Search results for 'philosophy of therapy' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Donald Robertson (2010). The Philosophy of Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (Cbt): Stoic Philosophy as Rational and Cognitive Psychotherapy. Karnac.score: 414.0
    Pt. I. Philosophy and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) -- Ch. 1. The "philosophical origins" of CBT -- Ch. 2. The beginning of modern cognitive therapy -- Ch. 3. A brief history of philosophical therapy -- Ch. 4. Stoic philosophy and psychology -- Ch. 5. Rational emotion in stoicism and CBT -- Ch. 6 Stoicism and Ellis's rational therapy (REBT) -- Pt. II. The stoic armamentarium -- Ch. 7. Contemplation of the ideal stage -- Ch. 8. (...)
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  2. Eugen Fischer (2011). How to Practise Philosophy as Therapy: Philosophical Therapy and Therapeutic Philosophy. Metaphilosophy 42 (1-2):49-82.score: 387.0
    Abstract: The notion that philosophy can be practised as a kind of therapy has become a focus of debate. This article explores how philosophy can be practised literally as a kind of therapy, in two very different ways: as philosophical therapy that addresses “real-life problems” (e.g., Sextus Empiricus) and as therapeutic philosophy that meets a need for therapy which arises in and from philosophical reflection (e.g., Wittgenstein). With the help of concepts adapted from (...)
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  3. Konrad Banicki (2014). Philosophy as Therapy: Towards a Conceptual Model. Philosophical Papers 43 (1):7-31.score: 387.0
    The idea of philosophy as a kind of therapy, though by no means standard, has been present in metaphilosophical reflection since antiquity. Diverse versions of it were also discussed and applied by more recent authors such as Wittgenstein, Hadot and Foucault. In order to develop an explicit, general and systematic model of therapeutic philosophy a relatively broad and well-structured account provided by Martha Nussbaum is subjected to analysis. The results obtained, subsequently, form a basis for a new (...)
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  4. Eugen Fischer (2011). Diseases of the Understanding and the Need for Philosophical Therapy. Philosophical Investigations 34 (1):22-54.score: 357.0
    The paper develops and addresses a major challenge for therapeutic conceptions of philosophy of the sort increasingly attributed to Wittgenstein. To be substantive and relevant, such conceptions have to identify “diseases of the understanding” from which philosophers suffer, and to explain why these “diseases” need to be cured in order to resolve or overcome important philosophical problems. The paper addresses this challenge in three steps: With the help of findings and concepts from cognitive linguistics and cognitive psychology, it redevelops (...)
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  5. Paul Smeyers (2007). The Therapy of Education: Philosophy, Happiness and Personal Growth. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 303.0
    In the modern day, it is understood that the role of the teacher comprises aspects of therapy directed towards the child. But to what extent should this relationship be developed, and what are its concomitant responsibilities? This book offers a challenging philosophical approach to the inherent problems and tensions involved with these issues.
     
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  6. Daniel D. Hutto (2003). Wittgenstein and the End of Philosophy: Neither Theory nor Therapy. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 297.0
    What is the true worth of Wittgenstein's contribution to philosophy? Answers to this question are strongly divided. However, most assessments rest on certain popular misreadings of his purpose. This book challenges both "theoretical" and "therapeutic" interpretations. In their place, it seeks to establish that, from beginning to end, Wittgenstein regarded clarification as the true end of philosophy. It argues that, properly understood, his approach exemplifies rather than betrays critical philosophy and provides a viable alternative to other contemporary (...)
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  7. James Peterman (1992). Philosophy as Therapy: An Interpretation and Defense of Wittgenstein's Later Philosophical Project. State University of New York Press.score: 297.0
    Argues that Wittgenstein's early ethical notion of agreement with the world pivoted to become his later therapeutic notion of agreement with living forms, which satisfies the conditions necessary for a full therapeutic philosophy.
