes in Human Retinal Degenerations: Implications for Future Research and Treatment. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):478-479.score: 12.0
    Although undoubtedly it will be incomplete by the time it is published, the target article by Daiger et al. organizes mutations in genes that produce retinal degenerations in humans into categories of clinically relevant phenotypes. Such classifications should help us understand the link between altered photoreceptor cell proteins and subsequent cell death, and they may yield insight into methods for preventing consequent blindness.
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  9. Shoji Itakura Kosuke Asada (2012). Social Phenotypes of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Williams Syndrome: Similarities and Differences. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 12.0
    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS) both are neurodevelopmental disorders, each with a unique social phenotypic pattern. This review article aims to define the similarities and differences between the social phenotypes of ASD and WS. We review studies that have examined individuals with WS using diagnostic assessments such as the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), cross-syndrome direct comparison studies, and studies that have individually examined either disorder. We conclude that (1) Individuals with these disorders show quite contrasting (...)
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  10. Massimo Pigliucci (2003). From Molecules to Phenotypes? The Promise and Limits of Integrative Biology. Basic and Applied Ecology 4:297-306.score: 11.0
    Is integrative biology a good idea, or even possible? There has been much interest lately in the unifica- tion of biology and the integration of traditionally separate disciplines such as molecular and develop- mental biology on one hand, and ecology and evolutionary biology on the other. In this paper I ask if and under what circumstances such integration of efforts actually makes sense. I develop by example an analogy with Aristotle’s famous four “causes” that one can investigate concerning any object (...)
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  11. Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Massimo Pigliucci (2001). Genes `For' Phenotypes: A Modern History View. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 16 (2):189--213.score: 10.0
    We attempt to improve the understanding of the notion of agene being `for a phenotypic trait or traits. Considering theimplicit functional ascription of one thing being `for another,we submit a more restrictive version of `gene for talk.Accordingly, genes are only to be thought of as being forphenotypic traits when good evidence is available that thepresence or prevalence of the gene in a population is the resultof natural selection on that particular trait, and that theassociation between that trait and the gene (...)
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  12. J. Scott Turner (2004). Extended Phenotypes and Extended Organisms. Biology and Philosophy 19 (3):327-352.score: 10.0
    Phenotype, whether conventional or extended, is defined as a reflectionof an underlying genotype. Adaptation and the natural selection thatfollows from it depends upon a progressively harmonious fit betweenphenotype and environment. There is in Richard Dawkins' notion ofthe extended phenotype a paradox that seems to undercut conventionalviews of adaptation, natural selection and adaptation. In a nutshell, ifthe phenotype includes an organism's environment, how then can theorganism adapt to itself? The paradox is resolvable through aphysiological, as opposed to a genetic, theory of (...)
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  13. Virginia W. Berninger Wendy H. Raskind, Beate Peter, Todd Richards, Mark M. Eckert (2012). The Genetics of Reading Disabilities: From Phenotypes to Candidate Genes. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 10.0
    This article provides an overview of (a) issues in definition and diagnosis of specific reading disabilities at the behavioral level that may occur in different constellations of developmental and phenotypic profiles (patterns); (b) rapidly expanding research on genetic heterogeneity and gene candidates for dyslexia and other reading disabilities; (c) emerging research on gene-brain relationships; and (d) current understanding of epigenetic mechanisms whereby environmental events may alter behavioral expression of genetic variations. A glossary of genetic terms (denoted by bold font) is (...)
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  14. Massimo Pigliucci (2004). Studying the Plasticity of Phenotypic Integration in a Model Organism. In M. Pigliucci K. Preston (ed.), The Evolutionary Biology of Complex Phenotypes. Oxford University Press.score: 9.0
    How to use a model organism to study phenotypic integration and constraints on evolution.
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  15. Massimo Pigliucci (1996). How Organisms Respond to Environmental Changes: From Phenotypes to Molecules (and Vice Versa). Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11 (4):168-173.score: 9.0
    The concept of reaction norms plays a crucial role in connecting molecular and evolutionary biology.
