Search results for 'population structure theory' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Marc Ereshefsky & Mohan Matthen (2005). Taxonomy, Polymorphism, and History: An Introduction to Population Structure Theory. Philosophy of Science 72 (1):1-21.score: 120.0
    Homeostatic Property Cluster (HPC) theory suggests that species and other biological taxa consist of organisms that share certain similarities. HPC theory acknowledges the existence of Darwinian variation within biological taxa. The claim is that “homeostatic mechanisms” acting on the members of such taxa nonetheless ensure a significant cluster of similarities. The HPC theorist’s focus on individual similarities is inadequate to account for stable polymorphism within taxa, and fails properly to capture their historical nature. A better approach is to (...)
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  2. Nancy Green (2010). Representation of Argumentation in Text with Rhetorical Structure Theory. Argumentation 24 (2):181-196.score: 84.0
    Various argumentation analysis tools permit the analyst to represent functional components of an argument (e.g., data, claim, warrant, backing), how arguments are composed of subarguments and defenses against potential counterarguments, and argumentation schemes. In order to facilitate a study of argument presentation in a biomedical corpus, we have developed a hybrid scheme that enables an analyst to encode argumentation analysis within the framework of Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST), which can be used to represent the discourse structure of (...)
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  3. Philip H. P. Nguyen, Ken Kaneiwa, Dan R. Corbett & Minh-Quang Nguyen (2009). Meta-Relation and Ontology Closure in Conceptual Structure Theory. Artificial Intelligence and Law 17 (4):291-320.score: 84.0
    This paper presents an enhanced ontology formalization, combining previous work in Conceptual Structure Theory and Order-Sorted Logic. Most existing ontology formalisms place greater importance on concept types, but in this paper we focus on relation types, which are in essence predicates on concept types. We formalize the notion of ‘predicate of predicates’ as meta-relation type and introduce the new hierarchy of meta-relation types as part of the ontology definition. The new notion of closure of a relation or meta-relation (...)
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  4. Rein Vihalemm (2009). Teaduslik teooria kui teadusfilosoofia kategooria. Studia Philosophica Estonica 2 (1):32-46.score: 83.0
    Artiklis arendatakse alternatiivset kontseptsiooni niihästi traditsioonilisele füüsikakesksele teadusliku teooria käsitlusele kui ka seisukohale, et füüsikateooriat ei saa teadusfilosoofias mõista teadusliku teooria mudelina, sest erinevates teadustes on teooriad oma loomult erinevad. Ollakse seisukohal, et teaduslik teooria on ikkagi teadusfilosoofia kategooriana teadusliku distsipliini eripärast sõltumatu. Käsitletakse põhiliselt kahte punkti: (1) miks on teadusfilosoofias põhjust kritiseerida traditsioonilist, füüsika põhjal saadud ettekujutust teaduslikust teooriast? (2) miks ei ole põhjendatud seisukoht, et nt keemias on teaduslik teooria (nt klassikaline keemilise struktuuri teooria) oma loomult füüsikateooriast (nt (...)
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  5. Antony Flew (1957). The Structure of Malthus' Population Theory. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 35 (1):1 – 20.score: 81.0
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  6. Alan C. Love (2013). Erratum To: Theory is as Theory Does: Scientific Practice and Theory Structure in Biology. [REVIEW] Biological Theory 7 (4):430 - 430.score: 79.0
    Using the context of controversies surrounding evolutionary developmental biology (EvoDevo) and the possibility of an Extended Evolutionary Synthesis, I provide an account of theory structure as idealized theory presentations that are always incomplete (partial) and shaped by their conceptual content (material rather than formal organization). These two characteristics are salient because the goals that organize and regulate scientific practice, including the activity of using a theory, are heterogeneous. This means that the same theory can be (...)
