Search results for 'physical necessity' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. George Masterton (2012). Physical Necessity is Not Necessity Tout Court. Metaphysica 13 (2):175-182.
    The very last of words of Naming and Necessity are ‘The third lecture suggests that a good deal of what contemporary philosophy regards as mere physical necessity is actually necessary tout court. The question how far this can be pushed is one I leave for further work.’ Kripke (1980). To my knowledge he never conducted that further work; moreover, no one following him has wished to take up the baton either. Herein, I argue that in general, (...) necessity is neither reducible to, nor implies, tout court necessity. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that even if Kripke’s speculations are restricted to a subset of the physical necessities where it might be granted that all such are necessary tout court, physical necessity is still not reducible to tout court necessity. (shrink)
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    Peter Forrest (2006). General Facts, Physical Necessity and the Metaphysics of Time. Oxford Studies in Metaphysics 2:137-154.
    In this chapter I assume that we accept, perhaps reluctantly, general facts, that is states of affairs corresponding to universal generalizations. I then argue that, without any addition, this ontology provides us with physical necessities, and moreover with various grades of physical necessity, including the strongest grade, which I call absolute physical necessity. In addition there are consequences for our understanding of time. For this account, which I call the Mortmain Theory, provides a defence of (...)
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  3.  38
    Christopher Byrne (2002). Aristotle on Physical Necessity and the Limits of Teleological Explanation. Apeiron 35 (01):19-46.
    Some commentators have argued that there is no room in Aristotle's natural science for simple, or unconditional, physical necessity, for the only necessity that governs all natural substances is hypothetical and teleological. Against this view I argue that, according to Aristotle, there are two types of unconditional physical necessity at work in the material elements, the one teleological, governing their natural motions, and the other non-teleological, governing their physical interaction. I argue as well that (...)
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  4.  12
    George Masterton (2012). Physical Necessity is Not Necessity Tout Court. Metaphysica 13 (2):175-182.
    The very last of words of Naming and Necessity are ‘The third lecture suggests that a good deal of what contemporary philosophy regards as mere physical necessity is actually necessary tout court. The question how far this can be pushed is one I leave for further work.’ Kripke (1980). To my knowledge he never conducted that further work; moreover, no one following him has wished to take up the baton either. Herein, I argue that in general, (...) necessity is neither reducible to, nor implies, tout court necessity. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that even if Kripke’s speculations are restricted to a subset of the physical necessities where it might be granted that all such are necessary tout court, physical necessity is still not reducible to tout court necessity. (shrink)
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    Marcin Tkaczyk (2007). A Formal Theory of Physical Necessity. Logic and Logical Philosophy 16 (1):65-83.
    A system HW of normal modal logic, developed by R. Bigelow & R. Pargetter is presented. Some formal issues concerning the system are examined, such as completeness, number of distinct modalities and relations to other systems. Some philosophical topics are also discussed. The Authors interpret the system HW as the system of physical (nomic) modalities. It is questioned, whether or not the system HW is justified to be claimed to be the logic of physical necessity. The answer (...)
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    Physical Necessity (1992). Roberto torret'I 'I (puerto rico). In Javier Echeverria, Andoni Ibarra & Thomas Mormann (eds.), The Space of Mathematics. De Gruyter 132.
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  7.  67
    Edwin H. -C. Hung (2001). Kuhnian Paradigms as Representational Spaces: New Perspectives on the Problems of Incommensurability, Scientific Explanation, and Physical Necessity. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 15 (3):275 – 292.
    This paper starts with an intuitive notion of representational spaces, which is intended to provide an improved version of Kuhn's concept of paradigms. It then proceeds to study the following topics in terms of this new notion: incommensurability, paradigm change, explanation of anomalies, explanation of regularities, explanation of irregularities, and physical necessity. In the course of the investigation, "representational space" gets clarified and defined. It is envisaged that this new concept should throw light on many issues in the (...)
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  8.  69
    Richard Montague (1960). Logical Necessity, Physical Necessity, Ethics, and Quantifiers. Inquiry 3 (1-4):259 – 269.
    Some philosophers, for example Quine, doubt the possibility of jointly using modalities and quantification. Simple model-theoretic considerations, however, lead to a reconciliation of quantifiers with such modal concepts as logical, physical, and ethical necessity, and suggest a general class of modalities of which these are instances. A simple axiom system, analogous to the Lewis systems S1 —S5, is considered in connection with this class of modalities. The system proves to be complete, and its class of theorems decidable.
