Search results for 'plurals' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  70
    Byeong-uk Yi (2006). The Logic and Meaning of Plurals. Part II. Journal of Philosophical Logic 35 (3):239-288.
    In this sequel to "The logic and meaning of plurals. Part I", I continue to present an account of logic and language that acknowledges limitations of singular constructions of natural languages and recognizes plural constructions as their peers. To this end, I present a non-reductive account of plural constructions that results from the conception of plurals as devices for talking about the many. In this paper, I give an informal semantics of plurals, formulate a formal characterization of (...)
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  2. Byeong-Uk Yi (2005). The Logic and Meaning of Plurals. Part I. Journal of Philosophical Logic 34 (5/6):459-506.
    Contemporary accounts of logic and language cannot give proper treatments of plural constructions of natural languages. They assume that plural constructions are redundant devices used to abbreviate singular constructions. This paper and its sequel, "The logic and meaning of plurals, II", aim to develop an account of logic and language that acknowledges limitations of singular constructions and recognizes plural constructions as their peers. To do so, the papers present natural accounts of the logic and meaning of plural constructions that (...)
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  3.  45
    Eytan Zweig (2009). Number-Neutral Bare Plurals and the Multiplicity Implicature. Linguistics and Philosophy 32 (4):353-407.
    Bare plurals (dogs) behave in ways that quantified plurals (some dogs) do not. For instance, while the sentence John owns dogs implies that John owns more than one dog, its negation John does not own dogs does not mean “John does not own more than one dog”, but rather “John does not own a dog”. A second puzzling behavior is known as the dependent plural reading; when in the scope of another plural, the ‘more than one’ meaning of (...)
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  4.  38
    Hanoch Ben-Yami (2013). Higher‐Level Plurals Versus Articulated Reference, and an Elaboration of Salva Veritate. Dialectica 67 (1):81-102.
    In recent literature on plurals the claim has often been made that the move from singular to plural expressions can be iterated, generating what are occasionally called higher-level plurals or superplurals, often correlated with superplural predicates. I argue that the idea that the singular-to-plural move can be iterated is questionable. I then show that the examples and arguments intended to establish that some expressions of natural language are in some sense higher-level plurals fail. Next, I argue that (...)
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  5.  21
    David Nicolas, Can Mereological Sums Serve as the Semantic Values of Plurals?
    Abstract: Friends of plural logic—like Oliver & Smiley (2001), Rayo (2002), Yi (2005), and McKay (2006)—have argued that a semantics of plurals based on mereological sums would be too weak, and they have adduced several examples in favor of their claim. However, they have not considered various possible counter-arguments. So how convincing are their own arguments? We show that several of them are easily answered, while some others are more problematic. Overall, the case against mereological singularism—the idea that mereological (...)
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  6.  19
    Nino Cocchiarella (2014). Two Views of the Logic of Plurals and a Reduction of One to the Other. Studia Logica 103 (4):757-780.
    There are different views of the logic of plurals that are now in circulation, two of which we will compare in this paper. One of these is based on a two-place relation of being among, as in ‘Peter is among the juveniles arrested’. This approach seems to be the one that is discussed the most in philosophical journals today. The other is based on Bertrand Russell’s early notion of a class as many, by which is meant not a class (...)
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  7. Salvatore Florio & Øystein Linnebo (forthcoming). Logic and Plurals. In Kirk Ludwig & Marija Jankovic (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Collective Intentionality.
    This chapter provides an overview of the philosophical and linguistic debate about the logic of plurals. We present the most prominent singularizing analyses of plurals as well as the main criticisms that such analyses have received. We then introduce an alternative approach to plurals known as plural logic, focusing on the question whether plural logic can count as pure logic.
     
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  8.  32
    Enrico Franconi (1993). A Treatment of Plurals and Plural Quantifications Based on a Theory of Collections. Minds and Machines 3 (4):453-474.
    Collective entities and collective relations play an important role in natural language. In order to capture the full meaning of sentences like The Beatles sing Yesterday, a knowledge representation language should be able to express and reason about plural entities — like the Beatles — and their relationships — like sing — with any possible reading (cumulative, distributive or collective).In this paper a way of including collections and collective relations within a concept language, chosen as the formalism for representing the (...)
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  9.  69
    Øystein Linnebo (2016). Plurals and Modals. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 46 (4-5):654-676.
    Consider one of several things. Is the one thing necessarily one of the several? This key question in the modal logic of plurals is clarified. Some defenses of an affirmative answer are developed and compared. Various remarks are made about the broader philosophical significance of the question.