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  7. Omar Lizardo (2013). Re‐Conceptualizing Abstract Conceptualization in Social Theory: The Case of the “Structure” Concept. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 43 (2):155-180.score: 75.0
    I this paper, I draw on recent research on the radically embodied and perceptual bases of conceptualization in linguistics and cognitive science to develop a new way of reading and evaluating abstract concepts in social theory. I call this approach Sociological Idea Analysis. I argue that, in contrast to the traditional view of abstract concepts, which conceives them as amodal “presuppositions” removed from experience, abstract concepts are irreducibly grounded in experience and partake of non-negotiable perceptual-symbolic features from which a (...)
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  8. Theodore Bach (2011). Structure-Mapping: Directions From Simulation to Theory. Philosophical Psychology 24 (1):23-51.score: 72.0
    The theory of mind debate has reached a “hybrid consensus” concerning the status of theory-theory and simulation-theory. Extant hybrid models either specify co-dependency and implementation relations, or distribute mentalizing tasks according to folk-psychological categories. By relying on a non-developmental framework these models fail to capture the central connection between simulation and theory. I propose a “dynamic” hybrid that is informed by recent work on the nature of similarity cognition. I claim that Gentner’s model of (...)-mapping allows us to understand simulation as a process in which psychological representations are aligned, causing the spontaneous abstraction of theoretical generalizations about the psychological domain. (shrink)
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  9. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1993). Theory Structure, Reduction, and Disciplinary Integration in Biology. Biology and Philosophy 8 (3):319-347.score: 72.0
    This paper examines the nature of theory structure in biology and considers the implications of those theoretical structures for theory reduction. An account of biological theories as interlevel prototypes embodying causal sequences, and related to each other by strong analogies, is presented, and examples from the neurosciences are provided to illustrate these middle-range theories. I then go on to discuss several modifications of Nagel''s classical model of theory reduction, and indicate at what stages in the development (...)
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  10. Felix J. H. Hol, Xin Wang & Juan E. Keymer (2012). Population Structure Increases the Evolvability of Genetic Algorithms. Complexity 17 (5):58-64.score: 70.0
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  11. Alfred G. B. Prather (2005). Philosophy Theory and Structure of Consciousness (Part I and Part II). Kearney: Morris Publ.score: 64.0
     
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  12. Elisabeth A. Lloyd (1984). A Semantic Approach to the Structure of Population Genetics. Philosophy of Science 51 (2):242-264.score: 63.0
    A precise formulation of the structure of modern evolutionary theory has proved elusive. In this paper, I introduce and develop a formal approach to the structure of population genetics, evolutionary theory's most developed sub-theory. Under the semantic approach, used as a framework in this paper, presenting a theory consists in presenting a related family of models. I offer general guidelines and examples for the classification of population genetics models; the defining features of (...)
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  13. M. Azar (1999). Argumentative Text as Rhetorical Structure: An Application of Rhetorical Structure Theory. [REVIEW] Argumentation 13 (1):97-114.score: 62.0
    Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST), as a tool for analyzing written texts, is particularly appropriate for analyzing argumentative texts. The distinction that RST makes between the part of a text that realizes the primary goal of the writer, termed nucleus, and the part that provides supplementary material, termed satellite, is crucial for the analysis of argumentative texts.
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  14. Mohan Matthen (2013). Millikan's Historical Kinds. In Dan Ryder, Justine Kingsbury & Kenneth Williford (eds.), Millikan and Her Critics. John Wiley & Sons. 135--154.score: 60.0
  15. Roman F. Nalewajski (2014). Entropic Concepts in Electronic Structure Theory. Foundations of Chemistry 16 (1):27-62.score: 60.0
    It is argued that some elusive “entropic” characteristics of chemical bonds, e.g., bond multiplicities (orders), which connect the bonded atoms in molecules, can be probed using quantities and techniques of Information Theory (IT). This complementary perspective increases our insight and understanding of the molecular electronic structure. The specific IT tools for detecting effects of chemical bonds and predicting their entropic multiplicities in molecules are summarized. Alternative information densities, including measures of the local entropy deficiency or its displacement relative (...)