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  9.  85
    Peter Forrest (1996). Physical Necessity and the Passage of Time. In P. Riggs (ed.), Natural Kinds, Laws of Nature and Scientific Methodology. Kluwer Academic Publishers 49--62.
  10. Stephen Leeds (2007). Physical and Metaphysical Necessity. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 88 (4):458–485.
    I propose a different way of thinking about metaphysical and physical necessity: namely that the fundamental notion of necessity is what would ordinarily be called "truth in all physically possible worlds" – a notion which includes the standard physical necessities and the metaphysical ones as well; I suggest that the latter are marked off not as a stricter kind of necessity but by their epistemic status. One result of this reconceptualization is that the Descartes-Kripke argument (...)
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  11.  34
    James A. Harris (2003). Hume's Reconciling Project and 'the Common Distinction Betwixt Moral and Physical Necessity'. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 11 (3):451 – 471.
  12.  94
    Bradford McCall (2011). The Religion and Science Debate: Why Does It Continue? Edited by Harold W. Attridge and Beyond Kuhn: Scientific Explanation, Theory Structure, Incommensurability, and Physical Necessity. By Edwin H-C. Hung. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 52 (2):343-344.
  13.  46
    Hanne Andersen (2010). Edwin H.-C. Hung Beyond Kuhn. Scientific Explanation, Theory Structure, Incommensurability and Physical Necessity. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 61 (1):237-239.
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  14.  1
    Roberto Torretti (1992). Mathematical Structures and Physical Necessity. In Javier Echeverria, Andoni Ibarra & Thomas Mormann (eds.), The Space of Mathematics. De Gruyter 132.
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  15.  17
    Alex Levine (2010). Thomas Kuhn's Cottage Fred d'Agostino ,Naturalizing Epistemology: Thomas Kuhn and the Essential Tension(London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010) Edwin H.-C. Hung ,Beyond Kuhn: Scientific Explanation, Theory Structure, Incommensurability and Physical Necessity(Hants: Ashgate, 2006) Hanne Andersen , Peter Barker , and Xiang Chen ,The Cognitive Structure of Scientific Revolutions(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006). [REVIEW] Perspectives on Science 18 (3):369-377.
  16.  1
    A. Bayart (1967). Review: Richard Montague, Logical Necessity, Physical Necessity, Ethics, and Quantifiers. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 32 (3):400-401.
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  17. I. I. Anima & T. O. de Anima (2002). Aristotle on Physical Necessity and the Limits of Teleological Explanation Christopher Byrne. Apeiron 35:19.
     
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  18. A. Flew (1990). Hume and Physical Necessity. Iyyun:251-266.
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  19. Milton Fisk (1974). Nature and Necessity an Essay in Physical Ontology. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  20. Robert Glenn Friedman (1984). Matter and Necessity in Aristotle's Logical, Physical and Biological Works. Dissertation, University of Virginia
    Aristotle's doctrine of the four causes--formal, final, efficient and material--is famous. But Posterior Analytics B 11 lists "if certain things hold, it is necessary that this does" in place of a standard expression for the material cause. This cause has been dubbed the grounding cause. It has interested scholars since the Greek commentators, who simply assumed that Aristotle meant the material cause. This traditional thesis has been challenged by two views: first, that the grounding cause is a special type of (...)
     
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  21.  20
    Janet Broughton (1987). Necessity and Physical Laws in Descartes's Philosophy. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 68 (3/4):205.
    I argue that although in his earlier work descartes thought of the laws of motion as "eternal truths," he later came to think of them as truths whose necessity is of a different type.
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  22.  20
    Michael Ruse (1988). Rigorous Regularism: Physical Laws Without Necessity. [REVIEW] Dialogue 27 (03):523-.
  23.  19
    Jordi Cat (2012). Into the 'Regions of Physical and Metaphysical Chaos': Maxwell's Scientific Metaphysics and Natural Philosophy of Action (Agency, Determinacy and Necessity From Theology, Moral Philosophy and History to Mathematics, Theory and Experiment). Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 43 (1):91-104.
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  24.  14
    Barbara Sattler (2012). A Likely Account of Necessity: Plato's Receptacle as a Physical and Metaphysical Foundation for Space. Journal of the History of Philosophy 50 (2):159-195.
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    William J. Wainwright (1972). God and the Necessity of Physical Evil. Sophia 11 (2):16-19.
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  26.  8
    H. Heath Bawden (1904). The Necessity From the Standpoint of Scientific Method of a Reconstruction of the Ideas of the Psychical and the Physical. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 1 (3):62-68.