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  10.  9
    Barry Schein (1993). Plurals and Events. MIT Press.
    Barry Schein proposes combining a second-order treatment of plurals with DonaldDavidson's suggestion that there are positions for reference to events in ordinary predicates inorder to account for several of the more puzzling features of ...
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  11.  28
    Simon Hewitt (2012). Modalising Plurals. Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (5):853-875.
    There has been very little discussion of the appropriate principles to govern a modal logic of plurals. What debate there has been has accepted a principle I call (Necinc); informally if this is one of those then, necessarily: this is one of those. On this basis Williamson has criticised the Boolosian plural interpretation of monadic second-order logic. I argue against (Necinc), noting that it isn't a theorem of any logic resulting from adding modal axioms to the plural logic PFO+, (...)
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  12.  71
    K. Hossack (2000). Plurals and Complexes. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (3):411-443.
    Atomism denies that complexes exist. Common-sense metaphysics may posit masses, composite individuals and sets, but atomism says there are only simples. In a singularist logic, it is difficult to make a plausible case for atomism. But we should accept plural logic, and then atomism can paraphrase away apparent reference to complexes. The paraphrases require unfamiliar plural universals, but these are of independent interest; for example, we can identify numbers and sets with plural universals. The atomist paraphrases would fail if (...) presuppose complexes: but an Appendix shows that reference to complexes is not required in the semantics of plurals. (shrink)
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  13.  11
    David Nicolas, Can Mereological Sums Serve as the Semantic Values of Plurals?
    Friends of plural logic—like Oliver & Smiley, Rayo, Yi, and McKay —have argued that a semantics of plurals based on mereological sums would be too weak, and they have adduced several examples in favor of their claim. However, they have not considered various possible counter-arguments. So how convincing are their own arguments? We show that several of them are easily answered, while some others are more problematic. Overall, the case against mereological singularism—the idea that mereological sums can serve as (...)
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  14.  79
    Nicholas Asher, Ambiguity and Anaphora with Plurals in Discourse.
    We provide examples of plurals related to ambiguity and anaphora that pose problems or are counterexamples for current approaches to plurals. We then propose a dynamic semantics based on an extension of dynamic predicate logic to handle these examples. On our theory, different readings of sentences or discourses containing plurals don’t arise from a postulated ambiguity of plural terms or predicates applying to plural DPs, but follow rather from different types of dynamic transitions that manipulate inputs and (...)
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  15.  30
    Ariel Cohen & Nomi Erteschik-Shir (2002). Topic, Focus, and the Interpretation of Bare Plurals. Natural Language Semantics 10 (2):125-165.
    In this paper we show that focus structure determines the interpretation of bare plurals in English: topic bare plurals are interpreted generically, focused bare plurals are interpreted existentially. When bare plurals are topics they must be specific, i.e. they refer to kinds. After type-shifting they introduce variables which can be bound by the generic quantifier, yielding characterizing generics. Existentially interpreted bare plurals are not variables, but denote properties that are incorporated into the predicate.The type of (...)
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  16. Philippe Schlenker, Properties, Plurals and Paradox.
    It has been argued that an objectual semantics for plurals falls victim to Russell’s paradox, and that a nominalistic semantics should therefore be preferred (Boolos 1984); similar considerations have sometimes been extended to other types of abstract reference, in particular to property talk. We suggest that this line of argument is mistaken: deeply entrenched features of ordinary language guarantee that property and plural talk do give rise to paradoxes. In the case of properties, the grammar of English is untyped, (...)
     
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  17.  3
    Timothy Smiley Alex Oliver (2001). Strategies for a Logic of Plurals. Philosophical Quarterly 51 (204):289-306.
    English has plural terms as well as singular terms. But our standard formal languages, e.g., the predicate calculus, feature only singular terms. How can the plural idiom be formalized?‘Changing the subject’ is by far the most common plurals strategy among both philosophers and linguists: a plural term is replaced by a singular term standing for some complex object that ‘contains’ the individuals to which the plural term alludes. For example, one might simply replace ‘A, B imply C’ with ‘{A, (...)
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  18.  10
    A. Cohen (2005). More Than Bare Existence: An Implicature of Existential Bare Plurals. Journal of Semantics 22 (4):389-400.
    Existential bare plurals (e.g. dogs) have the same semantics as explicit existentials (e.g. a dog or some dogs) but different pragmatics. In addition to entailing the existence of a set of individuals, existential bare plurals implicate that this set is suitable for some purpose. The suitability implicature is a form of what has been variously called informativeness-based or R-based implicature. Condoravdi (1992, 1994) and others have claimed that bare plurals have a third reading (in addition to the (...)