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  8. Donald F. Duclow (1979). Perspective and Therapy in Boethius's Consolation of Philosophy. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 4 (3):334-343.score: 279.0
  9. William Ferraiolo (2011). Donald Robertson, The Philosophy of Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT): Stoic Philosophy as Rational and Cognitive Psychotherapy. [REVIEW] Journal of Value Inquiry 45 (2):239-243.score: 270.0
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  10. Kelly Dean Jolley (1993). James F. Peterman, Philosophy as Therapy: An Interpretation and Defense of Wittgenstein's Later Philosophical Project Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 13 (6):334-336.score: 270.0
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  11. Eugen Fischer (2011). Philosophical Delusion and its Therapy: Outline of a Philosophical Revolution. Routledge.score: 261.0
    Philosophical Delusion and its Therapy provides new foundations and methods for the revolutionary project of philosophical therapy pioneered by Ludwig Wittgenstein. The book vindicates this currently much-discussed project by reconstructing the genesis of important philosophical problems: With the help of concepts adapted from cognitive linguistics and cognitive psychology, the book analyses how philosophical reflection is shaped by pictures and metaphors we are not aware of employing and are prone to misapply. Through innovative case-studies on the genesis of classical (...)
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  12. Bob Plant (2004). The End(s) of Philosophy: Rhetoric, Therapy and Wittgenstein's Pyrrhonism. Philosophical Investigations 27 (3):222–257.score: 261.0
  13. James M. Glass (1976). Political Philosophy as Therapy: Rousseau and the Pre-Social Origins of Consciousness. Political Theory 4 (2):163-184.score: 261.0
  14. Britt-Marie Schiller (1993). Philosophy as Therapy: An Interpretation and Defense of Wittgenstein's Later Philosophical Project. By James F Peterman. The Modern Schoolman 70 (2):156-159.score: 261.0
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  15. Christopher Gill (1992). The Rhetoric of Philosophy Martha C. Nussbaum (Ed.): The Poetics of Therapy: Hellenistic Ethics in its Rhetorical and Literary Context. (Apeiron, 23.4.) Pp. Viii + 297. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada: Academic Printing and Publishing, 1990. $48.95 (Paper, $21.95). [REVIEW] The Classical Review 42 (02):338-340.score: 261.0
  16. Michael McEachrane (2009). Capturing Emotional Thoughts: The Philosophy of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. In Ylva Gustafsson, Camilla Kronqvist & Michael McEachrane (eds.), Emotions and Understanding: Wittgensteinian Perspectives. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 261.0
  17. Michael Ure (2009). Nietzsche's Free Spirit Trilogy and Stoic Therapy. Journal of Nietzsche Studies 38 (1):60-84.score: 246.0
    This article examines Nietzsche's engagement with Stoic philosophical therapy in the free spirit trilogy. I suggest that Nietzsche first turned to Stoicism in the late 1870s in his attempt to develop a philosophical therapy that might treat the injuries human beings suffer through fate or chance without recourse to the metaphysical theodicies discredited by Enlightenment skepticism and positivism. I argue that in HH and D Nietzsche adopts a conventional form of Stoic therapy. The article then shows how (...)
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  18. J. Koethe (2009). Review: Daniel D. Hutto: Wittgenstein and the End of Philosophy: Neither Theory nor Therapy. [REVIEW] Mind 118 (469):178-181.score: 243.0
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  19. Terrance Klein (2009). Ludwig Wittgenstein: A Cultural Point of View: Philosophy in the Darkness of This Time (Ashgatge Wittgensteinian Studies). By William James DeAngelis�Wittgenstein and the End of Philosophy: Neither Theory nor Therapy (2nded.). By Daniel D. Hutto. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 50 (2):357-358.score: 243.0
  20. Ramón Román-Alcalá (2009). Pyrrho of Elis and Indifference as Therapy From Philosophy. Philosophical Inquiry 31 (3-4):103-119.score: 243.0
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  21. Juan Masia Clavel & Moe Kuwano (2008). Return to the Unity of Body and Mind: Encounter of Asceticism, Therapy and Philosophy in Japan. Pensamiento 64 (242):889-902.score: 243.0
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  22. Logi Gunnarsson (2010). The Philosopher as Pathogenic Agent, Patient, and Therapist: The Case of William James. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 85 (66):165-.score: 234.0
    One way to understand philosophy as a form of therapy is this: it involves a philosopher who is trying to cure himself. He has been drawn into a certain philosophical frame of mind—the ‘disease’—and has thus infected himself with this illness. Now he is sick and trying to employ philosophy to cure himself. So philosophy is both: the ailment and the cure. And the philosopher is all three: pathogenic agent, patient, and therapist.
