Search results for 'random discontinuous motion of particles' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  19
    Shan Gao, Interpreting Quantum Mechanics in Terms of Random Discontinuous Motion of Particles.
    This thesis is an attempt to reconstruct the conceptual foundations of quantum mechanics. First, we argue that the wave function in quantum mechanics is a description of random discontinuous motion of particles, and the modulus square of the wave function gives the probability density of the particles being in certain locations in space. Next, we show that the linear non-relativistic evolution of the wave function of an isolated system obeys the free (...)
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  2. Shan Gao, Derivation of the Meaning of the Wave Function.
    We show that the physical meaning of the wave function can be derived based on the established parts of quantum mechanics. It turns out that the wave function represents the state of random discontinuous motion of particles, and its modulus square determines the probability density of the particles appearing in certain positions in space.
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  3. Shan Gao, Meaning of the Wave Function.
    We investigate the meaning of the wave function by analyzing the mass and charge density distributions of a quantum system. According to protective measurement, a charged quantum system has effective mass and charge density distributing in space, proportional to the square of the absolute value of its wave function. In a realistic interpretation, the wave function of a quantum system can be taken as a description of either a physical field or the ergodic motion of a particle. The essential (...)
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  4.  49
    Shan Gao, What Quantum Mechanics Describes is Discontinuous Motion of Particles.
    We present a theory of discontinuous motion of particles in continuous space-time. We show that the simplest nonrelativistic evolution equation of such motion is just the Schroedinger equation in quantum mechanics. This strongly implies what quantum mechanics describes is discontinuous motion of particles. Considering the fact that space-time may be essentially discrete when considering gravity, we further present a theory of discontinuous motion of particles in discrete space-time. We show that (...)
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  5. Shan Gao, The Wave Function and Its Evolution.
    The meaning of the wave function and its evolution are investigated. First, we argue that the wave function in quantum mechanics is a description of random discontinuous motion of particles, and the modulus square of the wave function gives the probability density of the particles being in certain locations in space. Next, we show that the linear non-relativistic evolution of the wave function of an isolated system obeys the free Schrödinger equation due to the requirements (...)
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  6. Shan Gao, Protective Measurement and the Meaning of the Wave Function.
    This article analyzes the implications of protective measurement for the meaning of the wave function. According to protective measurement, a charged quantum system has mass and charge density proportional to the modulus square of its wave function. It is shown that the mass and charge density is not real but effective, formed by the ergodic motion of a localized particle with the total mass and charge of the system. Moreover, it is argued that the ergodic motion is not (...)
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  7. Shan Gao, Why the de Broglie-Bohm Theory is Probably Wrong.
    We investigate the validity of the field explanation of the wave function by analyzing the mass and charge density distributions of a quantum system. It is argued that a charged quantum system has effective mass and charge density distributing in space, proportional to the square of the absolute value of its wave function. This is also a consequence of protective measurement. If the wave function is a physical field, then the mass and charge density will be distributed in space simultaneously (...)
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  8. Shan Gao, Protective Measurement and the de Broglie-Bohm Theory.
    We investigate the implications of protective measurement for de Broglie-Bohm theory, mainly focusing on the interpretation of the wave function. It has been argued that the de Broglie-Bohm theory gives the same predictions as quantum mechanics by means of quantum equilibrium hypothesis. However, this equivalence is based on the premise that the wave function, regarded as a Ψ-field, has no mass and charge density distributions. But this premise turns out to be wrong according to protective measurement; a charged quantum system (...)
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  9.  62
    Shan Gao, The Wave Function and Particle Ontology.
    In quantum mechanics, the wave function of a N-body system is a mathematical function defined in a 3N-dimensional configuration space. We argue that wave function realism implies particle ontology when assuming: (1) the wave function of a N-body system describes N physical entities; (2) each triple of the 3N coordinates of a point in configuration space that relates to one physical entity represents a point in ordinary three-dimensional space. Moreover, the motion of particles is random and (...). (shrink)
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  10.  20
    Andrei Khrennikov (2009). Detection Model Based on Representation of Quantum Particles by Classical Random Fields: Born's Rule and Beyond. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 39 (9):997-1022.