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  27. Gesa Lindemann (2007). Medicine as Practice and Culture: The Analysis of Border Regimes and the Necessity of a Hermeneutics of Physical Bodies. In Regula Valérie Burri & Joseph Dumit (eds.), Biomedicine as Culture: Instrumental Practices, Technoscientific Knowledge, and New Modes of Life. Routledge 6--47.
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  28.  75
    Aldo Filomeno (2014). On the Possibility of Stable Regularities Without Fundamental Laws. Dissertation, Autonomous University of Barcelona
    This doctoral dissertation investigates the notion of physical necessity. Specifically, it studies whether it is possible to account for non-accidental regularities without the standard assumption of a pre-existent set of governing laws. Thus, it takes side with the so called deflationist accounts of laws of nature, like the humean or the antirealist. The specific aim is to complement such accounts by providing a missing explanation of the appearance of physical necessity. In order to provide an explanation, (...)
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  29. Tuomas E. Tahko (2012). Counterfactuals and Modal Epistemology. Grazer Philosophische Studien 86 (1):93–115.
    What is our epistemic access to metaphysical modality? Timothy Williamson suggests that the epistemology of counterfactuals will provide the answer. This paper challenges Williamson's account and argues that certain elements of the epistemology of counterfactuals that he discusses, namely so called background knowledge and constitutive facts, are already saturated with modal content which his account fails to explain. Williamson's account will first be outlined and the role of background knowledge and constitutive facts analysed. Their key role is to restrict our (...)
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  30. Tuomas E. Tahko (2015). The Modal Status of Laws: In Defence of a Hybrid View. Philosophical Quarterly 65 (260):509-528.
    Three popular views regarding the modal status of the laws of nature are discussed: Humean Supervenience, nomic necessitation, and scientific/dispositional essentialism. These views are examined especially with regard to their take on the apparent modal force of laws and their ability to explain that modal force. It will be suggested that none of the three views, at least in their strongest form, can be maintained if some laws are metaphysically necessary, but others are metaphysically contingent. Some reasons for thinking that (...)
  31. Christopher Hughes (2004). Kripke: Names, Necessity, and Identity. Oxford University Press.
    Saul Kripke, in a series of classic writings of the 1960s and 1970s, changed the face of metaphysics and philosophy of language. Christopher Hughes offers a careful exposition and critical analysis of Kripke's central ideas about names, necessity, and identity. He clears up some common misunderstandings of Kripke's views on rigid designation, causality and reference, and the necessary a posteriori and contingent a priori. Through his engagement with Kripke's ideas Hughes makes a significant contribution to ongoing debates on, inter (...)
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  32. Karol Polcyn (2006). Conceivability, Possibility, and a Posteriori Necessity: On Chalmers' Argument for Dualism. Diametros 7 (March):37-55.
    Chalmers argues that zombies are possible and that therefore consciousness does not supervene on physical facts, which shows the falsity of materialism. The crucial step in this argument – that zombies are possible – follows from their conceivability and hence depends on assuming that conceivability implies possibility. But while Chalmers’s defense of this assumption – call it the conceivability principle – is the key part of his argument, it has not been well understood. As I see it, Chalmers’s defense (...)
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  33.  14
    Susanne Bobzien (1986). Die stoische Modallogik (Stoic Modal Logic). Königshausen & Neumann.
    ABSTRACT: Part 1 discusses the Stoic notion of propositions (assertibles, axiomata): their definition; their truth-criteria; the relation between sentence and proposition; propositions that perish; propositions that change their truth-value; the temporal dependency of propositions; the temporal dependency of the Stoic notion of truth; pseudo-dates in propositions. Part 2 discusses Stoic modal logic: the Stoic definitions of their modal notions (possibility, impossibility, necessity, non-necessity); the logical relations between the modalities; modalities as properties of propositions; contingent propositions; the relation between (...)
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  34.  4
    Olivier Darrigol (2014). Physics and Necessity: Rationalist Pursuits From the Cartesian Past to the Quantum Present. OUP Oxford.
    This book recounts a few ingenious attempts to derive physical theories by reason only, beginning with Descartes' geometric construction of the world, and finishing with recent derivations of quantum mechanics from natural axioms.
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  35. Brendan Shea (2013). Two Concepts of Law of Nature. Prolegomena 12 (2):413-442.