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  16. Richard Schweickert & Zhuangzhuang Xi (2010). Metamorphosed Characters in Dreams: Constraints of Conceptual Structure and Amount of Theory of Mind. Cognitive Science 34 (4):665-684.score: 60.0
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  17. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2008). Varieties of Population Structure and the Levels of Selection. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59 (1):25-50.score: 56.0
    Group-structured populations, of the kind prominent in discussions of multilevel selection, are contrasted with ‘neighbor-structured’ populations. I argue that it is a necessary condition on multilevel description of a selection process that there should be a nonarbitrary division of the population into equivalence classes (or an approximation to this situation). The discussion is focused via comparisons between two famous problem cases involving group structure (altruism and heterozygote advantage) and two neighbor-structured cases that resemble them. Conclusions are also drawn (...)
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  18. Sy-David Friedman, Peter Koepke & Boris Piwinger (2006). Hyperfine Structure Theory and Gap 1 Morasses. Journal of Symbolic Logic 71 (2):480 - 490.score: 56.0
    Using the Friedman-Koepke Hyperfine Structure Theory of [2], we provide a short construction of a gap 1 morass in the constructible universe.
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  19. Christopher Toner (2010). The Logical Structure of Just War Theory. Journal of Ethics 14 (2):81-102.score: 54.0
    A survey of just war theory literature reveals the existence of quite different lists of principles. This apparent arbitrariness raises a number of questions: What is the relation between ad bellum and in bello principles? Why are there so many of the former and so few of the latter? What order is there among the various principles? To answer these questions, I first draw on some recent work by Jeff McMahan to show that ad bellum and in bello principles (...)
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  20. Cozmin Ududec, Howard Barnum & Joseph Emerson (2011). Three Slit Experiments and the Structure of Quantum Theory. Foundations of Physics 41 (3):396-405.score: 54.0
    In spite of the interference manifested in the double-slit experiment, quantum theory predicts that a measure of interference defined by Sorkin and involving various outcome probabilities from an experiment with three slits, is identically zero. We adapt Sorkin’s measure into a general operational probabilistic framework for physical theories, and then study its relationship to the structure of quantum theory. In particular, we characterize the class of probabilistic theories for which the interference measure is zero as ones in (...)
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  21. Massimo Pigliucci (2008). The Proper Role of Population Genetics in Modern Evolutionary Theory. Biological Theory 3 (4):316-324.score: 51.0
    Evolutionary biology is a field currently animated by much discussion concerning its conceptual foundations. On the one hand, we have supporters of a classical view of evolutionary theory, whose backbone is provided by population genetics and the so-called Modern Synthesis (MS). On the other hand, a number of researchers are calling for an Extended Synthe- sis (ES) that takes seriously both the limitations of the MS (such as its inability to incorporate developmental biology) and recent empirical and theoretical (...)
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  22. Diederik Aerts & Liane Gabora (2005). A Theory of Concepts and Their Combinations I: The Structure of the Sets of Contexts and Properties. Aerts, Diederik and Gabora, Liane (2005) a Theory of Concepts and Their Combinations I.score: 51.0
    We propose a theory for modeling concepts that uses the state-context-property theory (SCOP), a generalization of the quantum formalism, whose basic notions are states, contexts and properties. This theory enables us to incorporate context into the mathematical structure used to describe a concept, and thereby model how context influences the typicality of a single exemplar and the applicability of a single property of a concept. We introduce the notion `state of a concept' to account for this (...)
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  23. Daniel E. Adkins & Stephen Vaisey (2009). Toward a Unified Stratification Theory: Structure, Genome, and Status Across Human Societies. Sociological Theory 27 (2):99 - 121.score: 51.0
    While social scientists and geneticists have a shared interest in the personal characteristics instrumental to status attainment, little has been done to integrate these disparate perspectives. This is unfortunate, as the perspectives offer complementary insights, which, if properly combined, stand to substantially improve understanding of the stratification process. This article synthesizes research from the social sciences and genetics to develop a multistage theory of how social structure moderates the influence of the genome on status outcomes. Its thesis is (...)
