Search results for 'psychiatric classification' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Jonathan Y. Tsou (forthcoming). DSM-5 and Psychiatry's Second Revolution: Descriptive Vs. Theoretical Approaches to Psychiatric Classification. In Steeves Demazeux & Patrick Singy (eds.), The DSM-5 in Perspective: Philosophical Reflections on the Psychiatric Babel. Springer.score: 222.0
    A large part of the controversy surrounding the publication of DSM-5 stems from the possibility of replacing the purely descriptive approach to classification favored by the DSM since 1980. This paper examines the question of how mental disorders should be classified, focusing on the issue of whether the DSM should adopt a purely descriptive or theoretical approach. I argue that the DSM should replace its purely descriptive approach with a theoretical approach that integrates causal information into the DSM’s descriptive (...)
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  2. Jonathan Y. Tsou (2011). The Importance of History for Philosophy of Psychiatry: The Case of the DSM and Psychiatric Classification. Journal of the Philosophy of History 5 (3):446-470.score: 192.0
    Abstract Recently, some philosophers of psychiatry (viz., Rachel Cooper and Dominic Murphy) have analyzed the issue of psychiatric classification. This paper expands upon these analyses and seeks to demonstrate that a consideration of the history of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) can provide a rich and informative philosophical perspective for critically examining the issue of psychiatric classification. This case is intended to demonstrate the importance of history for philosophy of psychiatry, and more (...)
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  3. J. Agich George (1994). On Values in Recent American Psychiatric Classification. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 19 (3).score: 180.0
    The DSM-IV, like its predecessors, will be a major influence on American psychiatry. As a consequence, continuing analysis of its assumptions is essential. Review of the manuals as well as conceptually-oriented literature on DSM-III, DSM-III-R, and DSM-IV reveals that the authors of these classifications have paid little attention to the explicit and implicit value commitments made by the classifications. The response to DSM criticisms and controversy has often been to incorporate more scientific diversity into the classification, instead of careful (...)
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  4. Rachel Cooper (2012). Psychiatric Classification and Subjective Experience. Emotion Review 4 (2):197-202.score: 180.0
    This article does not directly consider the feelings and emotions that occur in mental illness. Rather, it concerns a higher level methodological question: To what extent is an analysis of feelings and felt emotions of importance for psychiatric classification? Some claim that producing a phenomenologically informed descriptive psychopathology is a prerequisite for serious taxonomic endeavor. Others think that classifications of mental disorders may ignore subjective experience. A middle view holds that classification should at least map the contours (...)
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  5. Lisa Bortolotti (2011). Psychiatric Classification and Diagnosis. Delusions and Confabulations. Paradigmi (1):99-112.score: 174.0
    In psychiatry some disorders of cognition are distinguished from instances of normal cognitive functioning and from other disorders in virtue of their surface features rather than in virtue of the underlying mechanisms responsible for their occurrence. Aetiological considerations often cannot play a significant classificatory and diagnostic role, because there is no sufficient knowledge or consensus about the causal history of many psychiatric disorders. Moreover, it is not always possible to uniquely identify a pathological behaviour as the symptom of a (...)
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  6. S. N. Glackin (2010). Tolerance and Illness: The Politics of Medical and Psychiatric Classification. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (4):449-465.score: 174.0
    In this paper, I explore the links between liberal political theory and the evaluative nature of medical classification, arguing for stronger recognition of those links in a liberal model of medical practice. All judgments of medical or psychiatric "dysfunction," I argue, are fundamentally evaluative, reflecting our collective willingness or reluctance to tolerate and/or accommodate the conditions in question. Illness, then, is "socially constructed." But the relativist worries that this loaded phrase evokes are unfounded; patients, doctors, and communities will (...)
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  7. J. Z. Sadler, Y. F. Hulgus & G. J. Agich (1994). On Values in Recent American Psychiatric Classification. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 19 (3):261-277.score: 174.0
    The DSM-IV, like its predecessors, will be a major influence on American psychiatry. As a consequence, continuing analysis of its assumptions is essential. Review of the manuals as well as conceptually-oriented literature on DSM-III, DSM-III-R, and DSM-IV reveals that the authors of these classifications have paid little attention to the explicit and implicit value commitments made by the classifications. The response to DSM criticisms and controversy has often been to incorporate more scientific diversity into the classification, instead of careful (...)