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  23. Sun-Hye Kim (2008). Introduction for Philosophical Therapy ‐ Self-Awareness, Self‐Care, Dialogue as the Three Axes of Philosophical Therapy. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 54:59-66.score: 231.0
    The modern times proclaimed ‘God’s death’ and the post‐modern times did ‘the death of Man/Subject. And recently our society suffers from ‘the death of the humanities’. The death appearing along with is ‘the death of philosophy’. What on earth does the notice of death of philosophy mean by in the life of human beings living in the modern times? This writer is groping for the point to revive the modern significance of philosophy facing the tragic situations called (...)
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  24. Antonio Donato (2013). Forgetfulness and Misology in Boethius's Consolation of Philosophy. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 21 (3):463 - 485.score: 225.0
    In book one of the Consolation of Philosophy, Boethius is portrayed as a man who suffers because he forgot philosophy. Scholars have underestimated the significance of this portrayal and considered it a literary device the goal of which is simply to introduce the discussion that follows. In this paper, I show that this view is mistaken since it overlooks that this portrayal of Boethius is the key for the understanding of the whole text. The philosophical therapy that (...)
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  25. Pauliina Remes (2007). Plotinus on Self: The Philosophy of the 'We'. Cambridge University Press.score: 225.0
    Plotinus, the founder of the Neoplatonic school of philosophy, conceptualises two different notions of self (or 'us'): the corporeal and the rational. Personality and imperfection mark the former, while goodness and a striving for understanding mark the latter. Dr Remes grounds the two selfhoods in deep-seated Platonic ontological commitments, following their manifestations, interrelations and sometimes uneasy coexistence in philosophical psychology, emotional therapy and ethics. Plotinus interest lies in what it means for a human being to be a temporal (...)
     
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  26. Ray Monk (2007). Bourgeois, Bolshevist or Anarchist?: The Reception of Wittgenstein's Philosophy of Mathematics. In Guy Kahane, Edward Kanterian & Oskari Kuusela (eds.), Wittgenstein and His Interpreters: Essays in Memory of Gordon Baker. Blackwell Pub..score: 222.0
    Introduction 1. Perspectives on Wittgenstein: An Intermittently Opinionated Survey: Hans-Johann Glock. 2. Wittgenstein's Method: Ridding People of Philosophical Prejudices: Katherine Morris. 3. Gordon Baker's Late Interpretation of Wittgenstein: P. M. S. Hacker. 4. The Interpretation of the Philosophical Investigations: Style, Therapy, Nachlass: Alois Pichler. 5. Ways of Reading Wittgenstein: Observations on Certain Uses of the Word 'Metaphysics': Joachim Schulte. 6. Metaphysical/Everyday Use: A Note on a Late Paper by Gordon Baker: Hilary Putnam. 7. Wittgenstein and Transcendental Idealism: A. W. (...)
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  27. Oskari Kuusela (2008). The Struggle Against Dogmatism: Wittgenstein and the Concept of Philosophy. Harvard University Press.score: 213.0
    Wittgenstein on philosophical problems : from one fundamental problem to particular problems -- The Tractatus on philosophical problems -- Wittgenstein's later conception of philosophical problems -- Examples of philosophical problems as based on misunderstandings -- Tendencies and inclinations of thinking : philosophy as therapy -- Wittgenstein's notion of peace in philosophy : the contrast with the Tractatus -- Two conceptions of clarification -- The Tractatus's conception of philosophy as logical analysis -- Wittgenstein's later critique of the (...)
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  28. Michael Kottow (1985). Philosophy of Medicine in the Federal Republic of Germany (1945–1984). Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 6 (1).score: 213.0
    The development of the philosophy of medicine in the Federal Republic of Germany since 1945 is presented in a thematic form. The first two decades were characterized by the evolution of an anthropological school of thought that aimed at relating physician and patient in a more personal and existential form than had hitherto been the case. In the last years, this tendency to demand deeper psychic and broader social involvement with medical problems had increased. Somatic disorders were considered to (...)