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  19. Peter Lasersohn (2011). Mass Nouns and Plurals. In Claudia Maienborn, Klaus von Heusinger & Paul Portner (eds.), Semantics: An International Handbook of Natural Language Meaning. De Gruyter Mouton 2.
  20.  88
    Gabriel Uzquiano (2004). Plurals and Simples. The Monist 87 (3):429-451.
  21. Godehard Link (1983). The Logical Analysis of Plurals and Mass Terms: A Lattice-Theoretic Approach. In P. Portner & B. H. Partee (eds.), Formal Semantics - the Essential Readings. Blackwell 127--147.
     
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  22.  3
    Byeong-Uk Yi (2005). The Logic and Meaning of Plurals. Part I. Journal of Philosophical Logic 34 (5-6):459-506.
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  23.  42
    C. Brisson (2003). Plurals, All, and the Nonuniformity of Collective Predication. Linguistics and Philosophy 26 (2):129-184.
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  24.  95
    Kai von Fintel (1997). Bare Plurals, Bare Conditionals, and Only. Journal of Semantics 14 (1):1-56.
    The compositional semantics of sentences like Only mammals give live birth and The flag flies only if the Queen is home is a tough problem. Evidence is presented to show that only here is modifying an underlying proposition (its ‘prejacent’). After discussing the semantics of only, the question of the proper interpretation of the prejacent is explored. It would be nice if the prejacent could be analyzed as having existential quantificational force. But that is difficult to maintain, since the prejacent (...)
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  25.  65
    Alex Oliver & Timothy Smiley (2001). Strategies for a Logic of Plurals. Philosophical Quarterly 51 (204):289-306.
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  26. Joshua Rasmussen & Alexander R. Pruss (forthcoming). Problems with Plurals. Oxford Studies in Metaphysics.
     
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  27.  65
    Alex Oliver & Timothy Smiley (2006). A Modest Logic of Plurals. Journal of Philosophical Logic 35 (3):317 - 348.
    We present a plural logic that is as expressively strong as it can be without sacrificing axiomatisability, axiomatise it, and use it to chart the expressive limits set by axiomatisability. To the standard apparatus of quantification using singular variables our object-language adds plural variables, a predicate expressing inclusion (is/are/is one of/are among), and a plural definite description operator. Axiomatisability demands that plural variables only occur free, but they have a surprisingly important role. Plural description is not eliminable in favour of (...)
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  28.  50
    Agustin Rayo (2006). Beyond Plurals. In Agustín Rayo & Gabriel Uzquiano (eds.), Absolute Generality. Oxford University Press 220--54.
    I have two main objectives. The first is to get a better understanding of what is at issue between friends and foes of higher-order quantification, and of what it would mean to extend a Boolos-style treatment of second-order quantification to third- and higherorder quantification. The second objective is to argue that in the presence of absolutely general quantification, proper semantic theorizing is essentially unstable: it is impossible to provide a suitably general semantics for a given language in a language of (...)
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  29.  2
    Harald Clahsen, Monika Rothweiler, Andreas Woest & Gary F. Marcus (1992). Regular and Irregular Inflection in the Acquisition of German Noun Plurals. Cognition 45 (3):225-255.
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  30.  10
    Roger Schwarzschild (1993). Plurals, Presuppositions and the Sources of Distributivity. Natural Language Semantics 2 (3):201-248.
    This paper begins with a discussion ofcumulativity (e.g., ‘P(a) & P(b) implies P(a+b)’), formalized using a verb phrase operator. Next, the meanings of distributivity markers such aseach and non-distributivity indicators such astogether are considered. An existing analysis ofeach in terms of quantification over parts of a plurality is adopted. However,together is problematic, for it involves a cancellation or negation of the quantification associated witheach. (The four boys together owned exactly three cars could not be true if each of the boys (...)
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  31.  97
    Agustín Rayo (2007). Plurals. Philosophy Compass 2 (3):411–427.
    Forthcoming in Philosophical Compass. I explain why plural quantifiers and predicates have been thought to be philosophically significant.
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  32.  56
    Byeong-Uk Yi (forthcoming). The Language and Logic of Plurals. Journal of Philosophical Logic.
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  33.  74
    Nino Cocchiarella (2005). Denoting Concepts, Reference, and the Logic of Names, Classes as Many, Groups, and Plurals. Linguistics and Philosophy 28 (2):135 - 179.