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  8. Claudio Em Banzato (2009). Deflating Psychiatric Classification. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 16 (1):23-27.score: 150.0
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  9. Massimiliano Aragona (2009). The Role of Comorbidity in the Crisis of the Current Psychiatric Classification System. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 16 (1):1-11.score: 150.0
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  10. Tim Thornton (2002). Reliability and Validity in Psychiatric Classification: Values and Neo-Humeanism. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 9 (3):229-235.score: 150.0
    KEYWORDS: Validity, reliability, values, taxonomy, clas- sification, McDowell.
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  11. Thor Grünbaum & Andrea Raballo (2012). Brain Imaging and Psychiatric Classification. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 18 (4):305-309.score: 150.0
    Fielding and Marwede attempt to lay down directions for an applied onto-psychiatry. According to their proposal, such an enterprise requires us to accept certain metaphysical and methodological claims about how brain and experience are related. To put it in one sentence, our critique is that we find their metaphysics questionable and their methodology clinically impracticable.A first fundamental problem for their project, as it is expressed in their paper, is that their overall aim is unclear. At least three different aims might (...)
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  12. Jennifer Radden (1996). Lumps and Bumps:Kantian Faculty Psychology, Phrenology, and Twentieth-Century Psychiatric Classification. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 3 (1):1-14.score: 150.0
  13. John Z. Sadler & George J. Agich (1995). Diseases, Functions, Values, and Psychiatric Classification. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 2 (3):219-231.score: 150.0
  14. Timothy Thornton (2002). Reliability and Validity in Psychiatric Classification: Values and Neo-Humeanism. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 9 (3):229-235.score: 150.0
  15. Staffan Norell (1984). Comments on Malmgren's 'Psychiatric Classification: The Status of So-Called “Diagnostic Criteria”'. In. In Lennart Nordenfelt & B. I. B. Lindahl (eds.), Health, Disease, and Causal Explanations in Medicine. Reidel. 89--90.score: 150.0
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  16. J. Savulescu (1995). Philosophical Perspectives on Psychiatric Diagnostic Classification. Journal of Medical Ethics 21 (4):253-254.score: 120.0
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  17. Cyd Cipolla (2011). “Preventative Corrections”: Psychiatric Representation and the Classification of Sexually Violent Predators. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Humanities 32 (2):103-113.score: 120.0
    This paper examines the representation of mental illness and mental disorder in the Washington Community Protection Act of 1990 (WCPA), the first package of sexual predator legislation passed in the United States. I focus on the public outcry over a violent crime committed by a repeat sexual offender, Earl Shriner, and show how the act was drafted in direct response to this outcry. Following his arrest, there was a public discussion of a) whether the state had a responsibility to cure (...)
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  18. Bill Fulford, Lisa Bortolotti & Matthew Broome (2014). Taking the Long View: An Emerging Framework for Translational Psychiatric Science. World Psychiatry 13 (2):110-117.score: 120.0
    Understood in their historical context, current debates about psychiatric classification, prompted by the publication of the DSM-5, open up new opportunities for improved translational research in psychiatry. In this paper, we draw lessons for translational research from three time slices of 20th century psychiatry. From the first time slice, 1913 and the publication of Jaspers’ General Psychopathology, the lesson is that translational research in psychiatry requires a pluralistic approach encompassing equally the sciences of mind (including the social sciences) (...)
