Search results for 'randomized controlled trials' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trials (2001). HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Developing Countries. Ethical Imperialism or Unethical Exploitation. Bioethics 15 (4):289-311.score: 620.0
     
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  2. Nancy Cartwright & Eileen Munro (2010). The Limitations of Randomized Controlled Trials in Predicting Effectiveness. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):260-266.score: 540.0
    What kinds of evidence reliably support predictions of effectiveness for health and social care interventions? There is increasing reliance, not only for health care policy and practice but also for more general social and economic policy deliberation, on evidence that comes from studies whose basic logic is that of JS Mill's method of difference. These include randomized controlled trials, case–control studies, cohort studies, and some uses of causal Bayes nets and counterfactual-licensing models like ones commonly developed in (...)
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  3. Tomasz Rzepiński (2014). Randomized Controlled Trials Versus Rough Set Analysis: Two Competing Approaches for Evaluating Clinical Data. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 35 (4):271-288.score: 540.0
    The present paper deals with the problem of evaluating empirical evidence for therapeutic decisions in medicine. The article discusses the views of Nancy Cartwright and John Worrall on the function that randomization plays in ascertaining causal relations with reference to the therapies applied. The main purpose of the paper is to present a general idea of alternative method of evaluating empirical evidence. The method builds on data analysis that makes use of rough set theory. The first attempts to apply the (...)
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  4. Nancy Cartwright (2010). What Are Randomised Controlled Trials Good For? Philosophical Studies 147 (1):59 - 70.score: 492.0
    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are widely taken as the gold standard for establishing causal conclusions. Ideally conducted they ensure that the treatment ‘causes’ the outcome—in the experiment. But where else? This is the venerable question of external validity. I point out that the question comes in two importantly different forms: Is the specific causal conclusion warranted by the experiment true in a target situation? What will be the result of implementing the treatment there? This paper explains how (...)
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  5. Sherrilyn Roush (2009). Randomized Controlled Trials and the Flow of Information: Comment on Cartwright. Philosophical Studies 143 (1):137--145.score: 476.0
    The transferability problem—whether the results of an experiment will transfer to a treatment population—affects not only Randomized Controlled Trials but any type of study. The problem for any given type of study can also, potentially, be addressed to some degree through many different types of study. The transferability problem for a given RCT can be investigated further through another RCT, but the variables to use in the further experiment must be discovered. This suggests we could do better (...)
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  6. Roger Stanev (2012). The Epistemology and Ethics of Early Stopping Decisions in Randomized Controlled Trials. Dissertation, University of British Columbiascore: 459.0
    Philosophers subscribing to particular principles of statistical inference and evidence need to be aware of the limitations and practical consequences of the statistical approach they endorse. The framework proposed (for statistical inference in the field of medicine) allows disparate statistical approaches to emerge in their appropriate context. My dissertation proposes a decision theoretic model, together with methodological guidelines, that provide important considerations for deciding on clinical trial conduct. These considerations do not amount to more stopping rules. Instead, they are principles (...)
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  7. H. C. M. L. Rodrigues & P. P. van den Berg (2012). Randomized Controlled Trials of Maternal-Fetal Surgery: A Challenge to Clinical Equipoise. Bioethics.score: 450.0
  8. Sam K. Newton & John Appiah-poku (2007). Opinions of Researchers Based in the Uk on Recruiting Subjects From Developing Countries Into Randomized Controlled Trials. Developing World Bioethics 7 (3):149–156.score: 450.0
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  9. Leigh Tooth, Annie McCluskey, Tammy Hoffmann, Kryss McKenna & Meryl Lovarini (2005). Appraising the Quality of Randomized Controlled Trials: Inter‐Rater Reliability for the OTseeker Evidence Database. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 11 (6):547-555.score: 450.0
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  10. Michael J. Clarke & Lesley A. Stewart (1995). Systematic Reviews of Randomized Controlled Trials: The Need for Complete Data. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 1 (2):119-126.score: 450.0
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  11. Richard Jones, Stuart Younie, Andrew Macallister & Jim Thornton (2010). A Comparison of the Scientific Quality of Publicly and Privately Funded Randomized Controlled Drug Trials. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (6):1322-1325.score: 441.0
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  12. Ann E. Johnson (1998). Riposte to Guest Commentaries on 'Problems Associated with Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials in Breast Cancer'. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 4 (3):231-236.score: 435.0
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  13. Ann E. Johnson (1998). Problems Associated with Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials in Breast Cancer. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 4 (2):119-126.score: 435.0
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  14. Carole J. Torgerson & David J. Torgerson (2001). The Need for Randomised Controlled Trials in Educational Research. British Journal of Educational Studies 49 (3):316 - 328.score: 416.0
    This paper argues for more randomised controlled trials in educational research. Educational researchers have largely abandoned the methodology they helped to pioneer. This gold-standard methodology should be more widely used as it is an appropriate and robust research technique. Without subjecting curriculum innovations to a RCT then potentially harmful educational initiatives could be visited upon the nation's children.