    I argue that there are at least two concepts of law of nature worthy of philosophical interest: strong law and weak law. Strong laws are the laws investigated by fundamental physics, while weak laws feature prominently in the “special sciences” and in a variety of non-scientific contexts. In the first section, I clarify my methodology, which has to do with arguing about concepts. In the next section, I offer a detailed description of strong laws, which I claim satisfy four criteria: (...)
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  36. Scott A. Shalkowski (1992). Supervenience and Causal Necessity. Synthese 90 (1):55-87.
    Causal necessity typically receives only oblique attention. Causal relations, laws of nature, counterfactual conditionals, or dispositions are usually the immediate subject(s) of interest. All of these, however, have a common feature. In some way, they involve the causal modality, some form of natural or physical necessity. In this paper, causal necessity is discussed with the purpose of determining whether a completely general empiricist theory can account for the causal in terms of the noncausal. Based on an (...)
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  37. Robert Farrell (1981). Metaphysical Necessity is Not Logical Necessity. Philosophical Studies 39 (2):141 - 153.
    Kripke and putnam have argued that metaphysical necessity is truth in all possible worlds, Hence is a kind of logica necessity; it is this claim I argue against. My argument proceeds by way of my considering and elaborating an example to show that although 'gold has atomic number 79' be counted a metaphysically necessary truth, There is a possible world in which it is false; it turns out to be for all I show here at most a (...) necessity, True in all those worlds structurally similar to the actual world. (shrink)
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  38.  27
    Sean Sayers (2006). Freedom and the 'Realm of Necessity'. In Douglas Moggach (ed.), The New Hegelians: Politics and Philosophy in the Hegelian School. Cambridge University Press
    The realm of freedom actually begins only where labour which is determined by necessity and mundane considerations ceases; thus in the very nature of things it lies beyond the sphere of actual material production. Just as the savage must wrestle with Nature to satisfy his wants, to maintain and reproduce life, so must civilized man, and he must do so in all social formations and under all possible modes of production. With his development this realm of physical (...) expands as a result of his wants; but, at the same time, the forces of production which satisfy these wants also increase. Freedom in this field can only consist in socialized man, the associated producers, rationally regulating their interchange with Nature, bringing it under their common control, instead of being ruled by it as by the blind forces of Nature; and achieving this with the least expenditure of energy and under conditions most favourable to, and worthy of, their human nature. But it nonetheless still remains a realm of necessity. Beyond it begins that development of human energy which is an end in itself, the true realm of freedom, which, however, can blossom forth only with the realm of necessity as its basis. The shortening of the working day is its basic prerequisite. (Marx 1971, 820). (shrink)
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    Lars-Göran Johansson (2007). Causation in Collisions - An Empiricist but Non-Humean Account. Theoria 73 (4):317-333.
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    James M. Humber (1974). Causal Necessity and the Ontological Argument: JAMES M. HUMBER. Religious Studies 10 (3):291-300.
    The ontological argument appears in a multiplicity of forms. Over the past ten or twelve years, however, the philosophical community seems to have been concerned principally with those versions of the proof which claim that God is a necessary being. In contemporary literature, Professors Malcolm and Hartshorne have been the chief advocates of this view, both men holding that God must be conceived as a necessary being and that, as a result, his existence is able to be demonstrated a priori (...)
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  41.  19
    Wim van de Grind (2002). Physical, Neural, and Mental Timing. Consciousness and Cognition 11 (2):241-64.
    The conclusions drawn by Benjamin Libet from his work with collegues on the timing of somatosensorial conscious experiences has met with a lot of praise and criticism. In this issue we find three examples of the latter. Here I attempt to place the divide between the two opponent camps in a broader perspective by analyzing the question of the relation between physical timing, neural timing, and experiential timing. The nervous system does a sophisticated job of recombining and recoding messages (...)
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  42.  90
    Marc Lange (2005). A Counterfactual Analysis of the Concepts of Logical Truth and Necessity. Philosophical Studies 125 (3):277 - 303.
    This paper analyzes the logical truths as (very roughly) those truths that would still have been true under a certain range of counterfactual perturbations.What’s nice is that the relevant range is characterized without relying (overtly, at least) upon the notion of logical truth. This approach suggests a conception of necessity that explains what the different varieties of necessity (logical, physical, etc.) have in common, in virtue of which they are all varieties of necessity. However, this approach (...)
