Search results for 'plural reference' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Friederike Moltmann (forthcoming). Plural Reference and Reference to a Plurality. Linguistic Facts and Semantic Analyses. In Massimiliano Carrara, Alexandra Arapinis & Friederike Moltmann (eds.), Unity and Plurality. Logic, Philosophy, and Semantics. Oxford University Press.score: 242.0
    This paper defends 'plural reference', the view that definite plurals refer to several individuals at once, and it explores how the view can account for a range of phenomena that have been discussed in the linguistic literature.
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  2. Helen Morris Cartwright (1993). On Plural Reference and Elementary Set Theory. Synthese 96 (2):201 - 254.score: 180.0
    The view that plural reference is reference to a set is examined in light of George Boolos's treatment of second-order quantification as plural quantification in English. I argue that monadic second-order logic does not, in Boolos's treatment, reflect the behavior of plural quantifiers under negation and claim that any sentence that properly translates a second-order formula, in accordance with his treatment, has a first-order formulation. Support for this turns on the use of certain partitive constructions (...)
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  3. J. R. Cameron (1999). Plural Reference. Ratio 12 (2):128–147.score: 150.0
  4. Hans-Johann Glock, Logic and Natural Language: On Plural Reference and its Semantic and Logical Significance, by Hanoch Ben-Yami (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004).score: 150.0
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  5. Martina Hielscher & Jochen Müsseler (1990). Anaphoric Resolution of Singular and Plural Pronouns: The Reference to Persons Being Introduced by Different Co-Ordinating Structures. Journal of Semantics 7 (4):347-364.score: 150.0
    For the resolution of plural pronouns referring to singularly introduced reference persons the plural antecedent has to be built up by the cognitive system itself (installing a plural complex, e. g. ‘John wanted to have a picnic with Mary. They had…’). For singular pronouns the antecedent is usually mentioned in the text explicitly. This contribution examined which aspects of the prepronominal sentence structure determine the installation of a plural antecedent and at which point of time (...)
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  6. Thomas J. Mckay (1994). Plural Reference and Unbound Pronouns. In. In Dag Prawitz & Dag Westerståhl (eds.), Logic and Philosophy of Science in Uppsala. Kluwer. 559--582.score: 150.0
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  7. Peter Simons (1982). Numbers and Manifolds and Plural Reference and Set Theory. In Barry Smith (ed.), Parts and Moments: Studies in Logic and Formal Ontology. Philosophia Verlag. 160--260.score: 150.0
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  8. Ian Rumfitt (2005). Plural Terms : Another Variety of Reference? In José Luis Bermúdez (ed.), Thought, Reference, and Experience: Themes From the Philosophy of Gareth Evans. Clarendon Press. 84--123.score: 126.0
  9. Sungryong Koh, A. Sanford, Charles Clifton Jr & Eugene J. Dawydiak (2008). Good-Enough Representation in Plural and Singular Pronominal Reference: Modulating the Conjunction Cost. In Jeanette K. Gundel & Nancy Ann Hedberg (eds.), Reference: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Oxford University Press.score: 126.0
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  10. Hanoch Ben-Yami (2013). Higher‐Level Plurals Versus Articulated Reference, and an Elaboration of Salva Veritate. Dialectica 67 (1):81-102.score: 96.0
    In recent literature on plurals the claim has often been made that the move from singular to plural expressions can be iterated, generating what are occasionally called higher-level plurals or superplurals, often correlated with superplural predicates. I argue that the idea that the singular-to-plural move can be iterated is questionable. I then show that the examples and arguments intended to establish that some expressions of natural language are in some sense higher-level plurals fail. Next, I argue that these (...)
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  11. Nino B. Cocchiarella (2005). Denoting Concepts, Reference, and the Logic of Names, Classes as Many, Groups, and Plurals? Linguistics and Philosophy 28 (2):135 - 179.score: 90.0
    Bertrand Russell introduced several novel ideas in his 1903 Principles of Mathematics that he later gave up and never went back to in his subsequent work. Two of these are the related notions of denoting concepts and classes as many. In this paper we reconstruct each of these notions in the framework of conceptual realism and connect them through a logic of names that encompasses both proper and common names, and among the latter, complex as well as simple common names. (...)