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  19. Josef Parnas (2012). The Nature of the Psychiatric Object and Classification. In Kenneth S. Kendler & Josef Parnas (eds.), Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry Ii: Nosology. Oup Oxford. 118.score: 120.0
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  20. John Z. Sadfer, Osborne P. Wiggins, Michael A. Schwartz & Edwin Harari (1996). Philosophical Perspectives on Psychiatric Diagnostic Classification. Bioethics-Oxford 10 (2):158-160.score: 120.0
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  21. John Z. Sadler, Osborne P. Wiggins, Michael A. Schwartz & Mario Rossi Monti (1996). Philosophical Perspectives on Psychiatric Diagnostic Classification. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 18 (2):241.score: 120.0
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  22. Jonathan Y. Tsou (2007). Hacking on the Looping Effects of Psychiatric Classifications: What is an Interactive and Indifferent Kind? International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 21 (3):329 – 344.score: 96.0
    This paper examines Ian Hacking's analysis of the looping effects of psychiatric classifications, focusing on his recent account of interactive and indifferent kinds. After explicating Hacking's distinction between 'interactive kinds' (human kinds) and 'indifferent kinds' (natural kinds), I argue that Hacking cannot claim that there are 'interactive and indifferent kinds,' given the way that he introduces the interactive-indifferent distinction. Hacking is also ambiguous on whether his notion of interactive and indifferent kinds is supposed to offer an account of classifications (...)
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  23. Thomas Lefèvre, Aude Lepresle & Patrick Chariot (2014). An Alternative to Current Psychiatric Classifications: A Psychological Landscape Hypothesis Based on an Integrative, Dynamical and Multidimensional Approach. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 9 (1):12.score: 84.0
    Mental disorders as defined by current classifications are not fully supported by scientific evidence. It is unclear whether main disorders should be broken down into separate categories or disposed along a continuous spectrum. In the near future, new classes of mental disorders could be defined through associations of so-called abnormalities observed at the genetic, molecular and neuronal circuitry levels.
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  24. Shadia Kawa & James Giordano (2012). A Brief Historicity of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Issues and Implications for the Future of Psychiatric Canon and Practice. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 7 (1):2-.score: 66.0
    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association, currently in its fourth edition and considered the reference for the characterization and diagnosis of mental disorders, has undergone various developments since its inception in the mid-twentieth century. With the fifth edition of the DSM presently in field trials for release in 2013, there is renewed discussion and debate over the extent of its relative successes - and shortcomings - at iteratively incorporating scientific evidence on the often ambiguous (...)
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  25. Yazan Abu Ghazal (2014). Perspectivity in Psychiatric Research: The Psychopathology of Schizophrenia in Postwar Germany (1955–1961). [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 4 (1-4):103-111.score: 66.0
    The reorganization of psychiatric knowledge at the turn of the twentieth century derived from Emil Kraepelin’s clinical classification of psychoses. Surprisingly, within just few years, Kraepelin’s simple dichotomy between dementia praecox (schizophrenias) and manic-depressive psychosis (bipolar disorders) succeeded in giving psychiatry a new framework that is still used until the present day. Unexpectedly, Kraepelin’s simple clinical scheme based on the dichotomy replaced the significantly more differentiated nosography that dominated psychiatric research in the last three decades of the (...)
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  26. Jonathan Y. Tsou (2008). The Reality and Classification of Mental Disorders. Dissertation, University of Chicagoscore: 60.0
    This dissertation examines psychiatry from a philosophy of science perspective, focusing on issues of realism and classification. Questions addressed in the dissertation include: What evidence is there for the reality of mental disorders? Are any mental disorders natural kinds? When are disease explanations of abnormality warranted? How should mental disorders be classified? -/- In addressing issues concerning the reality of mental disorders, I draw on the accounts of realism defended by Ian Hacking and William Wimsatt, arguing that biological research (...)
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  27. Nick Haslam (2002). Kinds of Kinds: A Conceptual Taxonomy of Psychiatric Categories. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 9 (3):203-217.score: 60.0
    A pluralistic view of psychiatric classification is defended, according to which psychiatric categories take a variety of structural forms. An ordered taxonomy of these forms—non-kinds, practical kinds, fuzzy kinds, discrete kinds, and natural kinds—is presented and exemplified. It is argued that psychiatric categories cannot all be understood as pragmatically grounded, and at least some reflect naturally occurring discontinuities without thereby representing natural kinds. Even if essentialist accounts of mental disorders are generally mistaken, they are not implied (...)