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  16. Matteo Mameli, Designoids, Extended Phenotypes, and Selfish Genes.score: 9.0
     
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  17. Karin Esposito & Kenneth Goodman (2009). Genethics 2.0: Phenotypes, Genotypes, and the Challenge of Databases Generated by Personal Genome Testing. American Journal of Bioethics 9 (6):19-21.score: 9.0
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  18. C. Azimi-Garakani & J. A. Beardmore (1979). An Association Between Tongue-Rolling Phenotypes and Subjects of Study of Undergraduates. Journal of Biosocial Science 11 (2).score: 9.0
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  19. L. M. Bell & E. J. Clegg (1983). An Association Between Tongue-Rolling Phenotypes and Subjects of Study of Undergraduates—a Further Comment. Journal of Biosocial Science 15 (4).score: 9.0
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  20. M. Medyckyj & L. M. Cook (1983). An Association Between Tongue-Rolling Phenotypes and Subjects of Study of Undergraduates. Journal of Biosocial Science 15 (1):107-108.score: 9.0
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  21. B. Alexander Diaz, Sophie Van Der Sluis, Sarah Moens, Jeroen S. Benjamins, Filippo Migliorati, Diederick Stoffers, Anouk Den Braber, Simon-Shlomo Poil, Richard Hardstone, Dennis Van'T. Ent, Dorret I. Boomsma, Eco De Geus, Huibert D. Mansvelder, Eus J. W. Van Someren & Klaus Linkenkaer-Hansen (2013). The Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire Reveals Multiple Phenotypes of Resting-State Cognition. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 9.0
  22. Scott F. Gilbert (2011). Expanding the Temporal Dimensions of Developmental Biology: The Role of Environmental Agents in Establishing Adult-Onset Phenotypes. Biological Theory 6 (1):65-72.score: 9.0
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  23. William G. Wright (2000). Neuronal and Behavioral Plasticity in Evolution: Experiments in a Model Lineage Evolutionary Changes in Sensory Neurons Correlate with Changes in Learning Phenotypes. Bioscience 50 (10):883-894.score: 9.0
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  24. Hellmut G. Augustin, Detlef H. Kozian & Robert C. Johnson (1994). Differentiation of Endothelial Cells: Analysis of the Constitutive and Activated Endothelial Cell Phenotypes. Bioessays 16 (12):901-906.score: 9.0
  25. Rob Denell & Teresa Shippy (2001). Comparative Insect Developmental Genetics: Phenotypes Without Mutants. Bioessays 23 (5):379-382.score: 9.0
  26. Alan Eh Emery (1967). Mendelian Inheritance in Man; Catalogs of Autosomal Dominant, Autosomal Recessive, and X-Linked Phenotypes. The Eugenics Review 59 (4):270.score: 9.0
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  27. Tager-Flusberg & Joseph (2004). Identifying Neurocognitive Phenotypes in Autism. In Uta Frith & Elisabeth Hill (eds.), Autism: Mind and Brain. Oup Oxford.score: 9.0
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  28. Jeffry B. Mitton (2003). The Union of Ecology and Evolution: Extended Phenotypes and Community Genetics. Bioscience 53 (3):208.score: 9.0
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  29. Susumu Ohno (1985). Male-Specific Antigens and HLA Phenotypes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (3):456-457.score: 9.0
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  30. Wendy H. Raskind, Beate Peter, Todd Richards, Mark M. Eckert & Virginia W. Berninger (2012). The Genetics of Reading Disabilities: From Phenotypes to Candidate Genes. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 9.0
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  31. Mabel L. Rice & Smolik & Filip (2009). Genetics of Language Disorders: Clinical Conditions, Phenotypes and Genes. In Gareth Gaskell (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Psycholinguistics. Oup Oxford.score: 9.0
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  32. Elliott Sober (1993). Evolutionary Altruism, Psychological Egoism, and Morality: Disentangling the Phenotypes. In Matthew Nitecki & Doris Nitecki (eds.), Evolutionary Ethics. Suny Press. 199--216.score: 9.0
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  33. W. H. Thorpe (1977). Which Future Animal Behavior Must Be Adapted. This Also Alters, as Waddington Shows, the Evolutionary Selection of Phenotypes and, Indirectly, the Genetic Factors That Prove Most Adaptive. Hence, the Many Purposes of Individual Events, If Not Some Encompassing Purpose, Do Constitute a Factor in Evolutionary Development. RESPONSE TO COBB'S COMMENTS. [REVIEW] In John B. Cobb & David Ray Griffin (eds.), Mind in Nature. University Press of America. 35.score: 9.0
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  34. Pierre L. Van den Berghe (1989). Heritable Phenotypes and Ethnicity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (3):544.score: 9.0
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  35. Andreas Wagner (2011). The Low Cost of Recombination in Creating Novel Phenotypes. Bioessays 33 (8):636-646.score: 9.0
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  36. Neil A. Youngson, Suyinn Chong & Emma Whitelaw (2011). Gene Silencing is an Ancient Means of Producing Multiple Phenotypes From the Same Genotype. Bioessays 33 (2):95-99.score: 9.0
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  37. Massimo Pigliucci (2010). Genotype–Phenotype Mapping and the End of the ‘Genes as Blueprint’ Metaphor. Philosophical Transactions Royal Society B 365:557–566.score: 8.0
    In a now classic paper published in 1991, Alberch introduced the concept of genotype–phenotype (G!P) mapping to provide a framework for a more sophisticated discussion of the integration between genetics and developmental biology that was then available. The advent of evo-devo first and of the genomic era later would seem to have superseded talk of transitions in phenotypic space and the like, central to Alberch’s approach. On the contrary, this paper shows that recent empirical and theoretical advances have only sharpened (...)