    Recently a new attempt to go beyond quantum mechanics (QM) was presented in the form of so called prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT). Its main experimental prediction is violation of Born’s rule which provides only an approximative description of real probabilities. We expect that it will be possible to design numerous experiments demonstrating violation of Born’s rule. Moreover, recently the first experimental evidence of violation was found in the triple slit interference experiment, see Sinha, et al. (Foundations of Probability (...)
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  11.  8
    C. G., G. R. & H. J. (1998). Predicting the Motion of Particles in Newtonian Mechanics and Special Relativity. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 29 (1):81-122.
    This paper and its predecessor () are about the question: 'Are the events in the entire universe encoded in and predictable from any of its parts?' To approach a positive answer in classical physics, the following result is proved and commented on: in Newton's theory of gravitation, the entire trajectory of a particle can be predicted given any segment of it, regardless of how the other particles are moving-provided that there is only a finite number of particles and (...)
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  12.  2
    P. A. Hogan & I. Robinson (1986). Gravitational Radiation Reaction on the Motion of Particles in General Relativity. Foundations of Physics 16 (5):455-464.
    We examine the problem of deducing the geodesic motion of test particles from Einstein's vacuum field equations and its extension to include gravitational radiation reaction. In the latter case we obtain an equation of motion for a particle which incorporates radiation reaction of the electrodynamical type, but due to shearing radiation, together with a mass-loss formula of the Bondi-Sachs type.
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  13.  33
    Mauro Napsuciale (2003). “Principle of Indistinguishability” and Equations of Motion for Particles with Spin. Foundations of Physics 33 (5):741-768.
    In this work we review the derivation of Dirac and Weinberg equations based on a “principle of indistinguishability” for the (j,0) and (0,j) irreducible representations (irreps) of the homogeneous Lorentz group (HLG). We generalize this principle and explore its consequences for other irreps containing j≥1. We rederive Ahluwalia–Kirchbach equation using this principle and conclude that it yields $\mathcal{O}(p^{2j} )$ equations of motion for any representation containing spin j and lower spins. We also use the obtained generators of the HLG (...)
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  14.  4
    Peter A. Hogan & Ivor Robinson (1985). The Motion of Charged Test Particles in General Relativity. Foundations of Physics 15 (5):617-627.
    We derive, from the Einstein-Maxwell field equations, the Lorentz equations of motion with radiation reaction for a charged mass particle moving in a background gravitational and electromagnetic field by utilizing a line element for the background space-time in a coordinate system specially adapted to the world line of the particle. The particle is introduced via perturbations of the background space-time (and electromagnetic field) which are singular only on the source world line.
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  15.  6
    Shan Gao, A New Ontological Interpretation of the Wave Function.
    In this paper, we propose an ontological interpretation of the wave function in terms of random discontinuous motion of particles. According to this interpretation, the wave function of an N-body quantum system describes the state of random discontinuous motion of N particles, and in particular, the modulus squared of the wave function gives the probability density that the particles appear in every possible group of positions in space. We present three arguments (...)
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  16.  7
    Shan Gao, An Ontological Interpretation of the Wave Function.
    It is argued that, based on a new analysis of two-body systems, wave function realism seems to imply an unique ontological interpretation of the wave function, according to which the wave function represents the state of random discontinuous motion of particles, and in particular, its modulus square gives the probability density of the particles appearing in certain positions in space.
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  17.  8
    Shan Gao, On the Reality and Meaning of the Wave Function.
    In this article, we give a clearer argument for the reality of the wave function in terms of protective measurements, which does not depend on nontrivial assumptions and also overcomes existing objections. Moreover, based on an analysis of the mass and charge properties of a quantum system, we propose a new ontological interpretation of the wave function. According to this interpretation, the wave function of an N-body system represents the state of motion of N particles. Moreover, the (...) of particles is discontinuous and random in nature, and the modulus squared of the wave function gives the probability density that the particles appear in certain positions in space. (shrink)
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  18.  17
    Shan Gao, The Basis of Indeterminism.