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  28. Natalie F. Banner (2013). Mental Disorders Are Not Brain Disorders. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (3):509-513.score: 60.0
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  29. John Z. Sadler (2005). Values and Psychiatric Diagnosis. Oxford University Press.score: 54.0
    The public, mental health consumers, as well as mental health practitioners wonder about what kinds of values mental health professionals hold, and what kinds of values influence psychiatric diagnosis. Are mental disorders socio-political, practical, or scientific concepts? Is psychiatric diagnosis value-neutral? What role does the fundamental philosophical question "How should I live?" play in mental health care? In his carefully nuanced and exhaustively referenced monograph, psychiatrist and philosopher of psychiatry John Z. Sadler describes the manifold kinds of values (...)
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  30. Nick Haslam (2010). Symptom Networks and Psychiatric Categories. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):158-159.score: 54.0
    The network approach to psychiatric phenomena has the potential to clarify and enhance psychiatric diagnosis and classification. However, its generally well-justified anti-essentialism views psychiatric disorders as invariably fuzzy and arbitrary, and overlooks the likelihood that the domain includes some latent categories. Network models misrepresent these categories, and fail to recognize that some comorbidity may represent valid co-occurrence of discrete conditions.
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  31. Peter Zachar & Kenneth Kendler (2012). The Removal of Pluto From the Class of Planets and Homosexuality From the Class of Psychiatric Disorders: A Comparison. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 7 (1):4-.score: 48.0
    We compare astronomers' removal of Pluto from the listing of planets and psychiatrists' removal of homosexuality from the listing of mental disorders. Although the political maneuverings that emerged in both controversies are less than scientifically ideal, we argue that competition for "scientific authority" among competing groups is a normal part of scientific progress. In both cases, a complicated relationship between abstract constructs and evidence made the classification problem thorny.
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  32. Lawrie Reznek (1987). The Nature of Disease. Routledge & Kegan Paul.score: 48.0
  33. A. R. Singh & S. A. Singh (2009). Notes on a Few Issues in the Philosophy of Psychiatry. Mens Sana Monographs 7 (1):128.score: 42.0
    _The first part called the Preamble tackles: (a) the issues of silence and speech, and life and disease; (b) whether we need to know some or all of the truth, and how are exact science and philosophical reason related; (c) the phenomenon of Why, How, and What; (d) how are mind and brain related; (e) what is robust eclecticism, empirical/scientific enquiry, replicability/refutability, and the role of diagnosis and medical model in psychiatry; (f) bioethics and the four principles of beneficence, non-malfeasance, (...)
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  34. Göran Lindqvist & Helge Malmgren (1993). Classification and Diagnosis of Organic Mental Disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplement 88:5-17.score: 36.0
    A new diagnostic system for organic psychiatry is presented. We first define "organic psychiatry", and then give the theoretical basis for conceiving organic psychiatric disorders in terms of hypothetical psychopathogenetic processes, HPP:s. Such hypothetical disorders are not strictly identical to the clusters of symptoms in which they typically manifest themselves, since the symptoms may be concealed or modified by intervening factors in non typical circumstances and/or in the simultaneous presence of several disorders. The six basic disorders in our system (...)
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  35. K. W. M. Fulford (2011). Neuroscience and Values: A Case Study Illustrating Developments in Policy, Training and Research in the UK and Internationally. Mens Sana Monographs 9 (1):79.score: 36.0
    In the current climate of dramatic advances in the neurosciences, it has been widely assumed that the diagnosis of mental disorder is a matter exclusively for value-free science. Starting from a detailed case history, this paper describes how, to the contrary, values come into the diagnosis of mental disorders, directly through the criteria at the heart of psychiatry's most scientifically grounded classification, the American Psychiatric Association's DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual). Various possible interpretations of the prominence of values (...)
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  36. Lisa Bortolotti (2009). Delusions and Other Irrational Beliefs. Oxford University Press.score: 30.0
    Delusions are a common symptom of schizophrenia and dementia. Though most English dictionaries define a delusion as a false opinion or belief, there is currently a lively debate about whether delusions are really beliefs and indeed, whether they are even irrational. The book is an interdisciplinary exploration of the nature of delusions. It brings together the psychological literature on the aetiology and the behavioural manifestations of delusions, and the philosophical literature on belief ascription and rationality. The thesis of the book (...)