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  12. Nino B. Cocchiarella (2013). Predication in Conceptual Realism. Axiomathes 23 (2):301-321.score: 90.0
    Conceptual realism begins with a conceptualist theory of the nexus of predication in our speech and mental acts, a theory that explains the unity of those acts in terms of their referential and predicable aspects. This theory also contains as an integral part an intensional realism based on predicate nominalization and a reflexive abstraction in which the intensional contents of our concepts are “object”-ified, and by which an analysis of predication with intensional verbs can be given. Through a second nominalization (...)
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  13. Albert Gatt & Kees van Deemter (2007). Lexical Choice and Conceptual Perspective in the Generation of Plural Referring Expressions. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 16 (4):423-443.score: 78.0
    A fundamental part of the process of referring to an entity is to categorise it (for instance, as the woman). Where multiple categorisations exist, this implicitly involves the adoption of a conceptual perspective. A challenge for the automatic Generation of Referring Expressions is to identify a set of referents coherently, adopting the same conceptual perspective. We describe and evaluate an algorithm to achieve this. The design of the algorithm is motivated by the results of psycholinguistic experiments.
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  14. Massimiliano Carrara, Alessandra Arapinis & Friederike Moltmann (eds.) (forthcoming). Unity and Plurality. Philosophy, Logic, and Semantics. Oxford University Press.score: 76.0
    This volume brings together new work on the logic and ontology of plurality and a range of recent articles exploring novel applications to natural language semantics. The contributions in this volume in particular investigate and extend new perspectives presented by plural logic and non-standard mereology and explore their applications to a range of natural language phenomena. Contributions by P. Aquaviva, A. Arapinis, M. Carrara, P. McKay, F. Moltmann, O. Linnebo, A. Oliver and T. Smiley, T. Scaltsas, P. Simons, and (...)
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  15. Hanoch Ben-Yami (2009). Generalized Quantifiers, and Beyond. Logique Et Analyse (208):309-326.score: 66.0
    I show that the contemporary dominant analysis of natural language quantifiers that are one-place determiners by means of binary generalized quantifiers has failed to explain why they are, according to it, conservative. I then present an alternative, Geachean analysis, according to which common nouns in the grammatical subject position are plural logical subject-terms, and show how it does explain that fact and other features of natural language quantification.
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  16. Ian Rumfitt (2005). Plural Terms: Another Variety of Referring Expression? In José Luis Bermúdez (ed.), Thought, Reference, and Experience: Themes From the Philosophy of Gareth Evans. Clarendon Press.score: 66.0
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  17. Adrian Brasoveanu (2008). Donkey Pluralities: Plural Information States Versus Non-Atomic Individuals. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 31 (2):129 - 209.score: 64.0
    The paper argues that two distinct and independent notions of plurality are involved in natural language anaphora and quantification: plural reference (the usual non-atomic individuals) and plural discourse reference, i.e., reference to a quantificational dependency between sets of objects (e.g., atomic/non-atomic individuals) that is established and subsequently elaborated upon in discourse. Following van den Berg (PhD dissertation, University of Amsterdam, 1996), plural discourse reference is modeled as plural information states (i.e., as sets (...)
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  18. Gabriel Uzquiano (2003). Plural Quantification and Classes. Philosophia Mathematica 11 (1):67-81.score: 60.0
    When viewed as the most comprehensive theory of collections, set theory leaves no room for classes. But the vocabulary of classes, it is argued, provides us with compact and, sometimes, irreplaceable formulations of largecardinal hypotheses that are prominent in much very important and very interesting work in set theory. Fortunately, George Boolos has persuasively argued that plural quantification over the universe of all sets need not commit us to classes. This paper suggests that we retain the vocabulary of classes, (...)