    Bertrand Russell introduced several novel ideas in his 1903 Principles of Mathematics that he later gave up and never went back to in his subsequent work. Two of these are the related notions of denoting concepts and classes as many. In this paper we reconstruct each of these notions in the framework of conceptual realism and connect them through a logic of names that encompasses both proper and common names, and among the latter, complex as well as simple common names. (...)
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  34. Barry Schein (2006). Plurals. In Ernest Lepore & Barry Smith (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Language. Oxford University Press 716--767.
     
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  35.  9
    Lenhart K. Schubert & Francis Jeffry Pelletier (1987). Problems in the Representation of the Logical Form of Generics, Plurals, and Mass Nouns. In Ernest Lepore (ed.), New Directions in Semantics. Academic Press
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  36.  76
    Kevin C. Klement (2014). Early Russell on Types and Plurals. Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy 2 (6):1-21.
    In 1903, in The Principles of Mathematics (PoM), Russell endorsed an account of classes whereupon a class fundamentally is to be considered many things, and not one, and used this thesis to explicate his first version of a theory of types, adding that it formed the logical justification for the grammatical distinction between singular and plural. The view, however, was short-lived; rejected before PoM even appeared in print. However, aside from mentions of a few misgivings, there is little evidence about (...)
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  37.  21
    Eytan Zweig (2008). Dependent Plurals and Plural Meaning. Dissertation, NYU
    While writing this thesis, there were many things I wanted to get right. I wanted to get the data right. I wanted to get my analysis of the data right. I certainly wanted to get all my citations right, which can get pretty tricky when one is trying to finish a chapter at 2am. But if an error did creep in somewhere in the body of the thesis, that is not a disaster. Sooner or later, I will get a chance (...)
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  38.  25
    Eytan Zweig (2008). Dependent Plurals and Plural Meaning. Dissertation, New York University
    While writing this thesis, there were many things I wanted to get right. I wanted to get the data right. I wanted to get my analysis of the data right. I certainly wanted to get all my citations right, which can get pretty tricky when one is trying to finish a chapter at 2am. But if an error did creep in somewhere in the body of the thesis, that is not a disaster. Sooner or later, I will get a chance (...)
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  39.  23
    Renita Silva, Sabrina Gerth & Harald Clahsen (2013). Morphological Constraints in Children's Spoken Language Comprehension: A Visual World Study of Plurals Inside Compounds in English. Cognition 129 (2):457-469.
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  40.  2
    Alex Oliver & Timothy Smiley (2006). A Modest Logic of Plurals. Journal of Philosophical Logic 35 (3):317-348.
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  41.  2
    Brendan S. Gillon (1990). Bare Plurals as Plural Indefinite Noun Phrases. In Kyburg Henry E., Loui Ronald P. & Carlson Greg N. (eds.), Knowledge Representation and Defeasible Reasoning. Kluwer 119--166.
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  42.  9
    Peter Lasersohn (1997). Bare Plurals and Donkey Anaphora. Natural Language Semantics 5 (1):79-86.
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  43.  1
    Alex Oliver & Timothy Smiley (2001). Strategies for a Logic of Plurals. Philosophical Quarterly 51 (204):289-306.
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  44. Miyuki Yamashina & Christopher Tancredi (2005). Degenerate Plurals. In Emar Maier, Corien Bary & Janneke Huitink (eds.), Proceedings of Sub9. 522--537.
     
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  45.  19
    AlexOliver & TimothySmiley (2001). Strategies for a Logic of Plurals. Philosophical Quarterly 51 (204):289–306.
  46.  3
    Danielle E. Matthews & Anna L. Theakston (2006). Errors of Omission in English‐Speaking Children's Production of Plurals and the Past Tense: The Effects of Frequency, Phonology, and Competition. Cognitive Science 30 (6):1027-1052.
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  47.  1
    Hugo Van Der Molen & John Morton (1979). Remembering Plurals: Unit of Coding and Form of Coding During Serial Recall. Cognition 7 (1):35-47.
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  48.  1
    Ivan Lowe (1974). An Algebraic Theory of English Pronominal Reference : Plurals From Singulars. Semiotica 10 (1):43-74.
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  49. Thomas McKay, Chapter 1 a Formal Language with Non-Distributive Plurals: Preliminary Considerations.
    (1) Arnie, Bob and Carlos are shipmates.1 This is something true of the three of them together. We cannot say Arnie is a shipmate except perhaps as elliptical for something that connects Arnie to others. (Arnie is a..
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  50. Eduardo Alejandro Barrio (2014). Collapse, Plurals and Sets. Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 18 (3):419.
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