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  24. Howard Barnum & Alexander Wilce (2014). Local Tomography and the Jordan Structure of Quantum Theory. Foundations of Physics 44 (2):192-212.score: 50.0
    Using a result of H. Hanche-Olsen, we show that (subject to fairly natural constraints on what constitutes a system, and on what constitutes a composite system), orthodox finite-dimensional complex quantum mechanics with superselection rules is the only non-signaling probabilistic theory in which (i) individual systems are Jordan algebras (equivalently, their cones of unnormalized states are homogeneous and self-dual), (ii) composites are locally tomographic (meaning that states are determined by the joint probabilities they assign to measurement outcomes on the component (...)
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  25. Ulrich Krohs (2009). Structure and Coherence of Two-Model-Descriptions of Technical Artefacts. Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 13 (2):150-161.score: 49.0
    A technical artefact is often described in two ways: by means of a physicalistic model of its structure and dynamics, and by a functional account of the contributions of the components of the artefact to its capacities. These models do not compete, as different models of the same phenomenon in physics usually do; they supplement each other and cohere. Coherence is shown to be the result of a mapping of role-contributions on physicalistic relations that is brought about by the (...)
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  26. Steven E. Wallis (ed.) (2010). The Structure of Theory and the Structure of Scientific Revolutions: What Constitutes an Advance in Theory? IGI Global.score: 48.0
    From a Kuhnian perspective, a paradigmatic revolution in management science will significantly improve our understanding of the business world and show practitioners (including managers and consultants) how to become much more effective. Without an objective measure of revolution, however, the door is open for spurious claims of revolutionary advance. Such claims cause confusion among scholars and practitioners and reduce the legitimacy of university management programs. Metatheoretical methods, based on insights from systems theory, provide new tools for analyzing the (...) of theory. Propositional analysis is one such method that may be applied to objectively quantify the formal robustness of management theory. In this chapter, I use propositional analysis to analyze different versions of a theory as it evolves across 1,500 years of history. This analysis shows how the increasing robustness of theory anticipates the arrival of revolution and suggests an innovative and effective way for scholars and practitioners to develop and evaluate theories of management. (shrink)
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  27. Anastasios Brenner, Paul Needham, David Stump & Robert Deltete (2011). New Perspectives on Pierre Duhem's The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory. Metascience 20 (1):1-25.score: 48.0
    New perspectives on Pierre Duhem’s The aim and structure of physical theory Content Type Journal Article DOI 10.1007/s11016-010-9467-3 Authors Anastasios Brenner, Department of Philosophy, Paul Valéry University-Montpellier III, Route De Mende, 34199 Montpellier cedex 5, France Paul Needham, Department of Philosophy, University of Stockholm, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden David J. Stump, Department of Philosophy, University of San Francisco, 2130 Fulton Street, San Francisco, CA 94117, USA Robert Deltete, Department of Philosophy, Seattle University, 901 12th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98122-1090, USA (...)
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  28. Valia Allori, Sheldon Goldstein, Roderich Tumulka & Nino Zanghi (2008). On the Common Structure of Bohmian Mechanics and the Ghirardi-Rimini-Weber Theory. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59 (3):353 - 389.score: 48.0
    Bohmian mechanics and the Ghirardi-Rimini-Weber theory provide opposite resolutions of the quantum measurement problem: the former postulates additional variables (the particle positions) besides the wave function, whereas the latter implements spontaneous collapses of the wave function by a nonlinear and stochastic modification of Schrödinger's equation. Still, both theories, when understood appropriately, share the following structure: They are ultimately not about wave functions but about 'matter' moving in space, represented by either particle trajectories, fields on space-time, or a discrete (...)
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  29. Sylvia Culp & Philip Kitcher (1989). Theory Structure and Theory Change in Contemporary Molecular Biology. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 40 (4):459-483.score: 48.0
    Traditional approaches to theory structure and theory change in science do not fare well when confronted with the practice of certain fields of science. We offer an account of contemporary practice in molecular biology designed to address two questions: Is theory change in this area of science gradual or saltatory? What is the relation between molecular biology and the fields of traditional biology? Our main focus is a recent episode in molecular biology, the discovery of enzymatic (...)