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  29. Tim LeBon (2001). Wise Therapy: Philosophy for Counsellors. Continuum.score: 213.0
    Independent on Sunday October 2nd One of the country's lead­ing philosophical counsellers, and chairman of the Society for Philosophy in Practice (SPP), Tim LeBon, said it typically took around six 50 ­minute sessions for a client to move from confusion to resolution. Mr LeBon, who has 'published a book on the subject, Wise Therapy, said philoso­phy was perfectly suited to this type of therapy, dealing as it does with timeless human issues such as love, purpose, happiness and (...)
     
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  30. Chris Mace (ed.) (1999). Heart and Soul: The Therapeutic Face of Philosophy. Routledge.score: 207.0
    Heart and Soul is a collection of essays which examine those concepts and questions which are at the heart of both psychotherapy and philosophy. Topics discussed include the nature of the self, motivation and subjectivity, the limits of certainty and subjectivity in interpersonal situations, and the scope of narrative, dialogue and therapy itself. Looking at the work of key figures such as Wittgenstein, Socrates, Kierkegaard, Foucault, Lacan and Klein, contributors draw on a wide range of philosophical approaches and (...)
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  31. Gordon Baker (2003). Friedrich Waismann: A Vision of Philosophy. Philosophy 78 (2):163-179.score: 204.0
    Waismann's Wittgenstein-influenced ‘How I see Philosophy’ presents a radical vision of philosophy. But its two most general themes—its stress on freedom and vision, and its emphasis on describing the grammar of our language—seem hard to reconcile. This paper elaborates four interrelated themes: 1) Waismann offers his conception of philosophy, not a delineation of the nature of philosophy. 2) His method is radically therapeutic. 3) He offers a diagnosis of the source of philosophical problems: unconscious analogies or (...)
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  32. Dan J. Stein (2008). Philosophy of Psychopharmacology: Smart Pills, Happy Pills, and Pepp Pills. Cambridge University Press.score: 198.0
    Psychopharmacology - a remarkable development -- Philosophical questions raised by psychopharmacology -- How to think about science, language, and medicine : classical, critical, and integrated perspectives -- Conceptual questions about psychotropics -- Explanatory questions about psychotropics -- Moral questions about psychotropics.
     
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  33. Thomas Mormann (2013). Topology as an Issue for History of Philosophy of Science. In Hanne Andersen, Dennis Dieks, Wenceslao J. Gonzalez, Thomas Uebel & Gregory Wheeler (eds.), New Challenges to Philosophy of Science. Springer. 423--434.score: 196.0
    Since antiquity well into the beginnings of the 20th century geometry was a central topic for philosophy. Since then, however, most philosophers of science, if they took notice of topology at all, considered it as an abstruse subdiscipline of mathematics lacking philosophical interest. Here it is argued that this neglect of topology by philosophy may be conceived of as the sign of a conceptual sea-change in philosophy of science that expelled geometry, and, more generally, mathematics, from the (...)
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  34. Mark Schroeder (2012). Philosophy of Language for Metaethics. In Gillian Russell & Delia Graff Fara (eds.), The Routledge Companion to the Philosophy of Language. Routledge.score: 196.0
    Metaethics is the study of metaphysics, epistemology, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language, insofar as they relate to the subject matter of moral or, more broadly, normative discourse – the subject matter of what is good, bad, right or wrong, just, reasonable, rational, what we must or ought to do, or otherwise. But out of these four ‘core’ areas of philosophy, it is plausibly the philosophy of language that is most central to metaethics (...)
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  35. Markus Schrenk (2010). Mauro Dorato * The Software of the Universe: An Introduction to the History and Philosophy of the Laws of Nature. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science (E-Version) 62 (1):225-232.score: 196.0
    This is a review of Mauro Dorato's book "The Software of the Universe: An Introduction to the History and Philosophy of the Laws of Nature".
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  36. Jonathan Y. Tsou (2011). The Importance of History for Philosophy of Psychiatry: The Case of the DSM and Psychiatric Classification. Journal of the Philosophy of History 5 (3):446-470.score: 196.0
    Abstract Recently, some philosophers of psychiatry (viz., Rachel Cooper and Dominic Murphy) have analyzed the issue of psychiatric classification. This paper expands upon these analyses and seeks to demonstrate that a consideration of the history of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) can provide a rich and informative philosophical perspective for critically examining the issue of psychiatric classification. This case is intended to demonstrate the importance of history for philosophy of psychiatry, and more generally, the potential (...)