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  15. Paquita De Zulueta (2001). Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trials and HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Developing Countries. Ethical Imperialism or Unethical Exploitation. Bioethics 15 (4):289–311.score: 399.0
    In this paper, I provide a brief summary of the context, outline the arguments for and against the controversial use of placebo controls, and focus on particular areas that I believe merit further discussion or clarification. On balance, I argue that the researchers failed in their duties to protect the best interests of their research subjects, and to promote distributive justice. I discuss the difficulties of obtaining valid consent in this research context, and argue that it is unethical to inform (...)
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  16. Luke G. Perraton, Saravana Kumar & Zuzana Machotka (2010). Exercise Parameters in the Treatment of Clinical Depression: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (3):597-604.score: 386.0
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  17. Ruth Harris, Jenifer Wilson‐Barnett & Peter Griffiths (2007). Effectiveness of Nursing‐Led Inpatient Care for Patients with Post‐Acute Health Care Needs: Secondary Data Analysis From a Programme of Randomized Controlled Trials. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (2):198-205.score: 386.0
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  18. Suezann Puffer, David J. Torgerson & Judith Watson (2005). Cluster Randomized Controlled Trials. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 11 (5):479-483.score: 376.0
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  19. Sherri Roush, Randomized Controlled Trials and the Flow of Information.score: 360.0
    Nancy is ultimately most concerned about how to determine the relevance of evidence to implementation of evidence-based policy guidelines, in other words, the transferability of study results to a population different from the one that was studied and in which procedures or conditions are not the same as those in the study. And she is concerned about the privileged position Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) are given in the ranking schemes for evidence-based policy, because as she sees it (...)
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  20. Joseph Herman Md (1998). Shortcomings of the Randomized Controlled Trial: A View From the Boondocks. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 4 (4):283-286.score: 354.0
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  21. Howard Mann (2002). Therapeutic Beneficence and Patient Recruitment in Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials. American Journal of Bioethics 2 (2):35 – 36.score: 348.0
    (2002). Therapeutic Beneficence and Patient Recruitment in Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials. The American Journal of Bioethics: Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 35-36.
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  22. C. Behrendt, T. Gölz, C. Roesler, H. Bertz & A. Wünsch (2011). What Do Our Patients Understand About Their Trial Participation? Assessing Patients' Understanding of Their Informed Consent Consultation About Randomised Clinical Trials. Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (2):74-80.score: 347.0
    Background Ethically, informed consent regarding randomised controlled trials (RCTs) should be understandable to patients. The patients can then give free consent or decline to participate in a RCT. Little is known about what patients really understand in consultations about RCTs. Methods Cancer patients who were asked to participate in a randomised trial were surveyed using a semi-standardised interview developed by the authors. The interview addresses understanding, satisfaction and needs of the patients. The sample included eight patients who participated (...)
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  23. Lyle C. Gurrin, Peter D. Sly & Paul R. Burton (2002). Using Imprecise Probabilities to Address the Questions of Inference and Decision in Randomized Clinical Trials. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 8 (2):255-268.score: 297.0
    Randomized controlled clinical trials play an important role in the development of new medical therapies. There is, however, an ethical issue surrounding the use of randomized treatment allocation when the patient is suffering from a life threatening condition and requires immediate treatment. Such patients can only benefit from the treatment they actually receive and not from the alternative therapy, even if it ultimately proves to be superior. We discuss a novel new way to analyse data from (...)