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  19. Alex Oliver & Timothy Smiley (2005). Plural Descriptions and Many-Valued Functions. Mind 114 (456):1039-1068.score: 60.0
    Russell had two theories of definite descriptions: one for singular descriptions, another for plural descriptions. We chart its development, in which ‘On Denoting’ plays a part but not the part one might expect, before explaining why it eventually fails. We go on to consider many-valued functions, since they too bring in plural terms—terms such as ‘4’ or the descriptive ‘the inhabitants of London’ which, like plain plural descriptions, stand for more than one thing. Logicians need to take (...)
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  20. A. J. Sanford & F. Lockhart (1990). Description Types and Method of Conjoining as Factors Influencing Plural Anaphora: A Continuation Study of Focus. Journal of Semantics 7 (4):365-378.score: 60.0
    An experiment is reported which investigates the impact of two variables on the likelihood of obtaining plural pronoun anaphors in a continuation task. The first variable is syntactic: the use of and versus with as a means of relating two singular characters. Use of and enhances the likelihood of obtaining a plural anaphor in continuations, but the incidence of plural is never as high as 60%. The second variable is description type: whether the characters are introduced through (...)
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  21. Friederike Moltmann (2013). Reference to Numbers in Natural Language. Philosophical Studies 162 (3):499 - 536.score: 54.0
    A common view is that natural language treats numbers as abstract objects, with expressions like the number of planets, eight, as well as the number eight acting as referential terms referring to numbers. In this paper I will argue that this view about reference to numbers in natural language is fundamentally mistaken. A more thorough look at natural language reveals a very different view of the ontological status of natural numbers. On this view, numbers are not primarily treated abstract (...)
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  22. Jeffrey C. King (2008). Complex Demonstratives, QI Uses, and Direct Reference. Philosophical Review 117 (1):99-117.score: 54.0
    result from combining the determiners `this' or `that' with syntactically simple or complex common noun phrases such as `woman' or `woman who is taking her skis off'. Thus, `this woman', and `that woman who is taking her skis off' are complex demonstratives. There are also plural complex demonstratives such as `these skis' and `those snowboarders smoking by the gondola'. My book Complex Demonstratives: A Quantificational Account argues against what I call the direct reference account of complex demonstratives (henceforth (...)
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  23. Maria Bittner & Naja Trondhjem (2008). Quantification as Reference: Evidence From Q-Verbs. In Lisa Matthewson (ed.), Quantification: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective. Emerald. 2--7.score: 54.0
    Formal semantics has so far focused on three categories of quantifiers, to wit, Q-determiners (e.g. 'every'), Q-adverbs (e.g. 'always'), and Q-auxiliaries (e.g. 'would'). All three can be analyzed in terms of tripartite logical forms (LF). This paper presents evidence from verbs with distributive affixes (Q-verbs), in Kalaallisut, Polish, and Bininj Gun-wok, which cannot be analyzed in terms of tripartite LFs. It is argued that a Q-verb involves discourse reference to a distributive verbal dependency, i.e. an episode-valued function that sends (...)
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  24. Francesca Boccuni (2013). Plural Logicism. Erkenntnis 78 (5):1051-1067.score: 54.0
    PG (Plural Grundgesetze) is a consistent second-order system which is aimed to derive second-order Peano arithmetic. It employs the notion of plural quantification and a few Fregean devices, among which the infamous Basic Law V. George Boolos’ plural semantics is replaced with Enrico Martino’s Acts of Choice Semantics (ACS), which is developed from the notion of arbitrary reference in mathematical reasoning. Also, substitutional quantification is exploited to interpret quantification into predicate position. ACS provides a form of (...)
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  25. R. Nelken (1997). Splitting the Reference Time: The Analogy Between Nominal and Temporal Anaphora Revisited. Journal of Semantics 14 (4):369-416.score: 54.0
    The analysis in Partee (1984) of quantified sentences, introduced by a temporal connective, gives the wrong truth conditions when the connective is before or after. In this paper, we show how splitting the different roles of Reichenbach's reference time may be used in order to solve this problem. We further enhance the analogy between pronominal and temporal anaphora, by proposing an analog of plural NP-anaphora in the form of temporal anaphora involving multiple event antecedents and an analog of (...)