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  37. Matthew C. Halteman (2002). Toward a Continental Philosophy of Religion: Derrida, Responsibility, and Non-Dogmatic Faith. In Philip Goodchild (ed.), Rethinking Philosophy of Religion: Approaches from Continental Philosophy. Fordham University Press.score: 196.0
    From its inception in Kant's efforts to articulate a "religion within the limits of reason alone," the Continental tradition has maintained a strict division of labor between theological and philosophical reflection on religion. In what follows, I examine this continental legacy in the context of Jacques Derrida's recent work on the concept of responsibility. First I discuss three guiding themes (the limits of speculative analysis, the idea of nondogmatic religion, and the importance of the other) that characterize the continental tradition's (...)
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  38. Nicholas Maxwell (2002). The Need for a Revolution in the Philosophy of Science. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 33 (2):381-408.score: 196.0
    There is a need to bring about a revolution in the philosophy of science, interpreted to be both the academic discipline, and the official view of the aims and methods of science upheld by the scientific community. At present both are dominated by the view that in science theories are chosen on the basis of empirical considerations alone, nothing being permanently accepted as a part of scientific knowledge independently of evidence. Biasing choice of theory in the direction of simplicity, (...)
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  39. Stathis Psillos (2012). What is General Philosophy of Science? Journal for General Philosophy of Science 43 (1):93-103.score: 196.0
    The very idea of a general philosophy of science relies on the assumption that there is this thing called science—as opposed to the various individual sciences. In this programmatic piece I make a case for the claim that general philosophy of science is the philosophy of science in general or science as such. Part of my narrative makes use of history, for two reasons. First, general philosophy of science is itself characterised by an intellectual tradition which (...)
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  40. Noel Carroll (2012). History and the Philosophy of Art. Journal of the Philosophy of History 5 (3):370-382.score: 196.0
    Abstract In this essay I trace the role of history in the philosophy of art from the early twentieth century to the present, beginning with the rejection of history by formalists like Clive Bell. I then attempt to show how the arguments of people like Morris Weitz and Arthur Danto led to a re-appreciation of history by philosophers of art such as Richard Wollheim, Jerrold Levinson, Robert Stecker and others.
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  41. Victoria Harrison (2010). Philosophy of Religion, Fictionalism, and Religious Diversity. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 68 (1):43-58.score: 196.0
    Until recently philosophy of religion has been almost exclusively focused upon the analysis of western religious ideas. The central concern of the discipline has been the concept God , as that concept has been understood within Judaeo-Christianity. However, this narrow remit threatens to render philosophy of religion irrelevant today. To avoid this philosophy of religion should become a genuinely multicultural discipline. But how, if at all, can philosophy of religion rise to this challenge? The paper considers (...)
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  42. Meinard Kuhlmann & Wolfgang Pietsch (2012). What Is and Why Do We Need Philosophy of Physics? Journal for General Philosophy of Science 43 (2):209-214.score: 196.0
    Philosophy of physics is a small but thriving research field situated at the intersection between the natural sciences and the humanities. However, what exactly distinguishes philosophy of physics from physics is rarely made explicit in much depth. We provide a detailed analysis in the form of eleven theses, delineating both the nature of the questions asked in philosophy of physics and the methodology with which they are addressed.
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  43. Philip Clayton (2010). Something New Under the Sun: Forty Years of Philosophy of Religion, with a Special Look at Process Philosophy. [REVIEW] International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 68 (1):139-152.score: 196.0
    Looking back over the last 40 years of work in the philosophy of religion provides a fascinating vantage point from which to assess the state of the discipline today. I describe central features of American philosophy of religion in 1970 and reconstruct the last 40 years as a progression through four main stages. This analysis offers an overarching framework from which to examine the major contributions and debates of process philosophy of religion during the same period. The (...)