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  24. Gwen Brierley, Sally Brabyn, David Torgerson & Judith Watson (2012). Bias in Recruitment to Cluster Randomized Trials: A Review of Recent Publications. [REVIEW] Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (4):878-886.score: 288.0
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  25. Piet N. Post, Hans Beer & Gordon H. Guyatt (2013). How to Generalize Efficacy Results of Randomized Trials: Recommendations Based on a Systematic Review of Possible Approaches. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (4):638-643.score: 288.0
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  26. Reza Yousefi‐Nooraie, Shirin Irani, Soroush Mortaz‐Hedjri & Behnam Shakiba (2013). Comparison of the Efficacy of Three PubMed Search Filters in Finding Randomized Controlled Trials to Answer Clinical Questions. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (5):723-726.score: 288.0
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  27. Roger Kerry, Aurélien Madouasse, Antony Arthur & Stephen D. Mumford (2013). Analysis of Scientific Truth Status in Controlled Rehabilitation Trials. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (4):617-625.score: 288.0
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  28. P. Allmark (2006). Should Desperate Volunteers Be Included in Randomised Controlled Trials? Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (9):548-553.score: 277.3
    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) sometimes recruit participants who are desperate to receive the experimental treatment. This paper defends the practice against three arguements that suggest it is unethical first, desperate volunteers are not in equipoise. Second clinicians, entering patients onto trials are disavowing their therapeutic obligation to deliver the best treatment; they are following trial protocols rather than delivering individualised care. Research is not treatment; its ethical justification is different. Consent is crucial. Third, desperate volunteers do not (...)
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  29. David J. Torgerson & Carole J. Torgerson (2003). Avoiding Bias in Randomised Controlled Trials in Educational Research. British Journal of Educational Studies 51 (1):36 - 45.score: 277.3
    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are often seen as the 'gold standard' of evaluative research. However, whilst randomisation will ensure comparable groups, trials are still vulnerable to a range of biases that can undermine their internal validity. In this paper we describe a number of common threats to the internal validity of RCTs and methods of countering them. We highlight a number of examples from randomised trials in education and health care where problems of execution and analysis (...)
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  30. Carole J. Torgerson, Sarah E. King & Amanda J. Sowden (2002). Do Volunteers in Schools Help Children Learn to Read? A Systematic Review of Randomised Controlled Trials. Educational Studies 28 (4):433-444.score: 277.3
    The aim of unpaid volunteer classroom assistants is to give extra support to children learning to read. The impact of using volunteers to improve children's acquisition of reading skills is unknown. To assess whether volunteers are effective in improving children's reading, we undertook a systematic review of all relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). An exhaustive search of all the main electronic databases was carried out (i.e. BEI, PsycInfo, ASSIA, PAIS, SSCI, ERIC, SPECTR, SIGLE). We identified eight experimental studies, (...)
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  31. P. Allmark (2006). Improving the Quality of Consent to Randomised Controlled Trials by Using Continuous Consent and Clinician Training in the Consent Process. Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (8):439-443.score: 275.3
    Objective: To assess whether continuous consent, a process in which information is given to research participants at different stages in a trial, and clinician training in that process were effective when used by clinicians while gaining consent to the Total Body Hypothermia (TOBY) trial. The TOBY trial is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) investigating the use of whole-body cooling for neonates with evidence of perinatal asphyxia. Obtaining valid informed consent for the TOBY trial is difficult, but is a good (...)
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  32. Nancy Cartwright (2009). Evidence-Based Policy: What's to Be Done About Relevance? [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 143 (1):127 - 136.score: 270.0
    How can philosophy of science be of more practical use? One thing we can do is provide practicable advice about how to determine when one empirical claim is relevant to the truth of another; i.e., about evidential relevance. This matters especially for evidence-based policy, where advice is thin—and misleading—about how to tell what counts as evidence for policy effectiveness. This paper argues that good efficacy results (as in randomized controlled trials), which are all the rage now, are (...)
