Search results for 'physician assisted death' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Joseph L. Verheijde, Mohamed Y. Rady & Joan L. McGregor (2009). Brain Death, States of Impaired Consciousness, and Physician-Assisted Death for End-of-Life Organ Donation and Transplantation. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (4):409-421.score: 540.0
    In 1968, the Harvard criteria equated irreversible coma and apnea (i.e., brain death) with human death and later, the Uniform Determination of Death Act was enacted permitting organ procurement from heart-beating donors. Since then, clinical studies have defined a spectrum of states of impaired consciousness in human beings: coma, akinetic mutism (locked-in syndrome), minimally conscious state, vegetative state and brain death. In this article, we argue against the validity of the Harvard criteria for equating brain (...) with human death. (1) Brain death does not disrupt somatic integrative unity and coordinated biological functioning of a living organism. (2) Neurological criteria of human death fail to determine the precise moment of an organism’s death when death is established by circulatory criterion in other states of impaired consciousness for organ procurement with non-heart-beating donation protocols. The criterion of circulatory arrest 75 s to 5 min is too short for irreversible cessation of whole brain functions and respiration controlled by the brain stem. (3) Brain-based criteria for determining death with a beating heart exclude relevant anthropologic, psychosocial, cultural, and religious aspects of death and dying in society. (4) Clinical guidelines for determining brain death are not consistently validated by the presence of irreversible brain stem ischemic injury or necrosis on autopsy; therefore, they do not completely exclude reversible loss of integrated neurological functions in donors. The questionable reliability and varying compliance with these guidelines among institutions amplify the risk of determining reversible states of impaired consciousness as irreversible brain death. (5) The scientific uncertainty of defining and determining states of impaired consciousness including brain death have been neither disclosed to the general public nor broadly debated by the medical community or by legal and religious scholars. Heart-beating or non-heart-beating organ procurement from patients with impaired consciousness is de facto a concealed practice of physician-assisted death, and therefore, violates both criminal law and the central tenet of medicine not to do harm to patients. Society must decide if physician-assisted death is permissible and desirable to resolve the conflict about procuring organs from patients with impaired consciousness within the context of the perceived need to enhance the supply of transplantable organs. (shrink)
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  2. Erich H. Loewy (1999). Physician Assisted Dying and Death with Dignity: Missed Opportunities and Prior Neglected Conditions. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 2 (2):189-194.score: 432.0
    This paper argues that the world-wide debate about physician assisted dying is missing a golden opportunity to focus on the orchestration of the end of life. Such a process consists of far more than adequate pain control and is a skill which, like all other skills, needs to be learned and taught. The debate offers an opportunity to press for the teaching of this skill. Beyond this, the desire to assure that all can have access to palliative care (...)
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  3. Sam Rys, Reginald Deschepper, Freddy Mortier, Luc Deliens, Douglas Atkinson & Johan Bilsen (2012). The Moral Difference or Equivalence Between Continuous Sedation Until Death and Physician-Assisted Death: Word Games or War Games? [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (2):171-183.score: 360.0
    Continuous sedation until death (CSD), the act of reducing or removing the consciousness of an incurably ill patient until death, often provokes medical–ethical discussions in the opinion sections of medical and nursing journals. Some argue that CSD is morally equivalent to physician-assisted death (PAD), that it is a form of “slow euthanasia.” A qualitative thematic content analysis of opinion pieces was conducted to describe and classify arguments that support or reject a moral difference between CSD (...)
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  4. David J. Mayo (1993). Altruism and Physician Assisted Death. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 18 (3):281-295.score: 360.0
    We assume that a statute permitting physician assisted death has been passed. We note that the rationale for the passage of such a statute would be respect for individual autonomy, the avoidance of suffering and the possibility of death with dignity. We deal with two moral issues that will arise once such a law is passed. First, we argue that the rationale for passing an assistance in dying law in the first place provides a justification for (...)
