Search results for 'randomized controlled trials' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trials (2001). HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Developing Countries. Ethical Imperialism or Unethical Exploitation. Bioethics 15 (4):289-311.
     
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  2.  73
    Nancy Cartwright & Eileen Munro (2010). The Limitations of Randomized Controlled Trials in Predicting Effectiveness. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):260-266.
    What kinds of evidence reliably support predictions of effectiveness for health and social care interventions? There is increasing reliance, not only for health care policy and practice but also for more general social and economic policy deliberation, on evidence that comes from studies whose basic logic is that of JS Mill's method of difference. These include randomized controlled trials, case–control studies, cohort studies, and some uses of causal Bayes nets and counterfactual-licensing models like ones commonly developed (...)
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  3. Nancy Cartwright (2010). What Are Randomised Controlled Trials Good For? Philosophical Studies 147 (1):59 - 70.
    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are widely taken as the gold standard for establishing causal conclusions. Ideally conducted they ensure that the treatment ‘causes’ the outcome—in the experiment. But where else? This is the venerable question of external validity. I point out that the question comes in two importantly different forms: Is the specific causal conclusion warranted by the experiment true in a target situation? What will be the result of implementing the treatment there? This paper explains (...)
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  4.  19
    H. C. M. L. Rodrigues & P. P. van den Berg (2014). Randomized Controlled Trials of Maternal‐Fetal Surgery: A Challenge to Clinical Equipoise. Bioethics 28 (8):405-413.
    This article focuses on maternal-fetal surgery (MFS) and on the concept of clinical equipoise that is a widely accepted requirement for conducting randomized controlled trials (RCT). There are at least three reasons why equipoise is unsuitable for MFS. First, the concept is based on a misconception about the nature of clinical research and the status of research subjects. Second, given that it is not clear who the research subject/s in MFS is/are, if clinical equipoise is to be (...)
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  5.  5
    Tomasz Rzepiński (2014). Randomized Controlled Trials Versus Rough Set Analysis: Two Competing Approaches for Evaluating Clinical Data. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 35 (4):271-288.
    The present paper deals with the problem of evaluating empirical evidence for therapeutic decisions in medicine. The article discusses the views of Nancy Cartwright and John Worrall on the function that randomization plays in ascertaining causal relations with reference to the therapies applied. The main purpose of the paper is to present a general idea of alternative method of evaluating empirical evidence. The method builds on data analysis that makes use of rough set theory. The first attempts to apply the (...)
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  6.  7
    Carole J. Torgerson & David J. Torgerson (2001). The Need for Randomised Controlled Trials in Educational Research. British Journal of Educational Studies 49 (3):316 - 328.
    This paper argues for more randomised controlled trials in educational research. Educational researchers have largely abandoned the methodology they helped to pioneer. This gold-standard methodology should be more widely used as it is an appropriate and robust research technique. Without subjecting curriculum innovations to a RCT then potentially harmful educational initiatives could be visited upon the nation's children.
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  7.  29
    Robert Northcott (2012). How Necessary Are Randomized Controlled Trials? In Ronald Munson (ed.), Intervention and Reflection: Basic Issues in Medical Ethics. Thomson Wadsworth 187-191.
    This short review piece is from a textbook on Medical Ethics.
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  8.  66
    Roger Stanev (2012). The Epistemology and Ethics of Early Stopping Decisions in Randomized Controlled Trials. Dissertation, University of British Columbia
    Philosophers subscribing to particular principles of statistical inference and evidence need to be aware of the limitations and practical consequences of the statistical approach they endorse. The framework proposed (for statistical inference in the field of medicine) allows disparate statistical approaches to emerge in their appropriate context. My dissertation proposes a decision theoretic model, together with methodological guidelines, that provide important considerations for deciding on clinical trial conduct. These considerations do not amount to more stopping rules. Instead, they are principles (...)
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  9.  13
    Sam K. Newton & John Appiah-poku (2007). Opinions of Researchers Based in the Uk on Recruiting Subjects From Developing Countries Into Randomized Controlled Trials. Developing World Bioethics 7 (3):149–156.
  10.  13
    Leigh Tooth, Annie McCluskey, Tammy Hoffmann, Kryss McKenna & Meryl Lovarini (2005). Appraising the Quality of Randomized Controlled Trials: Inter‐Rater Reliability for the OTseeker Evidence Database. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 11 (6):547-555.
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  11.  5
    Michael J. Clarke & Lesley A. Stewart (1995). Systematic Reviews of Randomized Controlled Trials: The Need for Complete Data. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 1 (2):119-126.