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  30. Valia Allori, Sheldon Goldstein, Roderich Tumulka & and Nino Zanghì (2008). On the Common Structure of Bohmian Mechanics and the Ghirardi–Rimini–Weber Theory: Dedicated to Giancarlo Ghirardi on the Occasion of His 70th Birthday. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59 (3):353-389.score: 48.0
    Bohmian mechanics and the Ghirardi–Rimini–Weber theory provide opposite resolutions of the quantum measurement problem: the former postulates additional variables (the particle positions) besides the wave function, whereas the latter implements spontaneous collapses of the wave function by a nonlinear and stochastic modification of Schrödinger's equation. Still, both theories, when understood appropriately, share the following structure: They are ultimately not about wave functions but about ‘matter’ moving in space, represented by either particle trajectories, fields on space-time, or a discrete (...)
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  31. Lars Lindblom (2011). The Structure of a Rawlsian Theory of Just Work. Journal of Business Ethics 101 (4):577-599.score: 48.0
    This article outlines the structure of a Rawlsian theory of justice in the employment relationship. A focus on this theory is motivated by the role it plays in debates in business ethics. The Rawlsian theory answers three central questions about justice and the workplace. What is the relationship between social justice and justice at work? How should we conceive of the problem of justice in the economic sphere? And, what is justice in the workplace? To see (...)
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  32. Anthony King (2004). The Structure of Social Theory. Routledge.score: 48.0
    Over the last three decades, social theory has become an increasingly important sub-discipline within sociology. Social theory has attempted to elucidate the philosophical basis of sociology by defining the nature of social reality. According to social theory, society consists of objective institutions, structure, on the one hand, and individuals, agency on the other it promotes human social relations, insisting that in every instance social reality consists of these relations. The book begins by defining and criticizing contemporary (...)
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  33. Christopher Norris (2000). Structure and Genesis in Scientific Theory: Husserl, Bachelard, Derrida. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 8 (1):107 – 139.score: 48.0
    (2000). STRUCTURE AND GENESIS IN SCIENTIFIC THEORY: HUSSERL, BACHELARD, DERRIDA. British Journal for the History of Philosophy: Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 107-139. doi: 10.1080/096087800360247.
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  34. Samuel Schindler (2008). Model, Theory, and Evidence in the Discovery of the DNA Structure. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59 (4):619-658.score: 48.0
    In this paper, I discuss the discovery of the DNA structure by Francis Crick and James Watson, which has provoked a large historical literature but has yet not found entry into philosophical debates. I want to redress this imbalance. In contrast to the available historical literature, a strong emphasis will be placed upon analysing the roles played by theory, model, and evidence and the relationship between them. In particular, I am going to discuss not only Crick and Watson's (...)
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  35. Anthony King (2006). How Not to Structure a Social Theory: A Reply to a Critical Response. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 36 (4):464-479.score: 48.0
    In his recent review of my book, The Structure of Social Theory , Karsten Stueber rejected my criticisms of contemporary social theory. Against my "hermeneutic" sociology which prioritizes human social relations, he advocates a return to a dualistic ontology of structure and agency. This reply addresses Stueber’s criticisms to re-affirm the ontology of social relations against ontological dualism. Key Words: structure • agency • hermeneutics • social relations.
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  36. Peter Gildenhuys (2013). Classical Population Genetics and the Semantic Approach to Scientific Theories. Synthese 190 (2):273-291.score: 48.0
    In what follows, I argue that the semantic approach to scientific theories fails as a means to present the Wright—Fisher formalism (WFF) of population genetics. I offer an account of what population geneticist understand insofar as they understand the WFF, a variation on Lloyd's view that population genetics can be understood as a family of models of mid-level generality.