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  5. Martin Gunderson (1993). Physician Assisted Death and Hard Choices. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 18 (3):329-341.score: 360.0
    We argue that after the passage of a physician assisted death law some inequities in the health care system which prevent people from getting the medical care they need will become reasons for choosing assisted death. This raises the issue of whether there is compelling moral reason to change those inequities after the passage of an assisted death law. We argue that the passage of an assisted death law will not create (...)
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  6. Mohamed Y. Rady & Joseph L. Verheijde (2010). Retraction: End-of-Life Discontinuation of Destination Therapy with Cardiac and Ventilatory Support Medical Devices: Physician-Assisted Death or Allowing the Patient to Die? BMC Medical Ethics 11 (1):20-.score: 360.0
    BackgroundBioethics and law distinguish between the practices of "physician-assisted death" and "allowing the patient to die."DiscussionAdvances in biotechnology have allowed medical devices to be used as destination therapy that are designed for the permanent support of cardiac function and/or respiration after irreversible loss of these spontaneous vital functions. For permanent support of cardiac function, single ventricle or biventricular mechanical assist devices and total artificial hearts are implanted in the body. Mechanical ventilators extrinsic to the body are used (...)
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  7. Gerrit Kimsma & Evert van Leeuwen (2001). The New Dutch Law on Legalizing Physician-Assisted Death. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 10 (4):445-450.score: 360.0
    On April 10, 2001, after extensive committee deliberations, the Second Chamber of the Dutch Parliament passed a bill that was introduced in August 1999 legalizing physician-assisted death. The bill is officially called It was passed by a majority vote in the Second Chamber of Parliament and was supported by the majority parties constituting the present coalition government (i.e., liberals and socialists). Opposition to the law came mainly from a minority of Christian parties. In this report we explore (...)
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  8. Paul T. Menzel & Bonnie Steinbock (2013). Advance Directives, Dementia, and PhysicianAssisted Death. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (2):484-500.score: 360.0
    Physician-assisted suicide laws in Oregon and Washington require the person's current competency and a prognosis of terminal illness. In The Netherlands voluntariness and unbearable suffering are required for euthanasia. Many people are more concerned about the loss of autonomy and independence in years of severe dementia than about pain and suffering in their last months. To address this concern, people could write advance directives for physician-assisted death in dementia. Should such directives be implemented even though, (...)
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  9. D. J. Mayo & M. Gunderson (1993). Physician Assisted Death and Hard Choices. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 18 (3):329-341.score: 360.0
    We argue that after the passage of a physician assisted death law some inequities in the health care system which prevent people from getting the medical care they need will become reasons for choosing assisted death. This raises the issue of whether there is compelling moral reason to change those inequities after the passage of an assisted death law. We argue that the passage of an assisted death law will not create (...)
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  10. J. M. Cuperus-Bosma, G. van Der Wal, C. W. Looman & P. J. van Der Maas (1999). Assessment of Physician-Assisted Death by Members of the Public Prosecution in The Netherlands. Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (1):8-15.score: 360.0
    OBJECTIVES: To identify the factors that influence the assessment of reported cases of physician-assisted death by members of the public prosecution. DESIGN/SETTING: At the beginning of 1996, during verbal interviews, 12 short case-descriptions were presented to a representative group of 47 members of the public prosecution in the Netherlands. RESULTS: Assessment varied considerably between respondents. Some respondents made more "lenient" assessments than others. Characteristics of the respondents, such as function, personal-life philosophy and age, were not related to (...)
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  11. M. Gunderson & D. J. Mayo (1993). Altruism and Physician Assisted Death. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 18 (3):281-295.score: 360.0
    We assume that a statute permitting physician assisted death has been passed. We note that the rationale for the passage of such a statute would be respect for individual autonomy, the avoidance of suffering and the possibility of death with dignity. We deal with two moral issues that will arise once such a law is passed. First, we argue that the rationale for passing an assistance in dying law in the first place provides a justification for (...)