    We show that the motion of particles may be essentially discontinuous and random.
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  19.  82
    Jan Hendrik Schmidt (1998). Predicting the Motion of Particles in Newtonian Mechanics and Special Relativity. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 29 (1):81-122.
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  20. Jan Hendrik Schmidt (1998). Predicting the Motion of Particles in Newtonian Mechanics and Special Relativity. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 29 (1):81-122.
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  21.  60
    Jeremy Butterfield (2005). On the Persistence of Particles. Foundations of Physics 35 (2):233-269.
    This paper is about the metaphysical debate whether objects persist over time by the selfsame object existing at different times (nowadays called “endurance” by metaphysicians), or by different temporal parts, or stages, existing at different times (called “perdurance”). I aim to illuminate the debate by using some elementary kinematics and real analysis: resources which metaphysicians have, surprisingly, not availed themselves of. There are two main results, which are of interest to both endurantists and perdurantists. (1) I describe a precise formal (...)
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  22.  25
    Brian Collett & Philip Pearle (2003). Wavefunction Collapse and Random Walk. Foundations of Physics 33 (10):1495-1541.
    Wavefunction collapse models modify Schrödinger's equation so that it describes the rapid evolution of a superposition of macroscopically distinguishable states to one of them. This provides a phenomenological basis for a physical resolution to the so-called “measurement problem.” Such models have experimentally testable differences from standard quantum theory. The most well developed such model at present is the Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) model in which a universal fluctuating classical field interacts with particles to cause collapse. One “side effect” of (...)
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  23. Shan Gao (2006). A Model of Wavefunction Collapse in Discrete Space-Time. International Journal of Theoretical Physics 45 (10):1965-1979.
    We give a new argument supporting a gravitational role in quantum collapse. It is demonstrated that the discreteness of space-time, which results from the proper combination of quantum theory and general relativity, may inevitably result in the dynamical collapse of thewave function. Moreover, the minimum size of discrete space-time yields a plausible collapse criterion consistent with experiments. By assuming that the source to collapse the wave function is the inherent random motion of particles described by the wave (...)
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  24.  26
    D. Costantini & U. Garibaldi (2000). A Purely Probabilistic Representation for the Dynamics of a Gas of Particles. Foundations of Physics 30 (1):81-99.
    The aim of the present paper is to give a purely probabilistic account for the approach to equilibrium of classical and quantum gas. The probability function used is classical. The probabilistic dynamics describes the evolution of the state of the gas due to unary and binary collisions. A state change amounts to a destruction in a state and the creation in another state. Transitions probabilities are splittled into destructions terms, denoting the random choice of the colliding particle(s), and creation (...)
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  25.  13
    Toyoki Koga (1972). The Motion of Wavelets—An Interpretation of the Schrödinger Equation. Foundations of Physics 2 (1):49-78.
    There are stable wavelets which satisfy the Schrödinger equation. The motion of a wavelet is determined by a set of ordinary differential equations. In a certain limit, a wavelet turns out to be the known representation of a classical material point. A de Broglie wave is constructed by superposing similar free wavelets. Conventional energy eigensolutions of the Schrödinger equation can be interpreted as ensembles of wavelets. If the dynamics of wavelets form the quantum mechanical counterpart of Newton's dynamics of (...)
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  26.  42
    Fritz Rohrlich (1998). The Arrow of Time in the Equations of Motion. Foundations of Physics 28 (7):1045-1056.
    It is argued that time's arrow is present in all equations of motion. But it is absent in the point particle approximations commonly made. In particular, the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equation is time-reversal invariant only because it approximates the charged particle by a point. But since classical electrodynamics is valid only for finite size particles, the equations of motion for particles of finite size must be considered. Those equations are indeed found to lack time-reversal invariance, thus ensuring an (...)
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  27. Roberto Maiocchi (1990). The Case of Brownian Motion. British Journal for the History of Science 23 (3):257-283.