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  12.  52
    Sherrilyn Roush (2009). Randomized Controlled Trials and the Flow of Information: Comment on Cartwright. Philosophical Studies 143 (1):137--145.
    The transferability problem—whether the results of an experiment will transfer to a treatment population—affects not only Randomized Controlled Trials but any type of study. The problem for any given type of study can also, potentially, be addressed to some degree through many different types of study. The transferability problem for a given RCT can be investigated further through another RCT, but the variables to use in the further experiment must be discovered. This suggests we could (...)
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  13.  30
    Paquita De Zulueta (2001). Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trials and HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Developing Countries. Ethical Imperialism or Unethical Exploitation. Bioethics 15 (4):289–311.
    In this paper, I provide a brief summary of the context, outline the arguments for and against the controversial use of placebo controls, and focus on particular areas that I believe merit further discussion or clarification. On balance, I argue that the researchers failed in their duties to protect the best interests of their research subjects, and to promote distributive justice. I discuss the difficulties of obtaining valid consent in this research context, and argue that it is unethical to inform (...)
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  14.  1
    Richard Jones, Stuart Younie, Andrew Macallister & Jim Thornton (2010). A Comparison of the Scientific Quality of Publicly and Privately Funded Randomized Controlled Drug Trials. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (6):1322-1325.
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  15.  5
    Ann E. Johnson (1998). Problems Associated with Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials in Breast Cancer. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 4 (2):119-126.
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  16.  5
    Ann E. Johnson (1998). Riposte to Guest Commentaries on 'Problems Associated with Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials in Breast Cancer'. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 4 (3):231-236.
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  17.  8
    F. G. Miller & D. Wendler (2008). Is It Ethical to Keep Interim Findings of Randomised Controlled Trials Confidential? Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (3):198-201.
    Data monitoring committees often are employed to review interim findings of randomised controlled trials. Interim findings are kept confidential until the data monitoring committee finds that they provide sufficiently compelling evidence regarding efficacy, typically because they have crossed the pre-defined statistical boundaries, or they raise serious concerns about safety. While this practice is vital to maintaining the scientific integrity of controlled trials and thereby ensuring their social value, it has been criticised as unethical. Commentators argue that (...)
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  18.  5
    David H. Jacobs (2010). The Make-Believe World of Antidepressant Randomized Controlled Trials—An Afterword to Cohen and Jacobs (2010). Journal of Mind and Behavior 31 (1):23.
    This afterword extends and refines the arguments presented in Cohen and Jacobs . The main point made by the authors is that the antidepressant randomized controlled trial world is a make-believe world in which researchers act as if a bona fide medical experiment is being conducted. From the assumed existence of the “disorder” and the assumed homogeneity of the treatment groups, through the validity of rating scales and the meaning of their scores, to the presentations of researchers’ ratings (...)
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  19.  5
    David J. Torgerson & Carole J. Torgerson (2003). Avoiding Bias in Randomised Controlled Trials in Educational Research. British Journal of Educational Studies 51 (1):36 - 45.
    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are often seen as the 'gold standard' of evaluative research. However, whilst randomisation will ensure comparable groups, trials are still vulnerable to a range of biases that can undermine their internal validity. In this paper we describe a number of common threats to the internal validity of RCTs and methods of countering them. We highlight a number of examples from randomised trials in education and health care where problems of execution (...)
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  20.  12
    P. Allmark (2006). Should Desperate Volunteers Be Included in Randomised Controlled Trials? Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (9):548-553.
    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) sometimes recruit participants who are desperate to receive the experimental treatment. This paper defends the practice against three arguements that suggest it is unethical first, desperate volunteers are not in equipoise. Second clinicians, entering patients onto trials are disavowing their therapeutic obligation to deliver the best treatment; they are following trial protocols rather than delivering individualised care. Research is not treatment; its ethical justification is different. Consent is crucial. Third, desperate volunteers do not (...)
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  21.  3
    Carole J. Torgerson, Sarah E. King & Amanda J. Sowden (2002). Do Volunteers in Schools Help Children Learn to Read? A Systematic Review of Randomised Controlled Trials. Educational Studies 28 (4):433-444.
    The aim of unpaid volunteer classroom assistants is to give extra support to children learning to read. The impact of using volunteers to improve children's acquisition of reading skills is unknown. To assess whether volunteers are effective in improving children's reading, we undertook a systematic review of all relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). An exhaustive search of all the main electronic databases was carried out (i.e. BEI, PsycInfo, ASSIA, PAIS, SSCI, ERIC, SPECTR, SIGLE). We identified eight experimental studies, (...)