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  12. S. Ost (2011). Physician-Assisted Dying Outlaws: Self-Appointed Death in the Netherlands. Clinical Ethics 6 (1):20-26.score: 351.0
    No law in any jurisdiction that permits physician assisted dying offers individuals a medically assisted death without the need to comply with certain criteria. The Netherlands is no exception. There is evidence to suggest that physicians are averse to providing an assisted death even when the Dutch ‘due care criteria’ have been met and the unbearable pain and suffering requirement is especially difficult to satisfy. Some individuals with an enduring desire to die who do (...)
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  13. S. H. Lipuma (2013). Continuous Sedation Until Death as Physician-Assisted Suicide/Euthanasia: A Conceptual Analysis. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (2):190-204.score: 348.0
    A distinction is commonly drawn between continuous sedation until death and physician-assisted suicide/euthanasia. Only the latter is found to involve killing, whereas the former eludes such characterization. I argue that continuous sedation until death is equivalent to physician-assisted suicide/euthanasia in that both involve killing. This is established by first defining and clarifying palliative sedation therapies in general and continuous sedation until death in particular. A case study analysis and a look at current practices (...)
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  14. Erich H. Loewy (2004). Euthanasia, Physician Assisted Suicide and Other Methods of Helping Along Death. Health Care Analysis 12 (3):181-193.score: 345.0
    This paper introduces a series of papers dealing with the topic of euthanasia as an introduction to a variety of attitudes by health-care professionals and philosophers interested in this issue. The lead in paper—and really the lead in idea—stresses the fact that what we are discussing concerns only a minority of people lucky enough to live in conditions of acceptable sanitation and who have access to medical care. The topic of euthanasia and PAS really has three questions: (1) is killing (...)
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  15. Jukka Varelius (2013). Voluntary Euthanasia, Physician-Assisted Suicide, and the Right to Do Wrong. HEC Forum 25 (3):1-15.score: 342.0
    It has been argued that voluntary euthanasia (VE) and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) are morally wrong. Yet, a gravely suffering patient might insist that he has a moral right to the procedures even if they were morally wrong. There are also philosophers who maintain that an agent can have a moral right to do something that is morally wrong. In this article, I assess the view that a suffering patient can have a moral right to VE and PAS despite (...)
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  16. H. T. Engelhardt (1998). Physician-Assisted Death: Doctrinal Development Vs. Christian Tradition. Christian Bioethics 4 (2):115-121.score: 312.0
    Physician-assisted suicide offers a moral and theological Rorschach test. Foundational commitments regarding morality and theology are disclosed by how the issue is perceived and by what moral problems it is seen to present. One of the cardinal differences disclosed is that between Western and Orthodox Christian approaches to theology in general, and the theology of dying and suicide in particular. Confrontation with the issue of suicide is likely to bring further doctrinal development in many of the Western Christian (...)
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  17. Mark G. Kuczewski (1998). Physician-Assisted Death: Can Philosophical Bioethics Aid Social Policy? Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 7 (4):339-347.score: 312.0
    The debate regarding physician-assisted suicide continues in our society. Despite the recent opinions of the United States Supreme Court, this issue is unlikely to go away anytime soon. For a variety of reasons, this debate is now conducted in the legalistic terms of individual rights and liberties. As a result, perhaps we philosophers have been left behind. This is now a matter for the legal arena and philosophy is likely to be irrelevant. I would like to suggest otherwise (...)
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  18. J. M. Dieterle (2007). Physician Assisted Suicide: A New Look at the Arguments. Bioethics 21 (3):127–139.score: 300.0
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  19. Michael J. Hyde (2001). Defining “Human Dignity” in the Debate Over the (Im)Morality of Physician-Assisted Suicide. Journal of Medical Humanities 22 (1):69-82.score: 297.0
    Leon Kass's often-cited essay, “Death with Dignity and the Sanctity of Life,” provides the basis for a case study in the rhetorical function of definition in debates concerning bioethics. The study examines the way a particular definition of “human dignity” is used to maintain an advantage of power in the debate over the morality of physician-assisted suicide. It also considers sources of human dignity that are deflected from attention by the rhetoric of Kass's formulation.