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  26. Julia Kursell (2010). First Person Plural: Roman Jakobson's Grammatical Fictions. Studies in East European Thought 62 (2):217 - 236.score: 54.0
    Roman Jakobson, who had left Russia in 1920 and in 1941 took refuge in the USA from the Nazis, was one of the main figures in post war linguistics and structuralism. Two aspects of his work are examined in this article. Firstly, Jakobson purifies his linguistic theory of pragmatic references. Secondly, he develops his own diplomatic mission of mediating between East and West. In this article, I argue that these two aspects did not develop independently from one another. Instead I (...)
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  27. Mark C. Baker (1992). Unmatched Chains and the Representation of Plural Pronouns. Natural Language Semantics 1 (1):33-73.score: 54.0
    Plural pronouns create the possibility of overlapping reference, which does not not fit naturally into the classical GB theory of anaphora, where each NP has a single integer as its referential index. Thus, one must either complicate the indexing system used in syntax or complicate the semantic interpretation of indices. This paper argues for the former approach based on the properties of a particular comitative-like construction found in Mohawk and certain other languages. This construction is analyzed as a (...)
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  28. Hans-Christoph Koller (2003). Bildung and Radical Plurality: Towards a Redefinition of Bildung with Reference to J.-F. Lyotard. Educational Philosophy and Theory 35 (2):155–165.score: 50.0
  29. Roger Schwarzschild (1993). Plurals, Presuppositions and the Sources of Distributivity. Natural Language Semantics 2 (3):201-248.score: 40.0
    This paper begins with a discussion ofcumulativity (e.g., ‘P(a) & P(b) implies P(a+b)’), formalized using a verb phrase operator. Next, the meanings of distributivity markers such aseach and non-distributivity indicators such astogether are considered. An existing analysis ofeach in terms of quantification over parts of a plurality is adopted. However,together is problematic, for it involves a cancellation or negation of the quantification associated witheach. (The four boys together owned exactly three cars could not be true if each of the boys (...)
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  30. Ivan Lowe (1974). An Algebraic Theory of English Pronominal Reference (Part II): Plurals From Singulars. Semiotica 10 (1):43-74.score: 40.0
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  31. Catherine Jl Talmage & Mark Mercer (1991). Noun Phrases, Quantifiers, and Generic Names, EJ LOWE Frege and Russell Have Taught Us That Indefinite and Plural Noun Phrases in Natural Language Often Function as Quantifier Expressions Rather Than as Referring Expressions, Despite Possessing Many Syntactical Simi-Larities with Names. But It Can Be Shown That in Some of Their Most Im. Philosophy 66 (257).score: 40.0
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  32. Susanna Siegel (2002). The Role of Perception in Demonstrative Reference. Philosophers' Imprint 2 (1):1-21.score: 38.0
    Siegel defends "Limited Intentionism", a theory of what secures the semantic reference of uses of bare demonstratives ("this", "that" and their plurals). According to Limited Intentionism, demonstrative reference is fixed by perceptually anchored intentions on the part of the speaker.
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  33. David Nicolas (2008). Mass Nouns and Plural Logic. Linguistics and Philosophy 31 (2):211 - 244.score: 38.0
    A dilemma put forward by Schein (1993, Plurals and events. Cambridge: MIT Press) and Rayo (2002, Nous, 36, 436-464) suggests that, in order to characterize the semantics of plurals, we should not use predicate logic, but plural logic, a formal language whose terms may refer to several things at once. We show that a similar dilemma applies to mass nouns. If we use predicate logic and sets when characterizing their semantics, we arrive at a Russellian paradox. And if we (...)