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  22. Sherri Roush, Randomized Controlled Trials and the Flow of Information.
    Nancy is ultimately most concerned about how to determine the relevance of evidence to implementation of evidence-based policy guidelines, in other words, the transferability of study results to a population different from the one that was studied and in which procedures or conditions are not the same as those in the study. And she is concerned about the privileged position Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) are given in the ranking schemes for evidence-based policy, because as she sees it (...)
     
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  23. David Cohen & David Jacobs (2010). Randomized Controlled Trials of Antidepressants: Clinically and Scientifically Irrelevant. Journal of Mind and Behavior 31 (1-2).
    This contribution to the “antidepressant debate” focuses on the validity of randomized controlled trials. We argue that: randomized controlled trials do everything possible to methodologically stamp out high placebo response rates rather than reveal the clinical implications, assessing a psychoactive drug’s effects greatly exceeds the purpose of a randomized controlled trial, requiring substantial investigation on normal volunteers, made-up psychiatric diagnostic categories destroy the purpose and logic of the randomized controlled trial (...)
     
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  24. Franklin G. Miller & David Wendler (2008). Is It Ethical to Keep Interim Findings of Randomised Controlled Trials Confidential? Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (3):198-201.
    Data monitoring committees often are employed to review interim findings of randomised controlled trials. Interim findings are kept confidential until the data monitoring committee finds that they provide sufficiently compelling evidence regarding efficacy, typically because they have crossed the pre-defined statistical boundaries, or they raise serious concerns about safety. While this practice is vital to maintaining the scientific integrity of controlled trials and thereby ensuring their social value, it has been criticised as unethical. Commentators argue that (...)
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  25.  8
    P. Allmark (2006). Improving the Quality of Consent to Randomised Controlled Trials by Using Continuous Consent and Clinician Training in the Consent Process. Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (8):439-443.
    Objective: To assess whether continuous consent, a process in which information is given to research participants at different stages in a trial, and clinician training in that process were effective when used by clinicians while gaining consent to the Total Body Hypothermia (TOBY) trial. The TOBY trial is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) investigating the use of whole-body cooling for neonates with evidence of perinatal asphyxia. Obtaining valid informed consent for the TOBY trial is difficult, but is a good (...)
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  26.  2
    Ruth Harris, Jenifer Wilson‐Barnett & Peter Griffiths (2007). Effectiveness of Nursing‐Led Inpatient Care for Patients with Post‐Acute Health Care Needs: Secondary Data Analysis From a Programme of Randomized Controlled Trials. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (2):198-205.
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  27.  2
    Luke G. Perraton, Saravana Kumar & Zuzana Machotka (2010). Exercise Parameters in the Treatment of Clinical Depression: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (3):597-604.
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  28.  9
    Suezann Puffer, David J. Torgerson & Judith Watson (2005). Cluster Randomized Controlled Trials. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 11 (5):479-483.
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  29.  6
    Howard Mann (2002). Therapeutic Beneficence and Patient Recruitment in Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials. American Journal of Bioethics 2 (2):35 – 36.
    (2002). Therapeutic Beneficence and Patient Recruitment in Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials. The American Journal of Bioethics: Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 35-36.
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  30.  2
    Jane L. Hutton (1996). The Ethics of Randomised Controlled Trials: A Matter of Statistical Belief? [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 4 (2):95-102.
    This paper outlines the approaches of two apparently competing schools of statistics. The criticisms made by supporters of Bayesian statistics about conventional Frequentist statistics are explained, and the Bayesian claim that their method enables research into new treatments without the need for clinical trials is examined in detail. Several further important issues are considered, including: the use of historical controls and data routinely collected on patients; balance in randomised trials; the possibility of giving information to patients; patient choice (...)
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  31.  4
    C. Behrendt, T. Gölz, C. Roesler, H. Bertz & A. Wünsch (2011). What Do Our Patients Understand About Their Trial Participation? Assessing Patients' Understanding of Their Informed Consent Consultation About Randomised Clinical Trials. Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (2):74-80.
    Background Ethically, informed consent regarding randomised controlled trials (RCTs) should be understandable to patients. The patients can then give free consent or decline to participate in a RCT. Little is known about what patients really understand in consultations about RCTs. Methods Cancer patients who were asked to participate in a randomised trial were surveyed using a semi-standardised interview developed by the authors. The interview addresses understanding, satisfaction and needs of the patients. The sample included eight patients who (...)