    The explanation of the phenomenon of Brownian motion, given by Einstein in 1905 and based on the kinetic–molecular conception of matter, is considered one of the fundamental pillars supporting atomism in its victorious struggle against phenomenological physics in the early years of this century. Despite the importance of the subject, there exists no specific study on it of sufficient depth. Generally speaking, most histories of physics repeat the following scheme: the discovery made by Robert Brown in 1827 , of (...)
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  28.  8
    R. Arshansky, L. P. Horwitz & Y. Lavie (1983). Particles Vs. Events: The Concatenated Structure of World Lines in Relativistic Quantum Mechanics. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 13 (12):1167-1194.
    The dynamical equations of relativistic quantum mechanics prescribe the motion of wave packets for sets of events which trace out the world lines of the interacting particles. Electromagnetic theory suggests thatparticle world line densities be constructed from concatenation of event wave packets. These sequences are realized in terms of conserved probability currents. We show that these conserved currents provide a consistent particle and antiparticle interpretation for the asymptotic states in scattering processes. The relation between current conservation and unitarity (...)
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  29.  9
    Jean-Yves Grandpeix & François Lurçat (2002). Particle Description of Zero-Energy Vacuum I: Virtual Particles. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 32 (1):109-131.
    First the “frame problem” is sketched: The motion of an isolated particle obeys a simple law in Galilean frames, but how does the Galilean character of the frame manifest itself at the place of the particle? A description of vacuum as a system of virtual particles will help to answer this question. For future application to such a description, the notion of global particle is defined and studied. To this end, a systematic use of the Fourier transformation on (...)
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  30.  6
    Gilad Gour & L. Sriramkumar (1999). Will Small Particles Exhibit Brownian Motion in the Quantum Vacuum? Foundations of Physics 29 (12):1917-1949.
    The Brownian motion of small particles interacting with a field at a finite temperature is a well-known and well-understood phenomenon. At zero temperature, even though the thermal fluctuations are absent, quantum fields still possess vacuum fluctuations. It is then interesting to ask whether a small particle that is interacting with a quantum field will exhibit Brownian motion when the quantum field is assumed to be in the vacuum state. In this paper, we study the cases of a (...)
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  31.  83
    Philippe Droz-Vincent (1995). Quantum Mechanical Evolution of Relativistic Particles. Foundations of Physics 25 (1):67-90.
    This is a tentative theory of quantum measurement performed on particles with unspecified mass. For such a particle, the center of the wave packet undergoes a classical motion which is a precious guide to our approach. The framework is manifestly covariant and a priori nonlocal. It allows for describing an irreversible process which lasts during a nonvanishing lapse of time. The possibility to measure a dynamical variable in an arbitrary slate is discussed. Our picture is most satisfactory if (...)
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  32.  65
    Peter Braun, Sven Gnutzmann, Fritz Haake, Marek Kuś & Karol Życzkowski (2001). Level Dynamics and Universality of Spectral Fluctuations. Foundations of Physics 31 (4):613-622.
    The spectral fluctuations of quantum (or wave) systems with a chaotic classical (or ray) limit are mostly universal and faithful to random-matrix theory. Taking up ideas of Pechukas and Yukawa we show that equilibrium statistical mechanics for the fictitious gas of particles associated with the parametric motion of levels yields spectral fluctuations of the random-matrix type. Previously known clues to that goal are an appropriate equilibrium ensemble and a certain ergodicity of level dynamics. We here complete (...)
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  33.  34
    Michal Tempczyk (1991). Random Dynamics and the Research Programme of Classical Mechanics. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 5 (3):227 – 239.
    Abstract The modern mathematical theory of dynamical systems proposes a new model of mechanical motion. In this model the deterministic unstable systems can behave in a statistical manner. Both kinds of motion are inseparably connected, they depend on the point of view and researcher's approach to the system. This mathematical fact solves in a new way the old problem of statistical laws in the world which is essentially deterministic. The classical opposition: deterministic?statistical, disappears in random dynamics. The (...)