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  44. Cassandra Pinnick & George Gale (2000). Philosophy of Science and History of Science: A Troubling Interaction. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 31 (1):109-125.score: 196.0
    History and philosophy complement and overlap each other in subject matter, but the two disciplines exhibit conflict over methodology. Since Hempel's challenge to historians that they should adopt the covering law model of explanation, the methodological conflict has revolved around the respective roles of the general and the particular in each discipline. In recent years, the revival of narrativism in history, coupled with the trend in philosophy of science to rely upon case studies, joins the methodological conflict anew. (...)
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  45. Billy Joe Lucas (2012). The Right to Believe Truth Paradoxes of Moral Regret for No Belief and the Role(s) of Logic in Philosophy of Religion. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 72 (2):115-138.score: 196.0
    I offer you some theories of intellectual obligations and rights (virtue Ethics): initially, RBT (a Right to Believe Truth, if something is true it follows one has a right to believe it), and, NDSM (one has no right to believe a contradiction, i.e., No right to commit Doxastic Self-Mutilation). Evidence for both below. Anthropology, Psychology, computer software, Sociology, and the neurosciences prove things about human beliefs, and History, Economics, and comparative law can provide evidence of value about theories of rights. (...)
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  46. Grzegorz Bugajak (2009). Philosophy of Nature, Realism, and the Postulated Ontology of Scientific Theories. In Adam Świeżyński (ed.), Philosophy of Nature Today, Wydawnictwo UKSW, Warszawa. 59–80.score: 196.0
    The first part of the paper is a metatheoretical consideration of such philosophy of nature which allows for using scientific results in philosophical analyses. An epistemological 'judgment' of those results becomes a preliminary task of this discipline: this involves taking a position in the controversy between realistic and antirealistic accounts of science. It is shown that a philosopher of nature has to be a realist, if his task to build true ontology of reality is to be achieved. At the (...)
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  47. Sahotra Sarkar & Anya Plutynski (eds.) (2008). A Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Blackwell Pub..score: 196.0
    Comprised of essays by top scholars in the field, this volume offers concise overviews of philosophical issues raised by biology. Brings together a team of eminent scholars to explore the philosophical issues raised by biology Addresses traditional and emerging topics, spanning molecular biology and genetics, evolution, developmental biology, immunology, ecology, mind and behaviour, neuroscience, and experimentation Begins with a thorough introduction to the field Goes beyond previous treatments that focused only on evolution to give equal attention to other areas, such (...)
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  48. Joachim Schummer (1997). Towards a Philosophy of Chemistry. A Short Extract of This Paper Was First Read at the 10th International Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, Florence, August 19–25, 1995. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 28 (2):307-336.score: 196.0
    The paper shows epistemological, methodological and ontological peculiarities of chemistry taken as a classificatory science of materials using experimental methods. Without succumbing to standard interpretations of physical science, chemical methods of experimental investigation, classification, reference, theorizing, prediction and production of new entities are developed one by one as first steps towards a philosophy of chemistry. Chemistry challenges traditional concepts of empirical object, empirical predicate, reference frame and theory, but also the distinction commonly drawn between natural science and technology. Due (...)
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  49. Till Grüne-Yanoff (2014). Teaching Philosophy of Science to Scientists: Why, What and How. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 4 (1):115-134.score: 196.0
    This paper provides arguments to philosophers, scientists, administrators and students for why science students should be instructed in a mandatory, custom-designed, interdisciplinary course in the philosophy of science. The argument begins by diagnosing that most science students are taught only conventional methodology: a fixed set of methods whose justification is rarely addressed. It proceeds by identifying seven benefits that scientists incur from going beyond these conventions and from acquiring abilities to analyse and evaluate justifications of scientific methods. It concludes (...)
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  50. Ilkka Niiniluoto (1993). Philosophy of Science in Finland: 1970–1990. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 24 (1):147 - 167.score: 196.0
    This paper gives a survey of the philosophy of science in Finland during the two decades 1970-90. Topics covered include the background (earlier studies by Eino Kaila, G. H. von Wright, and Jaakko Hintikka), the main areas of research (inductive logic, probability, truthlikeness, scientific theory, theory change, scientific realism, explanation and action, foundations of special disciplines), and the cultural impact of science studies.
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