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  34. Ann-Sophie Barwich (2013). A Pluralist Approach to Extension: The Role of Materiality in Scientific Practice for the Reference of Natural Kind Terms. [REVIEW] Biological Theory 7 (2):100-108.score: 38.0
    This article argues for a different outlook on the concept of extension, especially for the reference of general terms in scientific practice. Scientific realist interpretations of the two predominant theories of meaning, namely Descriptivism and Causal Theory, contend that a stable cluster of descriptions or an initial baptism fixes the extension of a general term such as a natural kind term. This view in which the meaning of general terms is presented as monosemantic and the referents as stable, homogeneous, (...)
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  35. John Nerbonne (1995). Nominal Comparatives and Generalized Quantifiers. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 4 (4):273-300.score: 36.0
    This work adopts the perspective of plural logic and measurement theory in order first to focus on the microstructure of comparative determiners; and second, to derive the properties of comparative determiners as these are studied in Generalized Quantifier Theory, locus of the most sophisticated semantic analysis of natural language determiners. The work here appears to be the first to examine comparatives within plural logic, a step which appears necessary, but which also harbors specific analytical problems examined here.Since nominal (...)
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  36. Sandra Chung (2000). On Reference to Kinds in Indonesian. Natural Language Semantics 8 (2):157-171.score: 36.0
    Chierchia's (1998) theory of noun denotations, formalized in the Nominal Mapping Parameter, makes the prediction that no language will have both a generalized classifier system and a singular – plural contrast in nouns. Evidence presented in this note suggests that Indonesian is just such a language. The evidence is used to raise the more general issue of the extent to which the morphosyntax of nouns can be reliably predicted from the routes by which they are mapped into their denotations (...)
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  37. Gennaro Chierchia (1998). Reference to Kinds Across Language. Natural Language Semantics 6 (4):339-405.score: 36.0
    This paper is devoted to the study of bare nominal arguments (i.e., determinerless NPs occurring in canonical argumental positions) from a crosslinguistic point of view. It is proposed that languages may vary in what they let their NPs denote. In some languages (like Chinese), NPs are argumental (names of kinds) and can thus occur freely without determiner in argument position; in others they are predicates (Romance), and this prevents NPs from occurring as arguments, unless the category D(eterminer) is projected. Finally, (...)
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  38. Nino B. Cocchiarella (2009). Mass Nouns in a Logic of Classes as Many. Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (3):343 - 361.score: 34.0
    A semantic analysis of mass nouns is given in terms of a logic of classes as many. In previous work it was shown that plural reference and predication for count nouns can be interpreted within this logic of classes as many in terms of the subclasses of the classes that are the extensions of those count nouns. A brief review of that account of plurals is given here and it is then shown how the same kind of interpretation (...)
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  39. K. Hossack (2000). Plurals and Complexes. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (3):411-443.score: 34.0
    Atomism denies that complexes exist. Common-sense metaphysics may posit masses, composite individuals and sets, but atomism says there are only simples. In a singularist logic, it is difficult to make a plausible case for atomism. But we should accept plural logic, and then atomism can paraphrase away apparent reference to complexes. The paraphrases require unfamiliar plural universals, but these are of independent interest; for example, we can identify numbers and sets with plural universals. The atomist paraphrases (...)
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  40. Philippe Schlenker, Properties, Plurals and Paradox.score: 34.0
    It has been argued that an objectual semantics for plurals falls victim to Russell’s paradox, and that a nominalistic semantics should therefore be preferred (Boolos 1984); similar considerations have sometimes been extended to other types of abstract reference, in particular to property talk. We suggest that this line of argument is mistaken: deeply entrenched features of ordinary language guarantee that property and plural talk do give rise to paradoxes. In the case of properties, the grammar of English is (...)
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  41. Monica Mookherjee (2008). Autonomy, Force and Cultural Plurality. Res Publica 14 (3):147-168.score: 34.0
    Within now prolific debates surrounding the compatibility of feminism and multiculturalism in liberal societies, the need arises for a normative conception of women’s self-determination that does not violate the self-understandings or values of women of different backgrounds and forms of life. With reference to the recent British debate about forced marriage, this article proposes an innovative approach to this problem in terms of the idea of ‘plural autonomy’. While the capacity for autonomy is plural, in the sense (...)