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  34.  3
    S. Fujita (1991). On the Indistinguishability of Classical Particles. Foundations of Physics 21 (4):439-457.
    If no property of a system of many particles discriminates among the particles, they are said to be indistinguishable. This indistinguishability is equivalent to the requirement that the many-particle distribution function and all of the dynamic functions for the system be symmetric. The indistinguishability defined in terms of the discrete symmetry of many-particle functions cannot change in the continuous classical statistical limit in which the number density n and the reciprocal temperature β become small. Thus, microscopic particles (...)
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  35.  16
    Andor Frenkel (1990). Spontaneous Localizations of the Wave Function and Classical Behavior. Foundations of Physics 20 (2):159-188.
    We investigate and develop further two models, the GRW model and the K model, in which the Schrödinger evolution of the wave function is spontaneously and repeatedly interrupted by random, approximate localizations, also called “self-reductions” below. In these models the center of mass of a macroscopic solid body is well localized even if one disregards the interactions with the environment. The motion of the body shows a small departure from the classical motion. We discuss the prospects and (...)
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  36. K. Moutoussis, G. A. Keliris, Z. Kourtzi & N. K. Logothetis (2005). A Binocular Rivalry Study of Motion Perception in the Human Brain. Vision Research 45 (17):2231-43.
    The relationship between brain activity and conscious visual experience is central to our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying perception. Binocular rivalry, where monocular stimuli compete for perceptual dominance, has been previously used to dissociate the constant stimulus from the varying percept. We report here fMRI results from humans experiencing binocular rivalry under a dichoptic stimulation paradigm that consisted of two drifting random dot patterns with different motion coherence. Each pattern had also a different color, which both enhanced (...)
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  37.  1
    E. Risko, M. Dixon, D. Besner & S. Ferber (2006). The Ties That Keep Us Bound: Top-Down Influences on the Persistence of Shape-From-Motion☆. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):475-483.
    The phenomenon of perceptual persistence after the motion stops in shape-from-motion displays was used to study the influence of prior knowledge on the maintenance of a percept in awareness. In SFM displays an object composed of discontinuous line segments are embedded in a background of randomly oriented lines. The object only becomes perceptible when the line segments that compose the object and the lines that compose the background move in counterphase. Critically, once the movement of the line (...)
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  38. N. S. Narskii (1965). The Problems of Contradiction in Mechanical Motion and the Discussions in Filosofskie Nauki. Russian Studies in Philosophy 4 (3):24-33.
    A discussion of the problem of contradiction in mechanical motion has been in progress for a long time in the pages of Filosofskie nauki. The attention given that problem is no accident. In our day, problems concerning contradictions involved in rest and motion, the continuous and the discontinuous, the finite and infinite, etc., have moved from the realm of abstract consideration to that of the concrete and current handling of the subject matter of modern physics, mathematics, and (...)
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  39.  5
    Shan Gao, Can Continuous Motion Be an Illusion?
    It is widely accepted that continuity is the most essential characteristic of motion; the motion of macroscopic objects is apparently continuous, and classical mechanics, which describes such motion, is also based on the assumption of continuous motion. But is motion really continuous in reality? In this paper, I will try to answer this question through a new analysis of the cause of motion. It has been argued that the standard velocity in classical mechanics cannot (...)
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  40.  4
    Werner Ebeling & Udo Erdmann (2003). Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics of Swarms of Driven Particles. Complexity 8 (4):23-30.
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  41.  11
    Khavtgain Namsrai (1980). Relativistic Dynamics of Stochastic Particles. Foundations of Physics 10 (3-4):353-361.
    Particle motion in stochastic space, i.e., space whose coordinates consist of small, regular stochastic parts, is considered. A free particle in this space resembles a Brownian particle the motion of which is characterized by a dispersionD dependent on the universal length l. It is shown that in the first approximation in the parameter l the particle motion in an external force field is described by equations coincident in form with equations of stochastic mechanics due to Nelson, Kershow, (...)
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  42.  28
    Leopold Halpern (1984). On the Unification of the Law of Motion. Foundations of Physics 14 (10):1011-1026.