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  20. William E. Stempsey (2010). The Role of Religion in the Debate About Physician-Assisted Dying. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 13 (4):383-387.score: 297.0
    This paper explores the role of religious belief in public debate about physician-assisted dying and argues that the role is essential because any discussion about the way we die raises the deepest questions about the meaning of human life and death. For religious people, such questions are essentially religious ones, even when the religious elements are framed in secular political or philosophical language. The paper begins by reviewing some of the empirical data about religious belief and practice (...)
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  21. F. M. Kamm (2001). Ronald Dworkin on Abortion and Assisted Suicide. Journal of Ethics 5 (3):221-240.score: 282.0
    In the first part of this article, I raisequestions about Dworkin''s theory of theintrinsic value of life and about the adequacyof his proposal to understand abortion in termsof different ways of valuing life. In thesecond part of the article, I consider hisargument in ``The Philosophers'' Brief on AssistedSuicide'''', which claims that the distinctionbetween killing and letting die is morallyirrelevant, the distinction between intendingand foreseeing death can be morally relevantbut is not always so. I argue that thekilling/letting die distinction can (...)
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  22. Peter Allmark, Mark Cobb, B. Jane Liddle & Angela Mary Tod (2010). Is the Doctrine of Double Effect Irrelevant in End-of-Life Decision Making? Nursing Philosophy 11 (3):170-177.score: 270.0
    In this paper, we consider three arguments for the irrelevance of the doctrine of double effect in end-of-life decision making. The third argument is our own and, to that extent, we seek to defend it. The first argument is that end-of-life decisions do not in fact shorten lives and that therefore there is no need for the doctrine in justification of these decisions. We reject this argument; some end-of-life decisions clearly shorten lives. The second is that the doctrine of double (...)
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  23. Timothy E. Quill (2008). Physician-Assisted Death in the United States: Are the Existing "Last Resorts" Enough? Hastings Center Report 38 (5):pp. 17-22.score: 270.0
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  24. Franklin G. Miller (1995). The Good Death, Virtue, and Physician-Assisted Death: An Examination of the Hospice Way of Death. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 4 (01):92-.score: 270.0
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  25. Nancy S. Jecker (2009). Physician-Assisted Death in the Pacific Northwest. American Journal of Bioethics 9 (3):1 – 2.score: 270.0
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  26. Joseph L. Verheijde & Mohamed Y. Rady (2011). Justifying Physician-Assisted Death in Organ Donation. American Journal of Bioethics 11 (8):52-54.score: 270.0
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 8, Page 52-54, August 2011.
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  27. David J. Doukas, Daniel W. Gorenflo & Barbara Supanich (1999). Primary Care Physician Attitudes and Values Toward End-of-Life Care and Physician-Assisted Death. Ethics and Behavior 9 (3):219 – 230.score: 270.0
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  28. Courtney S. Campbell & Jessica C. Cox (2010). Hospice and Physician-Assisted Death: Collaboration, Compliance, and Complicity. Hastings Center Report 40 (5):26-35.score: 270.0
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  29. Tito B. Carvalho, Mohamed Y. Rady, Joseph L. Verheijde & Jason Scott Robert (2011). Continuous Deep Sedation in End-of-Life Care: Disentangling Palliation From Physician-Assisted Death. American Journal of Bioethics 11 (6):60 - 62.score: 270.0
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 6, Page 60-62, June 2011.