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  43.  47
    Fabrice Pataut, L. Elwonger (U. Of Nebraska-Lincoln): "Physical Constants and Essentialist Arguments for Necessitarianism" - Commentator : B. Rettler (U. Of Notre-Dame), Plus "Comments on Elwonger and Rettler" by Fabrice Pataut. [REVIEW]
    Many philosophers hold that physical laws have a unique modal status known as nomic necessity which is weaker than metaphysical necessity. This orthodox view has come into question in the past few decades. In particular, the metaphysical view known as essentialism has provided an argument that the laws of nature are necessary in the strongest possible sense. It seems obvious to many that at least some essentialist arguments in favor of the necessity of scientific claims are (...)
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  44.  29
    Lydia Patton (2011). Anti-Psychologism About Necessity: Friedrich Albert Lange on Objective Inference. History and Philosophy of Logic 32 (2):139 - 152.
    In the nineteenth century, the separation of naturalist or psychological accounts of validity from normative validity came into question. In his 1877 Logical Studies (Logische Studien), Friedrich Albert Lange argues that the basis for necessary inference is demonstration, which takes place by spatially delimiting the extension of concepts using imagined or physical diagrams. These diagrams are signs or indications of concepts' extension, but do not represent their content. Only the inference as a whole captures the objective content of the (...)
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  45.  1
    Norman Swartz (1985). The Concept of Physical Law. Cambridge University Press.
    The Concept of Physical Law is an original and creative defense of the Regularity theory of physical law, the concept that physical laws are nothing more than descriptions of whatever universal truths happen to be instanced in nature. Professor Swartz clearly identifies and analyzes the arguments and intuitions of the opposing Necessitarian theory, and argues that the standard objection to the Regularity theory turns on a mistaken view of what Regularists mean by 'physical impossibility'; that it (...)
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  46.  84
    Lydia Patton (2010). Review: Hyder, The Determinate World: Kant and Helmholtz on the Physical Meaning of Geometry. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2010 (7).
    Hyder constructs two historical narratives. First, he gives an account of Helmholtz's relation to Kant, from the famous Raumproblem, which preoccupied philosophers, geometers, and scientists in the mid-19th century, to Helmholtz's arguments in his four papers on geometry from 1868 to 1878 that geometry is, in some sense, an empirical science (chapters 5 and 6). The second theme is the argument for the necessity of central forces to a determinate scientific description of physical reality, an abiding concern of (...)
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  47.  9
    Brian O'Connor (2014). Play, Idleness and the Problem of Necessity in Schiller and Marcuse. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 22 (6):1095-1117.
    The central concern of this paper is to explore the efforts of Schiller's post-Kantian idealism and Marcuse's critical theory to develop a new conception of free human experience. That conception is built on the notion of play. Play is said to combine the human capacities for physical pleasure and reason, capacities which the modern world has dualized. Analysis of their respective accounts of play reveals its ambivalent form in the work of both philosophers. Play supports the ideal of ‘freedom (...)
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  48.  4
    Christopher Cowley (2004). Moral Necessity and the Personal. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 4 (1):123-138.
    I claim that the dominant moral-realist understanding of action and moral responsibility cannot provide a comprehensive account of morality since it neglects the irreducibly personal component of the individual’s moral experience. This is not to embrace non-cognitivism, however; indeed, I challenge the whole realist framework of most contemporary moral philosophy. To this end I explore the phenomenon of moral necessity, exemplified by Luther’s declaration that he “has to” continue his protests against the church. I am careful to distinguish this (...)
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  49.  4
    William Kitchin (2006). The Fundamental Right of Medical Necessity and Genetic Intervention for Substance Abuse. Journal of Evolution and Technology 15 (1):1.
    Genetic intervention is on the near horizon for the treatment of substance abu se. Genetic intervention involves a reprogramming of a person’s own genetic instructions so that that person will no longer have the physical craving for the drug of choice. Unlike pharmacologic intervention, genetic intervention will change the genetic identity of the person, albeit slightly. The legal issue is whether one has a fundamental right to this medical procedure. A fundamental right is one that the government cannot deny (...)
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  50.  20
    Broder Breckling & Hauke Reuter (2004). Analysing Biodiversity: The Necessity of Interdisciplinary Trends in the Development of Ecological Theory. Poiesis and Praxis 3 (s 1-2):83-105.
    Technological advancement has an ambivalent character concerning the impact on biodiversity. It accounts for major detrimental environmental impacts and aggravates threads to biodiversity. On the other hand, from an application perspective of environmental science, there are technical advancements, which increase the potential of analysis, detection and monitoring of environmental changes and open a wider spectrum of sustainable use strategies.The concept of biodiversity emerged in the last two decades as a political issue to protect the structural and functional basis of (...)
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