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  33. Derek Bolton (2009). The Epistemology of Randomized, Controlled Trials and Application in Psychiatry. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 15 (2):159-165.score: 270.0
  34. Robyn Bluhm (2010). The Epistemology and Ethics of Chronic Disease Research: Further Lessons From Ecmo. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (2):107-122.score: 270.0
    Robert Truog describes the controversial randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy in newborns. Because early results with ECMO indicated that it might be a great advance, saving many lives, Truog argues that ECMO should not have been tested using RCTs, but that a long-term, large-scale observational study of actual clinical practice should have been conducted instead. Central to Truog’s argument, however, is the idea that ECMO is an unusual case. Thus, it is an (...)
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  35. Charles Weijer & R. A. Crouch (1999). Why Should We Include Women and Minorities in Randomized Controlled Trials? Journal of Clinical Ethics 10 (2):100.score: 270.0
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  36. Qi Cui, Jinhui Tian, Xuping Song & Kehu Yang (forthcoming). Does the CONSORT Checklist for Abstracts Improve the Quality of Reports of Randomized Controlled Trials on Clinical Pathways? Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice:n/a-n/a.score: 270.0
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  37. Dean Rickles (2009). Causality in Complex Interventions. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (1):77-90.score: 270.0
    In this paper I look at causality in the context of intervention research, and discuss some problems faced in the evaluation of causal hypotheses via interventions. I draw attention to a simple problem for evaluations that employ randomized controlled trials. The common alternative to randomized trials, the observational study, is shown to face problems of a similar nature. I then argue that these problems become especially acute in cases where the intervention is complex (i.e. that (...)
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  38. J. W. Sleigh (1997). Logical Limits of Randomized Controlled Trials. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 3 (2):145-148.score: 270.0
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  39. Gerd Gigerenzer (2009). Comment : Randomized Controlled Trials and Public Policy. In Chrysostomos Mantzavinos (ed.), Philosophy of the Social Sciences: Philosophical Theory and Scientific Practice. Cambridge University Press.score: 270.0
  40. Ana Smith Iltis (2006). Conducting and Terminating Randomized Controlled Trials. In , Research Ethics. Routledge.score: 270.0
     
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  41. David H. Jacobs (2010). The Make-Believe World of Antidepressant Randomized Controlled Trials—An Afterword to Cohen and Jacobs (2010). Journal of Mind and Behavior 31 (1):23.score: 270.0
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  42. R. D. Truog & J. H. Arnold (1992). The" Ethics of Evidence" and Randomized Controlled Trials. Journal of Clinical Ethics 3 (1):65.score: 270.0
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  43. Baurn (1998). Commentary on 'Problems Associated with Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials in Breast Cancer' (A.E. Johnson, Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 4, 119–126, This Issue). [REVIEW] Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 4 (2):127-128.score: 261.0
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  44. David A. Stone, Catherine E. Kerr, Eric Jacobson, A. Lisa & Ted J. Kaptchuk (2005). Patient Expectations in Placebo‐Controlled Randomized Clinical Trials. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 11 (1):77-84.score: 261.0
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  45. Charles Weijer, Heads or Tails: Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials.score: 261.0
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  46. W. J. Cunliffe (1998). Commentary on'Problems Associated with Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials in Breast Cancer'. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 4:129-130.score: 261.0
     
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  47. W. J. Cunliffe Md Frcs (1998). Commentary on 'Problems Associated with Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials in Breast Cancer' (A.E. Johnson, Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 4, 119–126, This Issue). [REVIEW] Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 4 (2):129-130.score: 261.0
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  48. M. Baum Chm Frcs (1998). Commentary on 'Problems Associated with Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials in Breast Cancer' (A.E. Johnson, Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 4, 119–126, This Issue). [REVIEW] Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 4 (2):127-128.score: 261.0
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  49. Ann E. Johnson Frcs Frcr (1998). Problems Associated with Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials in Breast Cancer. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 4 (2):119-126.score: 261.0
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  50. David A. Stone, Catherine E. Kerr, Eric Jacobson, Lisa A. Conboy ScD & Ted J. Kaptchuk (2005). Patient Expectations in Placebo‐Controlled Randomized Clinical Trials. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 11 (1):77-84.score: 261.0
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