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  38. Massimo Pigliucci (2001). Phenotypic Plasticity: Beyond Nature and Nurture. Johns Hopkins University Press.score: 8.0
    Phenotypic plasticity integrates the insights of ecological genetics, developmental biology, and evolutionary theory. Plasticity research asks foundational questions about how living organisms are capable of variation in their genetic makeup and in their responses to environmental factors. For instance, how do novel adaptive phenotypes originate? How do organisms detect and respond to stressful environments? What is the balance between genetic or natural constraints (such as gravity) and natural selection? The author begins by defining phenotypic plasticity and detailing its history, (...)
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  39. Carl Schlichting & Massimo Pigliucci (1998). Phenotypic Evolution: A Reaction Norm Perspective. Sinauer.score: 8.0
    Phenotypic Evolution explicitly recognizes organisms as complex genetic-epigenetic systems developing in response to changing internal and external environments. As a key to a better understanding of how phenotypes evolve, the authors have developed a framework that centers on the concept of the Developmental Reaction Norm. This encompasses their views: (1) that organisms are better considered as integrated units than as disconnected parts (allometry and phenotypic integration); (2) that an understanding of ontogeny is vital for evaluating evolution of adult forms (...)
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  40. Massimo Pigliucci (2008). What, If Anything, is an Evolutionary Novelty? Philosophy of Science 75 (5):887-898.score: 7.0
    The idea of phenotypic novelty appears throughout the evolutionary literature. Novelties have been defined so broadly as to make the term meaningless and so narrowly as to apply only to a limited number of spectacular structures. Here I examine some of the available definitions of phenotypic novelty and argue that the modern synthesis is ill equipped at explaining novelties. I then discuss three frameworks that may help biologists get a better insight of how novelties arise during evolution but warn that (...)
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  41. Massimo Pigliucci (2005). Evolution of Phenotypic Plasticity: Where Are We Going Now? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20 (9):481-486.score: 6.0
    The study of phenotypic plasticity has progressed significantly over the past few decades. We have moved from variation for plasticity being considered as a nuisance in evolutionary studies to it being the primary target of investigations that use an array of methods, including quantitative and molecular genetics, as well as of several approaches that model the evolution of plastic responses. Here, I consider some of the major aspects of research on phenotypic plasticity, assessing where progress has been made and where (...)
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  42. Christina Richards, Oliver Bossdorf & Massimo Pigliucci (2010). What Role Does Heritable Epigenetic Variation Play in Phenotypic Evolution? BioScience 60 (3):232-237.score: 6.0
    To explore the potential evolutionary relevance of heritable epigenetic variation, the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center recently hosted a catalysis meeting that brought together molecular epigeneticists, experimental evolutionary ecologists, and theoretical population and quantitative geneticists working across a wide variety of systems. The group discussed the methods available to investigate epigenetic variation and epigenetic inheritance, and how to evaluate their importance for phenotypic evolution. We found that understanding the relevance of epigenetic effects in phe- notypic evolution will require clearly delineating epigenetics (...)
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  43. Hilary Callahan, Massimo Pigliucci & Carl Schlichting (1997). Developmental Phenotypic Plasticity: Where Ecology and Evolution Meet Molecular Biology. BioEssays 19 (6):519-525.score: 6.0
    An exploration of the nexus between ecology, evolutionary biology and molecular biology, via the concept of phenotypic plasticity.