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  37. James B. Freeman (1991). Dialectics and the Macrostructure of Arguments: A Theory of Argument Structure. Foris Publications.score: 48.0
    Chapter The Need for a Theory of Argument Structure. THE STANDARD APPROACH The approach to argument diagramming which we call standard was originated, ...
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  38. Stephen H. Voss & Charles Sayward (1980). The Structure of Type Theory. Journal of Philosophy 77 (5):241-259.score: 48.0
    Formal principals are isolated to reveal a structure embedded in a wide range of studies, each of which partitions a domain of individuals into types and categories. It is thought that any reasonable theory of types should include these principles.
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  39. Todd A. Grantham (2004). Constraints and Spandrels in Gould's Structure of Evolutionary Theory. Biology and Philosophy 19 (1):29-43.score: 48.0
    Gould's Structure ofEvolutionary Theory argues that Darwinism hasundergone significant revision. Although Gouldsucceeds in showing that hierarchicalapproaches have expanded Darwinism, hiscritique of adaptationism is less successful. Gould claims that the ubiquity of developmentalconstraints and spandrels has forced biologiststo soften their commitment to adaptationism. Iargue that Gould overstates his conclusion; hisprincipal claims are compatible with at leastsome versions of adaptationism. Despite thisweakness, Gould's discussion of adaptationism –particularly his discussions of the exaptivepool and cross-level spandrels – shouldprovoke new work in evolutionary (...)
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  40. Gustaf Arrhenius, What Österberg's Population Theory has in Common with Plato's.score: 48.0
    Jan Österberg is one of the pioneers in the field of population ethics. He started thinking about this issue already in the late 60s and he has developed one of the most original and interesting population axiologies.1 I’ve discussed the problems and drawbacks of Österberg’s theory elsewhere, and I don’t think that this is the place and time to discuss them again.2 Rather, I shall show that Österberg’s theory has a feature in common with the (...) axiologies of such luminaries like Plato, Aristotle, Kant, Nietzsche, Wittgenstein and Heidegger, had they developed such a theory: None of these theories simultaneously satisfy five weak adequacy conditions. We shall show this by proving that no population axiology satisfies these five conditions. As a fringe benefit, this theorem also shows that the on-going project of constructing an acceptable population axiology has very gloomy prospects. 3.. (shrink)
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  41. Karsten R. Stueber (2006). How to Structure a Social Theory?: A Critical Response to Anthony King’s the Structure of Social Theory. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 36 (1):95-104.score: 48.0
    s argument for the claim that social relations have to be conceived of as primary and main ontological category for an adequate analysis of the social realm. The author shows that King’s arguments do not succeed in fully replacing the categories of agency and structure that are pervasive in contemporary social theory. At most, King succeeds in delineating a neglected area of social theory, something that should be taken into account in addition to structure (...)
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  42. William Demopoulos (1994). Frege, Hilbert, and the Conceptual Structure of Model Theory. History and Philosophy of Logic 15 (2):211-225.score: 48.0
    This paper attempts to confine the preconceptions that prevented Frege from appreciating Hilbert?s Grundlagen der Geometrie to two: (i) Frege?s reliance on what, following Wilfrid Hodges, I call a Frege?Peano language, and (ii) Frege?s view that the sense of an expression wholly determines its reference.I argue that these two preconceptions prevented Frege from achieving the conceptual structure of model theory, whereas Hilbert, at least in his practice, was quite close to the model?theoretic point of view.Moreover, the issues that (...)
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  43. Wybo Houkes (2012). Population Thinking and Natural Selection in Dual-Inheritance Theory. Biology and Philosophy 27 (3):401-417.score: 48.0
    A deflationary perspective on theories of cultural evolution, in particular dual-inheritance theory, has recently been proposed by Lewens. On this ‘pop-culture’ analysis, dual-inheritance theorists apply population thinking to cultural phenomena, without claiming that cultural items evolve by natural selection. This paper argues against this pop-culture analysis of dual-inheritance theory. First, it focuses on recent dual-inheritance models of specific patterns of cultural change. These models exemplify population thinking without a commitment to natural selection of cultural items. There (...)