    Following a heuristic modification of the principle of inertia and the principle of equivalence, a higher-dimensional metric theory is constructed on the manifold of the SO(3, 2) De Sitter group which allows us to treat structureless and spinning particles on the same footing. A dimensional analysis of the physical magnitudes is performed.
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  43.  17
    P. R. Holland (1992). The Dirac Equation in the de Broglie-Bohm Theory of Motion. Foundations of Physics 22 (10):1287-1301.
    We discuss the application of the de Broglie-Bohm theory of relativistic spin-1/2 particles to the Klein paradox andzitterbewegung.
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  44.  3
    Anatoli Babin & Alexander Figotin (2012). Relativistic Dynamics of Accelerating Particles Derived From Field Equations. Foundations of Physics 42 (8):996-1014.
    In relativistic mechanics the energy-momentum of a free point mass moving without acceleration forms a four-vector. Einstein’s celebrated energy-mass relation E=mc 2 is commonly derived from that fact. By contrast, in Newtonian mechanics the mass is introduced for an accelerated motion as a measure of inertia. In this paper we rigorously derive the relativistic point mechanics and Einstein’s energy-mass relation using our recently introduced neoclassical field theory where a charge is not a point but a distribution. We show that (...)
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  45.  35
    Itamar Pitowsky, Random Witnesses and the Classical Character of Macroscopic Objects.
    Why don't we see large macroscopic objects in entangled states? Even if the particles composing the object were all entangled and insulated from the environment, we shall still find it almost always impossible to observe the superposition. The reason is that as the number of particles n grows, we need an ever more careful preparation, and an ever more carefully designed experiment, in order to recognize the entangled character of the state of the object. An observable W that (...)
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  46. Jean E. Burns (1998). Entropy and Vacuum Radiation. Foundations of Physics 28 (7):1191-1207.
    It is shown that entropy increase in thermodynamic systems can plausibly be accounted for by the random action of vacuum radiation. A recent calculation by Rueda using stochastic electrodynamics (SED) shows that vacuum radiation causes a particle to undergo a rapid Brownian motion about its average dynamical trajectory. It is shown that the magnitude of spatial drift calculated by Rueda can also be predicted by assuming that the average magnitudes of random shifts in position and momentum of (...)
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  47.  13
    Ryan Samaroo (forthcoming). There is No Conspiracy of Inertia. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    I examine two claims that arise in Brown’s account of inertial motion in Physical Relativity. Brown claims there is something objectionable about the way in which the motions of free particles in Newtonian theory and special relativity are coordinated. Brown also claims that since a geodesic principle can be derived in Einsteinian gravitation the objectionable feature is explained away. I argue that there is nothing objectionable about inertia and that, while the theorems that motivate Brown’s second claim can (...)
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  48.  34
    Alexey Kryukov (2007). On the Measurement Problem for a Two-Level Quantum System. Foundations of Physics 37 (1):3-39.
    A geometric approach to quantum mechanics with unitary evolution and non-unitary collapse processes is developed. In this approach the Schrödinger evolution of a quantum system is a geodesic motion on the space of states of the system furnished with an appropriate Riemannian metric. The measuring device is modeled by a perturbation of the metric. The process of measurement is identified with a geodesic motion of state of the system in the perturbed metric. Under the assumption of random (...)
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  49.  51
    Koenraad Johan van Vlaenderen, Classical Electrodynamics in Agreement with Newton’s Third Law of Motion.
    The force law of Maxwell’s classical electrodynamics does not agree with Newton’s third law of motion (N3LM), in case of open circuit magnetostatics. Initially, a generalized magnetostatics theory is presented that includes two additional physical fields B_Φ and B_l, defined by scalar functions. The scalar magnetic field B_l mediates a longitudinal Ampère force that balances the transverse Ampère force (aka the magnetic field force), such that the sum of the two forces agrees with N3LM for all stationary current distributions. (...)
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  50.  51
    S. Deser (2005). A Note on Stress-Tensors, Conservation and Equations of Motion. Foundations of Physics 35 (11):1935-1940.
    Some unusual relations between stress tensors, conservation and equations of motion are briefly reviewed.
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