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  42. William Bynoe, How Composites Could Have Been Indispensable.score: 30.0
    Mereological Nihilism is the thesis that no material object has proper parts; every material object is a simple. Recent developments in plural semantics have made it possible to develop and motivate this position. In particular, some have argued that the tools of plural reference and quantification enable us to systematically paraphrase true statements apparently about composites into statements that only concern simples. Are composites really surplus to philosophical requirements? Given the resources of plural semantics, what must (...)
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  43. Massimiliano Carrara & Enrico Martino (2009). On the Ontological Commitment of Mereology. Review of Symbolic Logic 2 (1):164-174.score: 30.0
    In Parts of Classes (1991) and Mathematics Is Megethology (1993) David Lewis defends both the innocence of plural quantification and of mereology. However, he himself claims that the innocence of mereology is different from that of plural reference, where reference to some objects does not require the existence of a single entity picking them out as a whole. In the case of plural quantification . Instead, in the mereological case: (Lewis, 1991, p. 87). The aim (...)
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  44. Enrico Martino & Massimiliano Carrara (2010). To Be is to Be the Object of a Possible Act of Choice. Studia Logica 96 (2):289-313.score: 30.0
    Aim of the paper is to revise Boolos’ reinterpretation of second-order monadic logic in terms of plural quantification ([4], [5]) and expand it to full second order logic. Introducing the idealization of plural acts of choice, performed by a suitable team of agents, we will develop a notion of plural reference . Plural quantification will be then explained in terms of plural reference. As an application, we will sketch a structuralist reconstruction of second-order (...)
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  45. I. Caponigro, L. Pearl, N. Brooks & D. Barner (2012). Acquiring the Meaning of Free Relative Clauses and Plural Definite Descriptions. Journal of Semantics 29 (2):261-293.score: 30.0
    Plural definite descriptions (e.g. the things on the plate) and free relative clauses (e.g. what is on the plate) have been argued to share the same semantic properties, despite their syntactic differences. Specifically, both have been argued to be non-quantificational expressions referring to the maximal element of a given set (e.g. the set of things on the contextually salient plate). We provide experimental support for this semantic analysis with the first reported simultaneous investigation of children’s interpretation of both constructions, (...)
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  46. Øystein Linnebo & David Nicolas (2008). Superplurals in English. Analysis 68 (299):186–197.score: 28.0
    where ‘aa’ is a plural term, and ‘F’ a plural predicate. Following George Boolos (1984) and others, many philosophers and logicians also think that plural expressions should be analysed as not introducing any new ontological commitments to some sort of ‘plural entities’, but rather as involving a new form of reference to objects to which we are already committed (for an overview and further details, see Linnebo 2004). For instance, the plural term ‘aa’ refers (...)
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  47. Giorgio Magri (2009). A Theory of Individual-Level Predicates Based on Blind Mandatory Scalar Implicatures. Natural Language Semantics 17 (3):245-297.score: 28.0
    Predicates such as tall or to know Latin, which intuitively denote permanent properties, are called individual-level predicates. Many peculiar properties of this class of predicates have been noted in the literature. One such property is that we cannot say #John is sometimes tall. Here is a way to account for this property: this sentence sounds odd because it triggers the scalar implicature that the alternative John is always tall is false, which cannot be, given that, if John is sometimes tall, (...)
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  48. Jessica Pepp (2012). Reference and Referring: A Framework. In William P. Kabasenche, Michael O'Rourke & Matthew H. Slater (eds.), Reference and Referring. MIT Press. 1-32.score: 27.0
  49. Ori Simchen (2012). Necessity in Reference. In William P. Kabasenche Michael O.’Rourke & Matthew H. Slater (eds.), Reference and Referring. MIT.score: 25.0
    I take up a question raised by David Kaplan at the very end of his 1990 paper "Words": Is it possible for a name that in fact names a given individual to have named a different individual? I argue for a negative answer to Kaplan's question via the essentialist claims that, first, it is of the nature of a referring token of a name to be produced by a particular referential intention, and, second, that it is of the nature of (...)
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