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  37. Matthew Broome & Lisa Bortolotti (2009). Mental Illness as Mental: A Defence of Psychological Realism. Humana.Mente 11:25-44.score: 30.0
    This paper argues for psychological realism in the conception of psychiatric disorders. We review the following contemporary ways of understanding the future of psychiatry: (1) psychiatric classification cannot be successfully reduced to neurobiology, and thus psychiatric disorders should not be conceived of as biological kinds; (2) psychiatric classification can be successfully reduced to neurobiology, and thus psychiatric disorders should be conceived of as biological kinds. Position (1) can lead either to instrumentalism or to (...)
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  38. Leslie Forman & Wendy Wakefield Davis (1994). Dsm-IV Meets Philosophy. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 19 (3):207-218.score: 30.0
    The authors discuss some of the conceptual issues that must be considered in using and understanding psychiatric classification. DSM-IV is a practical and common sense nosology of psychiatric disorders that is intended to improve communication in clinical practice and in research studies. DSM-IV has no philosophic pretensions but does raise many philosphical questions. This paper describes the development of DSM-IV and the way in which it addresses a number of philosophic issues: nominalism vs. realism, epistemology in science, (...)
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  39. Paul G. Muscari (1981). The Structure of Mental Disorder. Philosophy of Science 48 (December):553-572.score: 30.0
    The present trend towards an atheoretical statistical method of psychiatric classification has prompted many psychiatrists to conceive of "mental disorder", or for that matter any other psychopathological designation, as an indexical cluster of properties and events more than a distinct psychological impairment. By employing different combinations of inclusion and exclusion criteria, the current American Psychiatric Association's scheme (called DSM-III) hopes to avoid the over-selectivity of more metaphysical systems and thereby provide the clinician with a flexible means of (...)
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  40. A. Frances, A. H. Mack, M. B. First, T. A. Widiger, R. Ross, L. Forman & W. W. Davis (1994). DSM-IV Meets Philosophy. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 19 (3):207-218.score: 30.0
    The authors discuss some of the conceptual issues that must be considered in using and understanding psychiatric classification. DSM-IV is a practical and common sense nosology of psychiatric disorders that is intended to improve communication in clinical practice and in research studies. DSM-IV has no philosophic pretensions but does raise many philosphical questions. This paper describes the development of DSM-IV and the way in which it addresses a number of philosophic issues: nominalism vs. realism, epistemology in science, (...)
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  41. Rachael Mulheron (2012). Rewriting the Requirement for a 'Recognized Psychiatric Injury' in Negligence Claims. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 32 (1):77-112.score: 30.0
    The rules governing recovery for negligently inflicted psychiatric injury are among the most criticized of all of tort law. However, one area which, to date, has escaped with a minimum of judicial or academic scrutiny concerns the very threshold requirement for these actions: proof of a ‘recognized psychiatric illness’. This article critiques that longstanding requirement of English law from two perspectives. First, it is argued that the international classifications of psychiatric disorders (ICD-10 and DSM-IV) are being misapplied (...)
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  42. Tejas Patil & James Giordano (2010). On the Ontological Assumptions of the Medical Model of Psychiatry: Philosophical Considerations and Pragmatic Tasks. [REVIEW] Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 5 (1):3.score: 30.0
    A common theme in the contemporary medical model of psychiatry is that pathophysiological processes are centrally involved in the explanation, evaluation, and treatment of mental illnesses. Implied in this perspective is that clinical descriptors of these pathophysiological processes are sufficient to distinguish underlying etiologies. Psychiatric classification requires differentiation between what counts as normality (i.e.- order), and what counts as abnormality (i.e.- disorder). The distinction(s) between normality and pathology entail assumptions that are often deeply presupposed, manifesting themselves in statements (...)