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  44. Homas Evartenberg (1981). Poverty and Class Structure in Hegel's Theory of Civil Society. Philosophy and Social Criticism 8 (2):169-182.score: 48.0
    Hegel's handling of the phenomenon of poverty has often been seen as an important virtue of his theory of civil society. In this paper, It is argued that Hegel's discussion of this phenomenon reveals a critical weakness of his theory of civil society, i.e., the failure of his theory to take account of the actual class structure of that society. Hegel's official theory of the classes in civil society is shown to neglect the actual development (...)
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  45. Francisco J. Ayala, The Structure of Evolutionary Theory: On Stephen Jay Gould's Monumental Masterpiece.score: 48.0
    Stephen Jay Gould’s monumental The Structure of Evolutionary Theory ‘‘attempts to expand and alter the premises of Darwinism, in order to build an enlarged and distinctive evolutionary theory . . . while remaining within the tradition, and under the logic, of Darwinian argument.’’ The three branches or ‘‘fundamental principles of Darwinian logic’’ are, according to Gould: agency (natural selection acting on individual organisms), efficacy (producing new species adapted to their environments), and scope (accumulation of changes that through (...)
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  46. Alexa Bódog, Gábor P. Háden, Zoltán Jakab & Zsolt Palatinus (2005). Language, Ecological Structure, and Across-Population Sharing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (4):490-491.score: 48.0
    We propose a way to achieve across-population sharing within the authors' model in a way that is plausibly in accordance with human evolution, and also a simple way to capture ecological structure. Finally, we briefly reflect on the model's scope and limits in modeling linguistic communication.
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  47. Kenneth L. Manders (1979). The Theory of All Substructures of a Structure: Characterisation and Decision Problems. Journal of Symbolic Logic 44 (4):583-598.score: 48.0
    An infinitary characterisation of the first-order sentences true in all substructures of a structure M is used to obtain partial reduction of the decision problem for such sentences to that for Th(M). For the relational structure $\langle\mathbf{R}, \leq, +\rangle$ this gives a decision procedure for the ∃ x∀ y-part of the theory of all substructures, yet we show that the ∃ x 1x 2 ∀ y-part, and the entire theory, is Π 1 1 -complete. The (...) of all ordered subsemigroups of $\langle\mathbf{R}, \leq, +\rangle$ is also shown Π 1 1 -complete. Applications in the philosophy of science are mentioned. (shrink)
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  48. R. M. Nugayev (1987). The Genesis and Structure of Models in the Modern Theory of Gravity. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 2 (1):84 – 104.score: 48.0
    INTERNATIONAL STUDIES IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE Vol. 2, number 1, Autumn 1987, pp. 84-104. R.M. Nugayev. The genesis and structure of models in the modern theory of gravity. Abstract. The analysis of theory-choice problem in modern theory of gravity necessitates consideration of the genesis and the structure of the systems of gravitational abstract objects. My approach to physical theory structure uses and develops the ideas of V.S.Stepin. The basic equations of general relativity (...)
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  49. Arthur L. Caplan (1986). Exemplary Reasoning? A Comment on Theory Structure in Biomedicine. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 11 (1):93-105.score: 48.0
    The contributions that the philosophy of medicine can make to both the philosophy of science and the practice of science have been obscured in recent years by an overemphasis on personalities rather than critical themes. Two themes have dominated general discussion within contemporary philosophy of science: methodological essentialism and dynamic gradualism. These themes are defined and considered in light of Kenneth Schaffner's argument that theories in biomedicine have a structure and logic unlike that found in theories of the natural (...)
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  50. Bakhadyr Khoussainov & Antonio Montalbán (2010). A Computable ℵ 0 -Categorical Structure Whose Theory Computes True Arithmetic. Journal of Symbolic Logic 75 (2):728-740.score: 48.0
    We construct a computable ℵ0-categorical structure whose first order theory is computably equivalent to the true first order theory of arithmetic.
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