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  32. N. Bidad, L. MacDonald, Z. E. Winters, S. J. L. Edwards & R. Horne (2014). Views on the Right to Withdraw From Randomised Controlled Trials Assessing Quality of Life After Mastectomy and Breast Reconstruction (QUEST): Findings From the QUEST Perspectives Study (QPS). Research Ethics 10 (1):47-57.
    The purpose of this study is to examine the importance that real patients attach to their right to withdraw from an on-going feasibility randomised trial (RCT) evaluating types and timings of breast reconstruction (two parallel trials) following mastectomy for breast cancer. Our results show that, while some respondents appreciated that exercising the right to withdraw would defeat the scientific objective of the trial, some patients with a surgical preference consented only given the knowledge they could withdraw if they were (...)
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  33.  3
    Reza Yousefi‐Nooraie, Shirin Irani, Soroush Mortaz‐Hedjri & Behnam Shakiba (2013). Comparison of the Efficacy of Three PubMed Search Filters in Finding Randomized Controlled Trials to Answer Clinical Questions. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (5):723-726.
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  34.  8
    Charles Weijer & R. A. Crouch (1999). Why Should We Include Women and Minorities in Randomized Controlled Trials? Journal of Clinical Ethics 10 (2):100.
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  35.  2
    J. W. Sleigh (1997). Logical Limits of Randomized Controlled Trials. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 3 (2):145-148.
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  36. Sam K. Newton & John Appiah-Poku (2007). Opinions of Researchers Based in the Uk on Recruiting Subjects From Developing Countries Into Randomized Controlled Trials. Developing World Bioethics 7 (3):149-156.
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  37.  27
    Derek Bolton (2009). The Epistemology of Randomized, Controlled Trials and Application in Psychiatry. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 15 (2):159-165.
  38.  3
    U. K. SE16EF (1993). Randomised Controlled Trials: Ethical and Legal Issues. 3--4 November 1993. Health Care Analysis 1:207-208.
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  39.  1
    R. D. Truog & J. H. Arnold (1992). ""The" Ethics of Evidence" and Randomized Controlled Trials. Journal of Clinical Ethics 3 (1):65.
  40.  4
    Qi Cui, Jinhui Tian, Xuping Song & Kehu Yang (2014). Does the CONSORT Checklist for Abstracts Improve the Quality of Reports of Randomized Controlled Trials on Clinical Pathways? Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20 (6):827-833.
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  41. Barak Ariel, Ilanit Tobby-Alimi, Irit Cohen, Mazal Ben Ezra, Yafa Cohen & Gabriela Sosinski (2015). Ethnic and Racial Employment Discrimination in Low-Wage and High-Wage Markets: Randomized Controlled Trials Using Correspondence Tests in Israel. Law and Ethics of Human Rights 9 (1):113-139.
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  42. Barak Ariel, Ilanit Tobby-Alimi, Irit Cohen, Mazal Ben Ezra, Yafa Cohen & Gabriela Sosinski (2015). Ethnic and Racial Employment Discrimination in Low-Wage and High-Wage Markets: Randomized Controlled Trials Using Correspondence Tests in Israel. Law and Ethics of Human Rights 9 (1).
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  43. Barak Ariel, Ilanit Tobby-Alimi, Irit Cohen, Mazal Ben Ezra, Yafa Cohen & Gabriela Sosinski (2015). Ethnic and Racial Employment Discrimination in Low-Wage and High-Wage Markets: Randomized Controlled Trials Using Correspondence Tests in Israel. The Law and Ethics of Human Rights 9 (1).
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  44. Gerd Gigerenzer (2009). Comment : Randomized Controlled Trials and Public Policy. In Chrysostomos Mantzavinos (ed.), Philosophy of the Social Sciences: Philosophical Theory and Scientific Practice. Cambridge University Press
  45. Jane L. Hutton (1996). The Ethics of Randomised Controlled Trials: A Matter of Statistical Belief? Health Care Analysis 4 (2):95-102.
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  46. Ana Smith Iltis (2006). Conducting and Terminating Randomized Controlled Trials. In Research Ethics. Routledge
     
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  47. L. G. Olson (2002). Patient-Centred Equipoise and the Ethics of Randomised Controlled Trials. Monash Bioethics Review 21 (2).
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  48. Sherrilyn Roush (2009). Randomized Controlled Trials and the Flow of Information: Comment on Cartwright. Philosophical Studies 143 (1):137-145.
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  49. Jyotirmoy Sarker (2014). Ethical Issues of Randomized Controlled Trials. Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics 5 (1).
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  50. David Torgerson & Carole Torgerson (2003). Avoiding Bias in Randomised Controlled Trials in Educational Research. British Journal of Educational Studies 51 (1):36-45.
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