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  43. Somogy Varga (2013). From Melancholia to Depression: Ideas on a Possible Continuity. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 20 (2):141-155.score: 30.0
    Although the Historical concept of melancholia has undergone numerous metamorphoses, it has maintained a place in psychiatric classification and currently refers to a specific melancholic subtype of major depression (American Psychiatric Association 2000, 419). Although melancholia—as a description of pathological states—constitutes the focus of this paper, it must be pointed out that the range of states encompassed by melancholia cover a far wider spectrum than that covered by the term ‘disease.’ As Jennifer Radden notes, melancholia (and melancholy) (...)
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  44. Justin Garson (2014). The Biological Mind: A Philosophical Introduction. Routledge.score: 30.0
    For some, biology explains all there is to know about the mind. Yet many big questions remain: is the mind shaped by genes or the environment? If mental traits are the result of adaptations built up over thousands of years, as evolutionary psychologists claim, how can such claims be tested? If the mind is a machine, as biologists argue, how does it allow for something as complex as human consciousness? The Biological Mind: A Philosophical Introduction explores these questions and more, (...)
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  45. K. W. M. Fulford (2006). Oxford Textbook of Philosophy and Psychiatry. Oxford University Press.score: 26.0
    Mental health research and care in the twenty first century faces a series of conceptual and ethical challenges arising from unprecedented advances in the neurosciences, combined with radical cultural and organisational change. The Oxford Textbook of Philosophy of Psychiatry is aimed at all those responding to these challenges, from professionals in health and social care, managers, lawyers and policy makers; service users, informal carers and others in the voluntary sector; through to philosophers, neuroscientists and clinical researchers. Organised around a series (...)
     
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  46. Kent Bach (1993). Emotional Disorder and Attention. In George Graham (ed.), Philosophical Psychopathology. Cambridge: MIT Press.score: 24.0
    Some would say that philosophy can contribute more to the occurrence of mental disorder than to the study of it. Thinking too much does have its risks, but so do willful ignorance and selective inattention. Well, what can philosophy contribute? It is not equipped to enumerate the symptoms and varieties of disorder or to identify their diverse causes, much less offer cures (maybe it can do that-personal philosophical therapy is now available in the Netherlands). On the other hand, the scientific (...)
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  47. Matt L. Drabek (2010). Interactive Classification and Practice in the Social Sciences. Poroi 6 (2):62-80.score: 24.0
    This paper examines the ways in which social scientific discourse and classification interact with the objects of social scientific investigation. I examine this interaction in the context of the traditional philosophical project of demarcating the social sciences from the natural sciences. I begin by reviewing Ian Hacking’s work on interactive classification and argue that there are additional forms of interaction that must be treated.
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  48. Tim Thornton (2007). Essential Philosophy of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    Essential Philosophy of Psychiatry is a concise introduction to the growing field of philosophy of psychiatry. Divided into three main aspects of psychiatric clinical judgement, values, meanings and facts, it examines the key debates about mental health care, and the philosophical ideas and tools needed to assess those debates, in six chapters. In addition to outlining the state of play, Essential Philosophy of Psychiatry presents a coherent and unified approach across the different debates, characterized by a rejection of reductionism (...)
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  49. Ingetraut Dahlberg (2008). The Information Coding Classification (ICC): A Modern, Theory-Based Fully-Faceted, Universal System of Knowledge Fields. [REVIEW] Axiomathes 18 (2):161-176.score: 24.0
    Introduction into the structure, contents and specifications (especially the Systematifier) of the Information Coding Classification, developed in the seventies and used in many ways by the author and a few others following its publication in 1982. Its theoretical basis is explained consisting in (1) the Integrative Level Theory, following an evolutionary approach of ontical areas, and integrating also on each level the aspects contained in the sequence of the levels, (2) the distinction between categories of form and (...) of being, (3) the application of a feature of Systems Theory (namely the element position plan) and (4) the inclusion of a concept theory, distinguishing four kinds of relationships, originated by the kinds of characteristics (which are the elements of concepts to be derived from the statements on the properties of referents of concepts). Its special Subject Groups on each of its nine levels are outlined and the combinatory facilities at certain positions of the Systematifier are shown. Further elaboration and use have been suggested, be it only as a switching language between the six existing universal classification systems at present in use internationally. (shrink)
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