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  30. Charles Weijer, Learning From the Dutch: Physician-Assisted Death, Slippery Slopes and the Nazi Analogy.score: 270.0
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  31. Peter M. McGough (1993). Washington State Initiative 119: The First Public Vote on Legalizing Physician-Assisted Death. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2 (01):63-.score: 270.0
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  32. Joseph C. D'Oronzio (1997). Health Policy Watch: Rappelling on the Slippery Slope: Negotiating Public Policy for Physician-Assisted Death. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 6 (1):113-117.score: 270.0
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  33. Jay A. Jacobson, Evelyn M. Kasworm, Margaret P. Battin, Jeffrey R. Botkin, Leslie P. Francis & David Green (1995). Decedents' Reported Preferences for Physician-Assisted Death: A Survey of Informants Listed on Death Certificates in Utah. Journal of Clinical Ethics 6 (2):149.score: 270.0
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  34. Tom Koch (2001). Physician-Assisted Death for the Terminally Ill. Hastings Center Report 31 (3):4.score: 270.0
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  35. David J. Mayo & Martin Gunderson (2002). Vitalism Revitalized: Vulnerable Populations, Prejudice, and PhysicianAssisted Death. Hastings Center Report 32 (4):14-21.score: 270.0
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  36. Elizabeth Morrow (1996). Attitudes of Women From Vulnerable Populations Toward Physician-Assisted Death: A Qualitative Approach. Journal of Clinical Ethics 8 (3):279-289.score: 270.0
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  37. Liviu Oprea (2005). Physician Assisted Death and Professional Integrity. Romanian Journal of Bioethics 3 (2).score: 270.0
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  38. A. P. Porter (2002). Physician-Assisted Death. Hastings Center Report 33 (1):6.score: 270.0
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  39. Mohamed Y. Rady, Joseph L. Verheijde & Michael Potts (2011). Quality Palliative Care or Physician-Assisted Death: A Comment on the French Perspective of End-of-Life Care in Neurological Disorders. Journal of Clinical Research and Bioethics 2 (2).score: 270.0
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  40. Gerald Dworkin (2009). Physician-Assisted Death: The State of the Debate. In Bonnie Steinbock (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Bioethics. Oup Oxford.score: 270.0
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  41. Gerald Dworkin (2007). Pt. IV. The End of Life. The Definition of Death / Stuart Youngner ; The Aging Society and the Expansion of Senility: Biotechnological and Treatment Goals / Stephen Post ; Death is a Punch in the Jaw: Life-Extension and its Discontents / Felicia Nimue Ackerman ; Precedent Autonomy, Advance Directives, and End-of-Life Care / John K. Davis ; Physician-Assisted Death: The State of the Debate. [REVIEW] In Bonnie Steinbock (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Bioethics. Oxford University Press.score: 270.0
  42. M. Gunderson & D. Mayo (2001). Physician-Assisted Death for the Terminally Ill-Reply. Hastings Center Report 31 (3):4-5.score: 270.0
     
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  43. Martin Gunderson & David J. Mayo (2000). Restricting PhysicianAssisted Death to the Terminally Ill. Hastings Center Report 30 (6):17-23.score: 270.0
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  44. W. J. Smith (2003). Physician-Assisted Death. The Hastings Center Report 33 (1):7.score: 270.0
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  45. D. J. Mayo & M. Gunderson (2003). Physician-Assisted Death-Reply. Hastings Center Report 33 (1):6-6.score: 270.0
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  46. Franklin G. Miller (1997). A Communitarian Approach to Physician-Assisted Death. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 6 (1):78-87.score: 270.0
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  47. Franklin G. Miller & Howard Brody (1995). Professional Integrity and PhysicianAssisted Death. Hastings Center Report 25 (3):8-17.score: 270.0
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  48. Susan M. Wolf (2008). Confronting Physician Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia: My Father's Death. Hastings Center Report 38 (5):pp. 23-26.score: 261.0
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  49. David C. Thomasma (1996). When Physicians Choose to Participate in the Death of Their Patients: Ethics and Physician-Assisted Suicide. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 24 (3):183-197.score: 261.0
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  50. Jack Schwartz (1996). Writing the Rules of Death: State Regulation of Physician-Assisted Suicide. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 24 (3):207-216.score: 261.0
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