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  44. Massimo Pigliucci (2007). Finding the Way in Phenotypic Space: The Origin and Maintenance of Constraints on Organismal Form. Annals of Botany 100:433-438.score: 6.0
    Background: One of the all-time questions in evolutionary biology regards the evolution of organismal shapes, and in particular why certain forms appear repeatedly in the history of life, others only seldom and still others not at all. Recent research in this field has deployed the conceptual framework of constraints and natural selection as measured by quantitative genetic methods. -/- Scope: In this paper I argue that quantitative genetics can by necessity only provide us with useful statistical sum- maries that may (...)
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  45. Kathryn S. Plaisance, Thomas A. C. Reydon & Mehmet Elgin (2012). Why the (Gene) Counting Argument Fails in the Massive Modularity Debate: The Need for Understanding Gene Concepts and Genotype-Phenotype Relationships. Philosophical Psychology 25 (6):873-892.score: 6.0
    A number of debates in philosophy of biology and psychology, as well as in their respective sciences, hinge on particular views about the relationship between genotypes and phenotypes. One such view is that the genotype-phenotype relationship is relatively straightforward, in the sense that a genome contains the ?genes for? the various traits that an organism exhibits. This leads to the assumption that if a particular set of traits is posited to be present in an organism, there must be a (...)
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  46. Raphael Falk (1993). Evolutionary Epistemology: What Phenotype is Selected and Which Genotype Evolves? Biology and Philosophy 8 (2):153-172.score: 6.0
    In 1941/42 Konrad Lorenz suggested that Kant's transcendental categories ofa priori knowledge could be given an empirical interpretation in Darwinian material evolutionary terms: a priori propositional knowledge was an organ subject to natural selection for adaptation to its specific environments. D. Campbell extended the conception, and termed evolution a process of knowledge. The philosophical problem of what knowledge is became a descriptive one of how knowledge developed, the normative semantic questions have been sidestepped, as if the descriptive insights would automatically (...)
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  47. Sylvia Culp (1997). Establishing Genotype/Phenotype Relationships: Gene Targeting as an Experimental Approach. Philosophy of Science 64 (4):278.score: 6.0
    In this paper, I examine an experimental technique, gene targeting, used for establishing genotype/phenotype relationships. Through analyzing a case study, I identify many pitfalls that may lead to false conclusions about these relationships. I argue that some of these pitfalls may seriously affect gene targeting's usefulness for associating phenotypes with genes cataloged by the Human Genome Project. This case also shows the use of gene targeted mice as model systems for studying genotype/phenotype relationships in humans. Moreover, I argue that (...)
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  48. Brian K. Hall (2003). Unlocking the Black Box Between Genotype and Phenotype: Cell Condensations as Morphogenetic (Modular) Units. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 18 (2):219-247.score: 6.0
    Embryonic development and ontogeny occupy whatis often depicted as the black box betweengenes – the genotype – and the features(structures, functions, behaviors) of organisms– the phenotype; the phenotype is not merelya one-to-one readout of the genotype. Thegenes home, context, and locus of operation isthe cell. Initially, in ontogeny, that cell isthe single-celled zygote. As developmentensues, multicellular assemblages of like cells(modules) progressively organized as germlayers, embryonic fields, anlage,condensations, or blastemata, enable genes toplay their roles in development and evolution.As modules, condensations are (...)
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  49. Francis Sansbury Annette Karmiloff-Smith, Hannah Broadbent, Emily K. Farran, Elena Longhi, Dean D'Souza, Kay Metcalfe, May Tassabehji, Rachel Wu, Atsushi Senju, Francesca Happé, Peter Turnpenny (2012). Social Cognition in Williams Syndrome: Genotype/Phenotype Insights From Partial Deletion Patients. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 6.0
    Identifying genotype-phenotype relations in human social cognition has been enhanced by the study of Williams syndrome (WS). Indeed, individuals with WS present with a particularly strong social drive, and researchers have sought to link deleted genes in the WS Critical Region (WSCR) of chromosome 7q11.23 to this unusual social profile. In this paper, we provide details of two case studies of children with partial genetic deletions in the WSCR: an 11-year-old female with a deletion of 24 of the 28 WS (...)
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